Encyclopedia Astronautica
Yuzhnoye


Ukrainian manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Yangel Design Bureau, Dnepropetrovsk, Ukraine.

Facing continued opposition from Korolev on development of storable propellant rockets, missile tsar Ustinov decided to create a new design bureau at Dnepropetrovsk, and to put Yangel in charge of it. The enabling decrees were issued in April-July 1954. Yangel moved to the Ukraine and began development of the R-12 IRBM in earnest. The R-12 was the first Soviet ballistic missile to be militarily useful and the first to be put into mass production.

The success of the R-12 and the willingness of Yangel to listen to the needs of the military led to follow-on mass production orders for the R-14 IRBM and the R-16 and R-36 ICBM's. The R-16 finally provided the Soviet Union with a missile to counter the Atlas and Titan rockets being deployed in the hundreds by the United States.

By this time the space age was under way and despite the press of missile work, Yangel managed to carve a niche for himself by being assigned responsibility for development of the lightweight Cosmos 63S1 launcher (using the R-12 as a first stage) and its accompanying DS (Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik) satellites. These began flying just fourteen months after go-ahead. 185 were launched and performed a range of scientific, technological, and military missions. Reshetnev used the R-14 IRBM for the Kosmos-3 launcher, which remained in use into the next millennium.

Yuzhnoye's attempts to get a bigger role in the space program were less successful. The proposed R-56 space launcher was not approved for development. In 1965 OKB-586 was renamed the Yuzhnoye ("Southern") Design Bureau.

Like Korolev, Yangel was pushed into the rocket engine development business when Glushko refused to provide the small steering engines needed to guide missiles powered by Glushko's fixed main engines. This developed into a new sideline for the bureau, small thrusters for satellite and manoeuvring warhead bus applications. As a result Yangel agreed to develop the critical rocket stage of the LK lunar lander that would have landed a cosmonaut on the moon. Yangel died in 1971 soon after completion of three flawless unmanned LK flights, content that he had done his part for the program. His deputy, Utkin, succeeded him.

The organisation continued to be the sole supplier of heavy ICBM's to the Soviet Union. They were tasked with developing the new-generation booster stages for the Zenit and Energia launch vehicles in 1976. They developed new medium-class satellite buses for second and third generation Soviet satellites. After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Yuzhnoye factory wound up in the independent country of the Ukraine. Utkin returned to Russia and was replaced by Konyukhov. The Zenit went on to successful international commercial use by the Sea Launch consortium, providing the major source of foreign revenue for the country. The manager of the Yuzhnoye factory that built the missiles, Leonid Kuchma, later became the President of the Ukraine.

AKA: OKB-586; KB Yuzhnoye (1965); NPO Yuzhnoye.
Location: Dnepropetrovsk.

More... - Chronology...


Associated People
  • Yangel Yangel, Mikhail Kuzmich (1911-1971) Soviet Chief Designer 1954-1971 of OKB-586. Preeminent designer of ballistic missiles and light satellites. His Ukraine bureau designed the R-12 and R-14 IRBM's; the heavy R-16, R-36, and R-36M ICBM's; and the Zenit space launcher, More...
  • Utkin Utkin, Vladimir Fedorovich (1923-2000) Russian chief designer. Deputy Chief Designer 1961-1971 of Yangel design bureau. Succeeded Yangel as Chief Designer in 1971. After the breakup of the Soviet Union, left the Ukraine in 1990 to become head of TsAGI in Moscow. More...
  • Konyukhov, S P Konyukhov, Stanislav Nikolayevich Ukrainian chief designer. General Designer and Chief of KB Yuzhnoye, developed satellites and launch vehicles. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. More...

Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • DS-1 Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1961.10.27 (DS-1 s/n 1) and 1961.12.21 (DS-1 s/n 2). Technology test version of the original DS light satellite design. Primary mission was to test launch vehicle. More...
  • DS-2 Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1962.03.16 (Cosmos 1) to 1964.12.01 (DS-2 s/n 2). More...
  • DS-P1 Ukrainian military target satellite. 4 launches, 1962.06.30 (Cosmos 6) to 1964.02.27 (Cosmos 25). Prototype ABM radar target; supported developmental experiments for ABM systems. More...
  • DS-K-8 Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. One launch, 1962.08.18, Cosmos 8. Detected meteoroid flux in near-earth space and carried unspecified military research equipment. More...
  • DS-A1 Ukrainian navigation technology satellite. 7 launches, 1962.10.20 (Cosmos 11) to 1965.07.02 (Cosmos 70). More...
  • DS-MT Ukrainian technology satellite. 3 launches, 1963.06.01 (DS-MT s/n 1) to 1964.12.10 (Cosmos 51). Payload developed by the VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied variations in the intensity of cosmic rays. More...
  • DS-U4-T Ukrainian materials science satellite. Cancelled 1963. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for low gravity materials and technology studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-MG Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1964.03.18 (Cosmos 26) to 1964.10.24 (Cosmos 49). Payload developed by VNIIEM to test electric gyrodyne orientation systems. Also studied magnetosphere of the earth. More...
  • DS-P1-Yu Ukrainian military target satellite. 79 launches, 1964.07.30 (Cosmos 36) to 1976.08.26 (Cosmos 850). Development of systems for air defense and the control of outer space. More...
  • DS-U2-V Ukrainian military technology satellite. 4 launches, 1965.10.19 (Cosmos 93) to 1968.02.20 (Cosmos 202). Military technology development satellite - mission still classified. More...
  • DS-U2-M Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.11.26 (Cosmos 97) to 1967.03.03 (Cosmos 145). Development tests of atomic clocks. More...
  • DS-K-40 Ukrainian communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 1965.12.28 (DS-K-40 s/n 1) and 1966.02.21 (DS-K-40 s/n 2). Development of systems for the later operational Tselina satellites. More...
  • DS-U5 Ukrainian technology satellite. Cancelled 1965. Light satellite with propulsion for periodic correction of orbit. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-U4-B Ukrainian biology satellite. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. Light satellite with recoverable capsule for biological studies. Cancelled in 1965 and never flown. More...
  • DS-P1-I Ukrainian military target satellite. 19 launches, 1966.01.25 (Cosmos 106) to 1977.06.18 (Cosmos 919). Operational radar target for the ABM forces. More...
  • DS-U1-G Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.02.11 (Cosmos 108) to 1967.12.19 (Cosmos 196). Studied the relationship between variations in the upper atmosphere and solar activity. More...
  • DS-U2-I Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 3 launches, 1966.05.24 (Cosmos 119) to 1968.12.14 (Cosmos 259). Studied the influence of the ionosphere on passing VLF radio waves. More...
  • DS-U2-MP Ukrainian earth micrometeoroid satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.12 (Cosmos 135) to 1967.06.05 (Cosmos 163). Studied cosmic dust particles in near-Earth space. More...
  • DS-U2-D Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1966.12.21 (Cosmos 137) to 1968.04.26 (Cosmos 219). Studied charged particle flows. More...
  • DS-MO Ukrainian technology satellite. 2 launches, 1967.03.21 (Cosmos 149) to 1970.01.16 (Cosmos 320). Used in development of aerodynamic systems for stabilization and orientation of spacecraft. Also carried military optical equipment experiments. More...
  • DS-U3-S Ukrainian solar satellite. 2 launches, 1967.06.16 (Cosmos 166) to 1968.07.05 (Cosmos 230). Specialized orbital solar observatory for measuring solar rays in multiple spectral zones. More...
  • Tselina-O Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 42 launches, 1967.06.26 (Tselina-O GVM) to 1982.03.31 (Cosmos 1345). From 1965 to 1967 two dedicated ELINT systems were tested by the Soviet Union: Tselina and US. Both were routinely operated. More...
  • DS-U1-Ya Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.03.06 (DS-U1-Ya s/n 1) and 1968.06.12 (Cosmos 225). Studied charged particle flows and cosmic rays. More...
  • DS-U1-A Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1968.04.19, Cosmos 215. Studied the optical characteristics of the atmosphere. Radiation observatory; 8 telescopes. More...
  • DS-U2-GK Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1968.12.20 (Cosmos 261) to 1970.06.13 (Cosmos 348). Conducted complex geophysical studies of the upper atmosphere. Air density, auroral investigations. More...
  • DS-U2-GF Ukrainian solar satellite. One launch, 1968.12.26, Cosmos 262. Conducted heliophysical studies. More...
  • DS-U3-IK Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1969.10.14 (Intercosmos 1) to 1976.07.26 (Intercosmos 16). Measurements of the sun; used for Interkosmos launches. More...
  • DS-U1-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1969.12.25 (Intercosmos 2) to 1972.12.01 (Intercosmos 8). Studies ionosphere of the earth; version used for Intercosmos international launches. More...
  • DS-U2-MG Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1970.01.20 (Cosmos 321) to 1970.08.10 (Cosmos 356). Studied the Earth's magnetic poles. More...
  • DS-U1-R Ukrainian earth atmosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.04.24, Cosmos 335. Studied spectral range of the UF. More...
  • DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. 7 launches, 1970.08.07 (Intercosmos 3) to 1975.12.11 (Intercosmos 14). Studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere; version used for Intercosmos international launches. More...
  • DS-U2-IP Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1970.11.17, Cosmos 378. Studied the ionosphere and charged particle flows. More...
  • Tselina-D Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 77 launches, 1970.12.18 (Cosmos 389) to 1994.05.25 (Tselina-D). The Tselina D was the detailed observation portion of the two-satellite Tselina ELINT satellite system. More...
  • DS-P1-M Ukrainian military anti-satellite system target satellite. 15 launches, 1970.12.22 (DS-P1-M s/n 1) to 1982.06.06 (Cosmos 1375). Target for IS ASAT systems tests. More...
  • Tselina-OM Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Study 1970. Improved version of Tselina-O. Either not put into production or later launches listed as Tselina-O were actually of Tselina-OM model. More...
  • DS-U2-K Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1971.06.05, Cosmos 426. Studied charged particle flows and cosmic radiation. More...
  • DS-U2-MT Ukrainian gamma ray astronomy satellite. One launch, 1971.12.02, Cosmos 461. Measured micrometeoroid impacts and gamma rays. More...
  • DS-U2-GKA Soviet-French earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1971.12.27 (Oreol) to 1973.12.26 (Oreol 2). Upper atmosphere, auroral studies. Investigation of physical phenomena in the Earth's upper atmosphere at high latitudes and study of the nature of auroras. More...
  • Taifun-1 Ukrainian military target satellite. 25 launches, 1974.06.18 (Cosmos 660) to 1994.09.27 (Cosmos 2292). From 1969 KB Yuzhnoye built the Lira targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. More...
  • Taifun-2 Ukrainian military target satellite. 31 launches, 1976.04.28 (Cosmos 816) to 1995.03.02 (Cosmos 2306). In 1969 KB Yuzhnoye introduced targets for exercise and test of PVO air defense and space tracking systems. More...
  • AUOS Ukrainian technology satellite. 14 launches, 1976.06.19 (Intercosmos 15) to 2009.01.30 (Koronas-F). Standardized bus for low earth orbit scientific studies and testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions. More...
  • GVM DS-U2-IK Ukrainian earth ionosphere satellite. One launch, 1977.02.15, Cosmos 893. Designation indicates a mass model of the DS-U2-IK (which studied charged particle flows and the ionosphere). However flown after the functional spacecraft's flights were completed. More...
  • Okean-E Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1979.02.12 (Cosmos 1076) to 1980.01.23 (Cosmos 1151). First prototype of Okean series. Development of methods for obtaining operational information on the Pacific Ocean. More...
  • Taifun-1Yu Ukrainian military target satellite. 13 launches, 1979.12.05 (Cosmos 1146) to 1996.04.24 (Cosmos 2332). The Taifun-1Yu, a modification of the basic design with smooth calibration surfaces, was to be in service by 1980. More...
  • IK-B-1300 Ukrainian earth magnetosphere satellite. One launch, 1981.08.07, Intercosmos 22. Intercosmos-Bulgaria 1300. Comprehensive investigation of physical processes in the earth's ionosphere and magnetosphere. More...
  • Nadezhda Ukrainian navigation satellite. 10 launches, 1982.06.29 (Cosmos 1383) to 2002.09.26 (Nadezhda-M). More...
  • Okean-OE Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 2 launches, 1983.09.28 (Cosmos 1500) to 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1602). More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 25 launches, 1984.09.28 (Cosmos 1603) to 2007.06.29 (Cosmos 2406). More...
  • Okean-O1 Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. 9 launches, 1986.07.28 (Cosmos 1766) to 2004.12.24 (Sich-1M). Third generation Soviet oceanographic research satellite, equipped with a side-looking radar, radiometer, and multi-spectral scanner. More...
  • Tselina-3 Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Cancelled in the early 1990s. The Tselina-3 third generation two-tier ELINT satellite system was developed in parallel with Tselina-2. More...
  • US-PU Ukrainian military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. 13 launches, 1993.03.30 (Cosmos 2238) to 2006.06.24 (Cosmos 2421). More...
  • Okean-O Ukrainian earth resources radar satellite. One launch, 1999.07.17. More...
  • MS-1 Ukrainian earth land resources satellite. 2 launches, 2004.12.24 (Mikron) to 2007.04.17 (MisrSat 1). Ukrainian microsatellite bus that could be equipped with imaging or other scientific or technical equipment. More...

Associated Engines
  • 15D206 Yuzhnoye solid rocket engine. RT-23 early models stage I. Out of Production. The case-bound T9-BK composite solid propellant charge had a star shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • 15D305 Yuzhnoye, Tsurilnikov solid rocket engine. RT-23 stage I. Out of Production. Case-bound OPAL composite solid propellant charge with a star shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • 15D339 Yuzhnoye. Tsurilnikov solid rocket engine. RT-23 stage II. Out of Production. The case-bound START composite solid propellant charge had a cylindrical-conical umbrella shape channel. The case was of organic fibre-wound plastic material. More...
  • D50 Yuzhnoye electric/xenon rocket engine. 48 mN. Development. Isp=1700s. Hall engine electric jet propulsion system intended for use by spacecraft for inter-orbital transfer, orbit correction, and stabilization. More...
  • RD-127 Yuzhnoye solid rocket engine. Maneuvering vehicle bang-bang propulsion, consisted of 25 small solid-propellant motors, probably for homing vehicles or multiple warhead dispensing applications. More...
  • RD-293 Yuzhnoye rocket engine. Maneuvering vehicle axial maneuvering. More...
  • RD-69M Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 54.3 kN. R-36 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. 4 nozzles, maximum 50 degree gimbal angle. More...
  • RD-69 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 49.2 kN. R-16 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-68 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 380 kN. R-16 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-68M Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 285 kN. R-36 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. 4 nozzles, maximum 42 degree gimbal angle. More...
  • RD-859 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 20.050 kN. LK lunar lander reserve engine. Hardware. Isp=312s. Backup engine for the LK manned lunar lander in the event the primary RD-858 engine failed. Restart within three seconds after shut down. Flight tests 1970. More...
  • RD-868 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 23.250 kN. Apogee stage. Developed 1983-. Isp=325s. In development in 1996. One main and an unknown number of control thrusters. 23.25 + 0.03 kN. Chamber pressure 91.5 / 6.9 bar. Specific impulse 325 / 230 sec. More...
  • RD-866 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 5.2 kN. RT-23 MIRV-bus. Out of Production. Isp=305s. Engine consisted of two turbopumps with gas generators and two feeders; a single chamber main engine; and 16 liquid thrusters for attitude control and translation. More...
  • RD-864 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 20.2 kN. R-36M vehicle bus. Out of Production. Isp=309s. Two thrust levels. The four thruster swing out of the stage housing before use. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Specific impulse 309 / 298 sec. More...
  • RD-861K Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 77.630 kN. Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. Developed 2005. Isp=330s. High pressure fuel was used to gimbal the engine in two planes, replacing four thrust vector engines on the basic RD-861. More...
  • RD-862 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 142.630 kN. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 2. Out of Production. Based on RD-857. Thrust vector control by secondary gas injection into nozzle. Roll control via special small jet nozzles. Isp=331s. More...
  • RD-869 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 8.580 kN. R-36M2 vehicle bus. Based on RD-864. Two thrust levels. The four thrusters swing out of the stage housing before use. Chamber pressure 41 / 17 bar. Diameter 3,0 / 4,02 m. Isp=313s. First flight 1986. More...
  • RD-861G Yuzhnoye, Fiat Avio N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 76.453 kN. Vega upper stage. Developed 1996-. Isp=325s. Proposed uprate of RD-861 engine. Thrust vector control by gimbal, roll control by 4 nozzles (thrust 29 N each). More...
  • RD-861 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 78.710 kN. Tsyklon 2 and 3 stage 3; Ikar. In production. Isp=317s. Based on RD-854. Thrust vector control by 4 nozzles (thrust 98 N each) fed from a gas generator. First flight 1965. More...
  • RD-860 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 5.9 kN. Upper stages. Developed 1972. Isp=320s. Engine used a novel scheme combining an existing proven combustion chamber but using a pneumatic pump for propellant supply. More...
  • RD-8 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 78.4 kN. Zenit stage 2 attitude control engine. In Production. Isp=342s. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine operated in a staged combustion scheme with afterburning of the generator gas. Development began in 1976. More...
  • RD-857 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 137.3 kN. RT-20P missile stage 2. Out of production. Isp=329s. Designed for second stage of mixed propulsion missile, only flight tests. Thrust vector control by secondary gas injection into nozzle. First flight 1967. More...
  • RD-856 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 54.230 kN. Tsyklon stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Isp=280s. Autonomous four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine burned hypergolic propellants in a gas generator scheme. More...
  • RD-855 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 328 kN. Tsyklon stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Isp=292s. Four-chamber pump-fed single-run engine burned hypergolic propellants in a gas generator scheme. More...
  • RD-854 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 75.5 kN. R-36orb (SS-X-10) orbital stage. Out of Production. Thrust vector control by 4 nozzles fed from gas generator. Isp=312s. More...
  • RD-853 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 467.6 kN. Stage 2, no application. Developed 1960-63. Designed for second stage, no application. Two thrust levels. Thrust 467.6 kN + 11.8 kN / 7.65 kN. Isp=300s. More...
  • RD-852 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 48.250 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=255s. More...
  • RD-851 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 32.480 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 1 attitude control engine . Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=279s. More...
  • RD-809 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 88 kN. Upper stages. Isp=345s. 2007 design concept for a four-chamber restartable main engine for launch vehicle upper stages. More...
  • RD-802 Yuzhnoye Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 19.6 kN. Upper stages. Design concept 2007. Isp=344s. Derivative of the RD-8 Zenit-2 second stage vernier thrust engine combustion chamber for use in launch vehicle upper stages. More...
  • RD-863 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 276.840 kN. MR-UR-100 / RS-16 (SS-17) stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Isp=301s. More...
  • RD-858 Yuzhnoye N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 20.1 kN. Isp=315s. Primary engine for LK manned lunar lander. Propulsion cluster provided the variable thrust needed for a soft landing onto the lunar surface, then restarted for injection into lunar orbit. Flown 1970. More...

See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-12 Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-12 was the first operationally effective intermediate range ballistic missile, the first Soviet missile deployed with a thermonuclear warhead, and the first mass-produced missile in history. 2,300 of the storable propellant rockets were built and deployed in both mobile and silo-based versions for thirty years, from March 1959 to June 1989. It was a primary element in the Soviet deterrent threatening Western Europe and China throughout the Cold War. Deployment of R-12's to Cuba in 1962 precipitated the Cuba Missile Crisis. More...
  • Kosmos 2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. In 1960 the Soviet government decreed development of a lightweight launch vehicle for launch of payloads not requiring R-7 family of boosters. A modification of the R-12 IRBM was selected as the first stage; a new high-performance second stage was developed using a unique Lox/UDMH propellant combination. After two failures, the first successful flight was on March 16, 1962. More...
  • R-15 Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye 1000-km range submarine-launched ballistic missile. According to Przybilski, it was related to the light ICBM later designated R-26/8K66. More...
  • R-12U Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Universal version of the R-12U, for pad-launch or from the 'Dvina' silo complex. More...
  • R-14 Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. The R-14, with a range of 3600 km, was the only missile of that range class to be fielded. A key element in the Cuba missile crisis, it thereafter was part of the nuclear deterrent targeted at NATO and China. Built in relatively limited numbers by Soviet standards, it was perhaps more important as the basis for the first stage of the R-16 ICBM and the Kosmos-3 launch vehicle. The latter continued in use into the 21st Century. More...
  • R-16 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Soviet Union's first practical ICBM, a two stage vehicle using storable propellants. Development began in 1956 and the missile was in service from 1962 to 1974. Peak deployment consisted of 186 launchers, about a third of them in missile silos, the rest in fixed 'soft' installations. More...
  • Tselina-2 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Development of the Tselina-2 road transport for a heavy ICBM can be traced back to the late 1960's. By the 1970's two versions had been designed, the 12-axle MAZ-7906 and 8-axle MAZ-7907. They could transport loads of up to 140 tonnes, much greater than the single-warhead RT-23 and its container. Although trials of prototypes were conducted in the 1980's, the road mobile version of the RT-23 was never put into service. More...
  • R-16U Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Standardised version of R-16, for either pad or silo launch. More...
  • Kosmos 63S1 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The 63S1 initial production version was used through May 1966 for a total of 40 launches, of which 12 were failures. It was succeeded by the 63S1M prototype for the 11K63 production space launcher. More...
  • R-56 Polyblock Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. One design approach considered for Yangel's R-56 superbooster of the 1960's was a polyblock design limited to rail transport restrictions (4 x 3.8 m diameter stages clustered together). Although a dynamic test model was built and tested at Tsniimash, Yangel finally reached the conclusion that a monoblock design was clearly superior to polyblock versions. Further work on the polyblock design was abandoned. Tsniimash exhibits in its small museum the 1:10 structural simulation model of the 3.8 m diameter polyblock design. More...
  • R-56 Polyblock ICBM Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutive first and parallel second stages. Range indicated on placard; possibly considered as monster ICBM in competition with UR-500. Work began in 1961. More...
  • 8K94 Ukrainian intermediate range ballistic missile. Unusual designation for the upper stages of another Yangel project - possibly reflecting design originally was stand-alone IRBM? More...
  • R-38 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Small, economical ICBM studied by Yangel as an alternative to Chelomei's UR-100. Both one and two stage variants were considered. Work ended when Yangel was ordered to concentrate on R-36. More...
  • SK-100 Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. In 1962 Yangel produced his first design for a large clustered rocket. The SK-100 would have clustered seven R-16 ICBM first stages in order to put 100 metric tons into earth orbit. The concept was abandoned for the simpler R-56 design. More...
  • 64S5 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Space launch version, never went beyond design stage. More...
  • R-26 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Two stage light ICBM developed 1960-1962, but cancelled so that Yangel could concentrate his efforts on the R-36. After project cancellation, a mock-up of this missile was shown in Moscow parades and misidentified for years by Western analysts as the 'SS-8'. More...
  • R-36 8K67 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Initial ICBM version. More...
  • Tsiklon Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36 ICBM was the largest ever built and the bogeyman of the Pentagon throughout the Cold War. Dubbed the 'city buster', the 308 silos built were constantly held up by the US Air Force as an awesome threat that justified a new round of American missile or anti-missile systems. On the other hand, the Americans were never motivated to build and deploy corresponding numbers of their equivalent, the liquid propellant Titan 2. Derivatives of the R-36 included the R-36-O orbital bombing system, the Tsiklon-2 and -3 medium orbital launch vehicles, and the replacement R-36M missiles. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the design and manufacturing facility ended up in independent Ukraine. Accordingly the missile was finally retired in the 1990's, conveniently in accordance with arms reduction agreements with the Americans. More...
  • R-36-O Ukrainian orbital missile. The R-36-O was the only orbiting military nuclear weapon ever deployed, although in order to remain legal under international treaties it was a 'fractional orbital' weapon. Although American infrared early warning satellites invalidated the 'surprise attack' component of the concept, 18 missiles were operational from 1969 to 1983. More...
  • Kosmos 11K63 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Series production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-12 IRBM. Succeeded 63S1M prototype from 1965, using same 'Dvina' launch complex. From March 16, 1967 orbital launches from Plesetsk were from the purpose-built 'Raduga' launch complex LC133. Total of 123 launches, of which 8 were failures. More...
  • Kosmos 63S1M Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Modernized version of 63S1 initial configuration of the first Kosmos launcher and the prototype for the production 11K63 launch vehicle. Suborbital launches from Plesetsk from 1965 at from the modified R-12 silo 'Dvina'. Flown only a few times in 1965-1967. Succeeded by the 11K63 production model launched from the 'Raduga' complex. More...
  • R-56 Ukrainian heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The R-56 was Yangel's ultimate superbooster design. Trade studies begun in 1962 resulted in a conventional tandem stage design capable of being transported on the Soviet canal system from the factory to the launch site, while still placing 40 metric tons into low earth orbit. However various Soviet government factions favored the much larger (and less practical) Korolev N1 or Chelomei UR-700 designs. Yangel made one last attempt to convince the government to sponsor a common approach to the lunar program, with different design bureaus concentrating on just one part of the mission, as the American's were doing. But his practical solutions obtained no traction, and further work on the R-56 was abandoned. More...
  • R-46 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Super-heavy ICBM designed by Yangel in 1963-1966. The original R-56 super-booster concept consisted of clustered R-46's. More...
  • RT-20P Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Following the protracted development of Shavyrin's Gnom air-augmented ICBM, it was decided to let Yangel tackle the problem of developing a 30 tonne gross mass ICBM using more conventional technology. At first a three-stage solid propellant design was considered. But it was found impossible to achieve the launch weight with such an approach. Yangel's solution was to propose the only mixed propulsion ICBM ever developed - a solid propellant first stage, and high performance ampulised storable liquid propellant second stage. The draft project for the missile was completed in December 1964 and a decree to proceed with development was issued on 24 August 1965. Shortly thereafter Shavyrin died and Gnom was cancelled, leaving Yangel's RT-20P the lead project for the mobile ICBM requirement. Designs for silo-launched and submarine-launched versions of the missile were to be developed as well. More...
  • Tsiklon-2A Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Minimal modification of the R-36 ICBM used in replacement of Chelomei's cancelled UR-200 booster for initial launches of the IS ASAT and US naval radarsat. Development was authorized in late 1965 and first launch was made before the end of 1967. It flew only eight times before being replaced by the definitive Tsyklon-2 space launch vehicle. More...
  • R-36 8K67P Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36P was a version of the R-36 which could deploy three separate (but not independently-targeted) warheads instead of one. The concept was to ensure a wider zone of destruction and overpressure then a single warhead detonation would create. More...
  • Tsiklon-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. A government decree of 24 August 1965 ordered development by Yangel of a version of his R-36 rocket to orbit Chelomei's IS (Istrebitel Sputnik) ASAT and US (Upravlenniye Sputnik) naval intelligence satellites. The Tyklon 2 definitive operational version replaced the 11K67 launch vehicle from 1969 and was an adaptation of the 8K69 (SS-9) two stage ICBM. The IS and US Raketoplan-derived payloads had their own engines for insertion into final orbit. More...
  • R-36M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M replaced the R-36 in 288 existing silos and was additionally installed in 20 new super-hardened silos. More...
  • MR-UR-100 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The Yangel MR-UR-100 was designed as a replacement for Chelomei's UR-100 at the end of its 10 year storage life. Although it could be installed in the same silos, it was 50% heavier. The competing design of Chelomei, the UR-100N, was also put into production when the Soviet hierarchy deadlocked and could not pick one design over the other. More...
  • Tsiklon-3 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. The Tsyklon 3 was developed in 1970-1977 as a part of a program to reduce the number of Soviet booster types. The first two stages were derived from the 8K68 version of the R-36 ICBM, while the restartable third stage was derived from that of the R-36-O. Compared to the Tsyklon 2, the launch vehicle increased payload to 4 metric tons, provided for completely automated launch operations, and had increased orbital injection accuracy. More...
  • MR-UR-100U 15A16 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the MR-UR-100U loaded into the super-hardened 15P715U universal silo, with a modernised guidance system with better reliability and accuracy. More...
  • R-36MU 15A18 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Improved version of the R-36M with a new ten warhead MIRV bus, better guidance system, increased throw-weight, and increased range. More...
  • Perimetr 15A11 Ukrainian strategic communications missile. Perimetr was developed for launch of a highly secret communications payload. This would be be put in orbit or on a long high-altitude trajectory to provide back-up command and control of the strategic forces in the event of nuclear war. More...
  • RT-23 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The only rail-based ICBM ever deployed. Developed by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine was protracted, but understandable given the huge technical challenges. Twelve years of design and testing was followed by deployment from 1988. All were retired by 2003. More...
  • RT-23 15Zh44 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The draft project for the silo-based RT-23 with the 15F143 warhead was completed in December 1979. Trials of this basic version began at Plesetsk on 26 October 1982. The basic RT-23 was accepted for military service on 10 February 1983, but the decision was taken not to put it into production. All resources were to be devoted to an improved RT-23UTTKh. More...
  • RT-23U 15Zh60 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Design began of the silo-based version of the RT-23UTTKh on 9 August 1983. More...
  • RT-23 15Zh52 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A draft project of the 15Zh52 MIRV train-based version of the RT-23 was completed in June 1980. The system was designed to allow the mobile launchers to conduct long-duration deployments up to 200 km from base. More...
  • RT-23U 15Zh61 Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. A decree of 9 August 1982 ordered development of an improved RT-23UTTKh, dubbed 'Molodets'. Three basing modes were to be possible using a single containerised missile: train-launched, a 'Tselina-2' road-mobile transport, or silo-based. This would be able to deploy up to ten nuclear warheads from a layered circular dispenser. Retired in 2003. More...
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...
  • Zenit-2 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version that continued to be used for launch of Russian military satellites tailored to it after the fall of the Soviet Union. More...
  • R-36M2 15A18M Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. The R-36M2 was the Soviet Union's answer to the American 'Star Wars' anti-ballistic missile system. It was unusually named 'Voevoda' (an old Russian word for the leader of an army) in recognition of its planned role. In the end, it was only deployed in very limited numbers before the end of the Cold War. More...
  • Ikar Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Ikar was Yuzhnoye's design for a heavy ICBM, a next-generation replacement for the R-36M2. Design was begun at the beginning of the 1990's under Stanislav Us. It may have used all-solid propellants, and nested rocket stages. Work was quickly dropped after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. More...
  • Koltso Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Koltso was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of decrees of 29 September 1976 and 31 May 1984. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. More...
  • Kopye-R Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Kopye-R was a Yuzhnoye advanced ICBM, subject of a draft project completed in February 1986. Development was authorised by the project was cancelled after the collapse of the ICBM. More...
  • RSS-40 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. SS-18 Replacement. The designation SS-X-26 was originally assigned to the RSS-40, but the number was reused for another missile after its cancellation. More...
  • Universal Ukrainian intercontinental ballistic missile. Yuzhnoye solid-propellant ICBM designed for mass production to counter US 'Star Wars' programme. Two built before break-up of Soviet Union. Some design features incorporated into all-Russian Topol-M. More...
  • Zenit-2 11K77.05 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version with a dispenser for multiple Globalstar communications satellite launches. More...
  • Zenit-3SL Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. From the beginning of the program a Zenit-3 version was proposed for geosynchronous launches using the N1/Proton Block D third stage. This had the potential of replacing the Proton in the role of geosynchronous launcher. It was considered for launch from Australia / Cape York in the 1980's. Finally a joint US-Norwegian-Ukraininan-Russian consortium was formed to launch the three stage commercial Zenit from the Odyssey floating launch platform in the Pacific Ocean. More...
  • Dnepr Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle based on decommissioned R-36M2 intercontinental ballistic missiles. More...
  • Mayak Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. New family of modular medium-sized launch vehicles proposed by the Ukraine in 2005. No known development or production funding was forthcoming. More...
  • Tsiklon-4 Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Updated version of Tsyklon 3, announced by the Ukraine in 2005 as being in design. Improved lower stages, new upper stage and a new 4.0-m diameter payload fairing. No production plans. More...
  • Zenit-2SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Two-stage version of the Zenit-3SL booster developed for the Sea Launch program, modified for launch from ground facilities at Baikonur. Uses the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with no upper stage. More...
  • Zenit-3SLB Ukrainian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the Zenit-3SL modified for launch from existing ground facilities at Baikonur, using the common Zenit-2SB core vehicle with an upper stage Block DM-SLB designed by RSC Energia (Russia) and a new payload fairing designed by NPO Lavochkin (Russia). More...

Associated Programs
  • Intercosmos International cooperative satellites with a variety of missions, launched by Soviet boosters. More...

Associated Stages
  • 15D339 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 25,000 kg. Thrust 1,050.00 kN. More...
  • MR-UR-100 St 1 N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 1236.00 kN (277,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 59,000 kg (130,073 lb). More...
  • R-36M St 1 N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 4522.00 kN (1,016,586 lbf) thrust. Mass 210,000 kg (462,971 lb). More...
  • R-36M-2 N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 760.00 kN (170,855 lbf) thrust. Mass 49,000 kg (108,027 lb). More...
  • R-39-1 Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 53,700 kg. Thrust 2,060.00 kN. More...
  • RT-23-3 N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 15,000 kg. Thrust 206.00 kN. More...

Yuzhnoye Chronology


1976 June 19 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53731-276.
  • Intercosmos 15 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-T-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1976-07-26 . Decay Date: 1979-11-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 8903 . COSPAR: 1976-056A. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Perigee: 481 km (298 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Summary: Testing of new systems and components of satellite under space flight conditions. .

1977 March 29 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53749-168.
  • Cosmos 900 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-O Oval. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 1979-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 9898 . COSPAR: 1977-023A. Apogee: 522 km (324 mi). Perigee: 457 km (283 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1977 September 24 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53731-278.
  • Intercosmos 17 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-E-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1979-01-16 . Decay Date: 1979-11-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 10376 . COSPAR: 1977-096A. Apogee: 514 km (319 mi). Perigee: 466 km (289 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Summary: Investigation of energetic charged and neutral particles and micrometeorite fluxes in circumterrestrial space. .

1978 October 24 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65055-106.
  • Intercosmos 18 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-M-IK. Mass: 1,050 kg (2,310 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1981-03-18 . Decay Date: 1981-03-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 11082 . COSPAR: 1978-099A. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi). Perigee: 403 km (250 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. Conduct of complex investigations on the interaction between the magnetosphere and ionosphere of the earth. Launched under the Intercosmos programme by the USSR in cooperation with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the H ungarian People's Republic, the Polish People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania. On 14 Nov 1978, Magion, a small Czechoslovak scientific satellite, separated from object 1296.

1979 February 27 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47155-107.
  • Intercosmos 19 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-I-IK. Mass: 1,015 kg (2,237 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1982-04-27 . Decay Date: 2002-09-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11285 . COSPAR: 1979-020A. Apogee: 711 km (441 mi). Perigee: 452 km (280 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 96.30 min. Comprehensive investigations of the structure of the earth's ionosphere, the characteristics of wave processes and the propagation of radio waves in the ionospheric plasma. Launched under the Intercosmos programme by the USSR in cooperation with the Peopl e's Republic of Bulgaria, the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Polish People's Republic. Additional Details: here....

1979 November 1 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53755-105.
  • Intercosmos 20 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-P-IK. Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1980-12-11 . Decay Date: 1981-03-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 11609 . COSPAR: 1979-096A. Apogee: 519 km (322 mi). Perigee: 462 km (287 mi). Inclination: 74.1000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Testing of methods for comprehensive study of the oceans and the surface of the earth, and testing of automatic gathering of scientific information from experimental sea and land stations. Launched under the INTERCOSMOS programme by the Soviet Union toget her with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania.

1981 February 6 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53793-478.
  • Intercosmos 21 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-R-P-IK. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: IK. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1982-06-02 . Decay Date: 1982-07-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 12162 . COSPAR: 1981-011A. Apogee: 506 km (314 mi). Perigee: 469 km (291 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 94.40 min. Oceanographic, terrestrial studies. Development of methods for comprehensive study of the oceans and the surface of the earth, and testing of the experimental system of automatic gathering of scientific information from sea and land stations. Launched under the INTERCOSMOS programme by the USSR together with the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungarian People's Republic and the Socialist Republic of Romania.

1981 September 21 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/1. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Oreol 3 - . Payload: AUOS-Z M-A-IK s/n 401. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: France. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 12848 . COSPAR: 1981-094A. Apogee: 1,672 km (1,038 mi). Perigee: 394 km (244 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 105.80 min. Carried Soviet/French magnetosphere and ionosphere experiments. Investigation of physical processes in the earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, and study of the nature of polar aurorae. Carried scientific equipment developed by Soviet and French specialists under the joint Soviet-French project 'Arkad-3'.

1986 December 18 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1809 - . Payload: AUOS-Z Ionozond-E s/n 501. Mass: 700 kg (1,540 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 17241 . COSPAR: 1986-101A. Apogee: 961 km (597 mi). Perigee: 941 km (584 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 104.10 min. Summary: Development of research apparatus and methods of remote sensing and monitoring of the Earth's ionosphere, and also study of the propagation of radio waves in the ionosphere. .

1989 September 28 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 24 - . Payload: AUOS-Z-AV-IK s/n 201. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20261 . COSPAR: 1989-080A. Apogee: 2,414 km (1,499 mi). Perigee: 499 km (310 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 115.00 min. US participation; particles and fields experiments; deployed Magion 2. Comprehensive study of the processes of propagation of low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the earth's magnetosphere and their interaction with charged particles of the radiation belts, in cooperation with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democrati c Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania (the international scientific project entitled 'Aktivny'). Carrying the Czechoslovak Magion-2 satellite.

1991 December 18 - . 03:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 25 - . Payload: AUOS-Z APEKS-IK s/n 301. Mass: 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 21819 . COSPAR: 1991-086A. Apogee: 2,969 km (1,844 mi). Perigee: 436 km (270 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 120.50 min. Solar activity monitoring; hosted experiments from Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary. Comprehensive study of the effects of artificial impact of modulated electron flows and plasma beams on the ionosphere and magnetosphere of the Earth (forming part of the Apex international scientific project, conducted jointly with Bulgaria, Czechoslovak ia, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Romania.) Launched with the Czechoslovak satellite Magion-3, separated from the space object Intercosmos-25 on 28 Dec 1991, in accordance with the scientific programme of the Apex project.

1994 March 2 - . 03:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Intercosmos 26 - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KI-IK. Mass: 2,160 kg (4,760 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Intercosmos. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 2001-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 23019 . COSPAR: 1994-014A. Apogee: 541 km (336 mi). Perigee: 501 km (311 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 94.70 min. Solar and space physics. Conduct of comprehensive investigations of the sun under the Koronas-I international project developed by Russian and Ukranian experimts in cooperation with specialists from Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom.

1998 July 28 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2360 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 22. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 25406 . COSPAR: 1998-045A. Apogee: 855 km (531 mi). Perigee: 847 km (526 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1999 July 17 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 17L.
  • Okean-O - . Payload: Okean-O no. 1. Mass: 4,360 kg (9,610 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O. USAF Sat Cat: 25860 . COSPAR: 1999-039A. Apogee: 649 km (403 mi). Perigee: 648 km (402 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. First of a new generation of larger Okean oceanographic satellites, carried a side-looking radar (RSL-BO), and a set of visible and infrared scanners and radiometers. It is built by the Ukrainian Yuzhnoye company and is a joint project of the Russian Aviation/Space Agency (RAKA) and the Ukrainian National Space Agency (NKAU).

2000 February 3 - . 09:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 45025801.
  • Cosmos 2369 - . Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 26069 . COSPAR: 2000-006A. Apogee: 860 km (534 mi). Perigee: 849 km (528 mi). Inclination: 70.9965 deg. Period: 101.95 min. Summary: ELINT satellite..

2001 July 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Koronas-F - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KF. Mass: 2,260 kg (4,980 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. Decay Date: 2005-12-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 26873 . COSPAR: 2001-032A. Apogee: 529 km (328 mi). Perigee: 486 km (301 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Launch delayed from July 25. Koronas-F was a Russian solar observatory that pointed toward Sun within 10 arc-minutes to conduct a variety of observations. In broad categories, it carried X-ray monitors to locate sources within 1 arc-sec, radio receivers to measure flux and polarization, and particle counters. Additional Details: here....

2004 June 10 - . 01:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2. LV Configuration: Zenit-2 1-95.
  • Cosmos 2406 - . Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 28352 . COSPAR: 2004-021A. Apogee: 866 km (538 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.10 min. Summary: Delayed from February 17 and 18; March 17 and 31; April 6, 25 and 26..

2004 December 24 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3. LV Configuration: Tsiklon-3 701. FAILURE: Launch vehicle control system failure during third stage apogee kick burn..
  • Sich-1M - . Payload: Okean O1-N9. Mass: 2,263 kg (4,989 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Agency: NKAU. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. Decay Date: 2006-04-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 28505 . COSPAR: 2004-052A. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 82.5559 deg. Summary: Ukranian-built remote sensing satellite. Originally tagged by USAF SpaceCom as Cosmos 2412. Third stage apogee kick burn was too short, raising the perigee of the orbit from 78 km to 280 km, rather than the 650 km planned..
  • Mikron - . Payload: MK-1TS. Mass: 66 kg (145 lb). Nation: Ukraine. Agency: NKAU. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: MS-1. Decay Date: 2005-09-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 28507 . COSPAR: 2004-052C. Apogee: 650 km (400 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 82.5559 deg. The Mikron microsatellite was equipped with a small visible range video camera. The information from the satellite was to be used to provide remote sensing of topography and meteorology. However the main purpose of the experimental satellite was to test the MS-1 microsatellite bus created under the Ukrainian National Space Program. The satellites spectral range was from 0.45 to 0.90 mm; swath width was 253-391 km; resolution 124-191 m.

2007 April 17 - . 06:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr 806.
  • MisrSat 1 - . Payload: Egyptsat 1 / MS-1TK. Mass: 100 kg (220 lb). Nation: Egypt. Agency: NARSSS. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: MS-1. USAF Sat Cat: 31117 . COSPAR: 2007-012A. Apogee: 667 km (414 mi). Perigee: 657 km (408 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.00 min. Summary: MisrSat/Egyptsat carried an imaging payload for Egypt's National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Sciences..

2007 June 29 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2SLB. LV Configuration: Zenit-2M 1-2005.
  • Cosmos 2428 - . Mass: 3,200 kg (7,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 31792 . COSPAR: 2007-029A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min. Summary: Signals intelligence satellite. First launch in three years, and first with the improved version of the Zenit-2 launch vehicle using components developed for the Zenit-3SL..

2009 January 30 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32/2. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Koronas-Foton - . Payload: AUOS-SM-KF. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Yuzhnoye. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: AUOS. USAF Sat Cat: 33504 . COSPAR: 2009-003A. Apogee: 561 km (348 mi). Perigee: 539 km (334 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 95.70 min. Carried ten instruments to study in the sun throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, primarily Russian: Natalya-2M spectrometer; RT-2 gamma-telescope (India); Pingvin-M polarimeter; Konus-RF x-ray and gamma spectrometer; BRM x-ray detector; FOKA UV-detector; TESIS telescope/spectrometer with SphinX soft X-ray spectrophotometer (Poland); Electron-M-Peska charged particles analyser; STEP-F Electron and proton detector(Ukraine); SM-8M magnetometer. Follow-up to 2001 Koronas-F launch.

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