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Norma
Part of Orel Family
NORMA Spaceplane
NORMA Spaceplane
Credit: Mark Lindroos
Russian winged orbital launch vehicle. Semi-reusable vertically launched two-stage-to-orbit vehicle. The flight profile featured a reusable flyback booster launched from a modular launch platform, an expendable second stage with a reusable orbiter that would have landed vertically. Development cost estimated at $13 billion.

Status: Study 1997.



Family: orbital launch vehicle, Winged. Country: Russia.

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