Encyclopedia Astronautica
Palapa


Indonesia's domestic communications satellite system. Palapas, stationed in geosynchronous orbit, provide voice circuits and television to the country's 6000+ inhabited islands.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • HS 333 American communications satellite. 8 launches, 1972.11.10 (Anik A1) to 1979.08.10 (Westar 3). The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. More...
  • HS 376 American communications satellite. 56 launches, 1980.11.15 (SBS 1) to 2003.09.27 (E-Bird). Mass 654 kg at beginning-of-life in geosynchronous orbit. Spin stabilized at 50 rpm by 4 hydrazine thrusters with 136 kg propellant. More...
  • HS 601 American communications satellite bus. First launch 1990.01.09. 3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimbaled momentum bias wheels. More...
  • AS 2100 American communications satellite. Operational, first launch 1996.09.08 (GE 1). Cost per satellite $100 million for the spacecraft including ground support equipment, but not including launch costs. 3-axis stabilized. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Delta 2914 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 2 + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta P /TR-201 + 1 x Star 37E More...
  • Shuttle American winged orbital launch vehicle. The manned reusable space system which was designed to slash the cost of space transport and replace all expendable launch vehicles. It did neither, but did keep NASA in the manned space flight business for 30 years. Redesign of the shuttle with reliability in mind after the Challenger disaster reduced maximum payload to low earth orbit from 27,850 kg to 24,400 kg. More...
  • Delta 3920/PAM American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x ELT Thor/RS-27 + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • Ariane 44L French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 4 liquid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Delta 6925-8 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x Castor 4A + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27+ 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B with 2.4 m (8 foot) diameter fairing) More...
  • Ariane 42P French orbital launch vehicle. Ariane 4 with 2 solid rocket strap-ons. More...
  • Delta 7925 American orbital launch vehicle. Four stage vehicle consisting of 9 x GEM-40 + 1 x EELT Thor/RS-27A + 1 x Delta K + 1 x Star 48B More...
  • Atlas IIAS American orbital launch vehicle. The Atlas II booster was 2.7-meters longer than the Atlas I and included uprated Rocketdyne MA-5A engines. The Atlas I vernier engines were replaced with a hydrazine roll control system. The Centaur stage was stretched 0.9-meters compared to the Centaur I stage. Fixed foam insulation replaced Atlas I's jettisonable insulation panels. Higher performance RL10A-4 or RL10A-4-1 engines replaced Atlas II's RL10A-3-3A. The Atlas IIAS model added four Thiokol Castor IVA solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to the core Atlas stage to augment thrust for the first two minutes of flight. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Lockheed American manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. Lockheed Martin, Sunnyvale, CA, USA. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Cape Canaveral America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean. More...
  • Kourou After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle. More...

Palapa Chronology


1976 July 8 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914-C 611/D125.
  • Palapa 1 - . Payload: Palapa A1. Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 333. Completed Operations Date: 1986-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9009 . COSPAR: 1976-066A. Apogee: 35,852 km (22,277 mi). Perigee: 35,818 km (22,256 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,438.60 min. Palapa A1 and A2 were the initial elements of Indonesia's domestic communications satellite system. The spacecraft were identical to Canada's Anik and Western Union's Westars except for a modified parabolic reflector, enlarged to give maximum illumination of the Indonesian land mass. Operational lives for Palapa A1 and A2 ended June 1985 and January 1988, respectively. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-333 design.1.5 m diameter parabolic reflector with 12 transponders working through 125 Earth stations. Spin stabilised with despun antenna and feeds. Payload: Both satellites carried 12 transponders that provided 4000 voice circuits or 12 simultaneous TV channels to the country's 6000+ inhabited islands. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 83 deg E in 1976-1986? As of 28 August 2001 located at 177.38 deg E drifting at 0.588 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 51.89W drifting at 0.649W degrees per day.

1977 March 10 - . 23:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 612/D129.
  • Palapa 2 - . Payload: Palapa A2. Mass: 574 kg (1,265 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 333. Completed Operations Date: 1986-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 9862 . COSPAR: 1977-018A. Apogee: 35,867 km (22,286 mi). Perigee: 35,843 km (22,271 mi). Inclination: 7.6000 deg. Period: 1,439.60 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Indian Ocean at 80 deg E in 1977-1986? As of 5 September 2001 located at 64.27 deg W drifting at 0.845 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 69.73E drifting at 0.893W degrees per day.

1983 June 18 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-7.
  • Palapa B1 - . Payload: Palapa B1 [PAM-D. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1995-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 14134 . COSPAR: 1983-059C. Apogee: 35,840 km (22,260 mi). Perigee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Inclination: 8.6000 deg. Period: 1,437.90 min. Deployed by STS-7 6/18/83. Palapa B satellites were four times as powerful and twice the size of their predecessors, the Palapa A series. While the A series was designed for domestic/regional communications within Indonesia, the new system also served the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore. Palapa B2 was originally placed into a useless orbit due to malfunctions of its PAM-D upper stage. The Indonesian government claimed $75 million insurance and ordered a replacement (B2P), which was successfully orbited 3 years later. The original B2 was recovered by the STS-51A mission on November 12, 1984 under an arrangement between the satellite's insurers, NASA and Hughes. The satellite was then sold by the insurers to an intermediary company, refurbished, and then resold back to Indonesia following its launch in 1990. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-376 design. Cylindrical structure. Spin stabilised. Hydrazine propulsion system for attitude control, orbit maintenance. Body mounted solar cells provide 1060 W BOL. Despun antenna platform. Payload: Each carried 24 C-band transponders (+6 spares). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 108 deg E in 1983-1990; 118 deg E in 1990-1992; 134 deg E in 1992-1995 As of 1 September 2001 located at 156.84 deg E drifting at 0.192 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 169.93W drifting at 0.283W degrees per day.

1984 February 3 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle 41-B.
  • Palapa B2 - . Payload: Palapa B2 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Decay Date: 1984-11-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 14692 . COSPAR: 1984-011D. Apogee: 1,190 km (730 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 28.2000 deg. Period: 99.50 min. Summary: Deployed from STS 41B 4 February 1984; failed to reach proper orbit; recovered by STS-51A..

1987 March 20 - . 22:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3920/PAM. LV Configuration: Delta 3920/PAM D182.
  • Palapa B2P - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 17706 . COSPAR: 1987-029A. Apogee: 35,906 km (22,310 mi). Perigee: 35,868 km (22,287 mi). Inclination: 5.0000 deg. Period: 1,441.20 min. Stationed at 113 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg E in 1987-1996; 144 deg E in 1996-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 130.30 deg W drifting at 1.327 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 3 located at 141.38E drifting at 1.274W degrees per day.

1990 April 13 - . 22:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 6925-8. LV Configuration: Delta 6925-8 D194.
  • Palapa B2R - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Perumtel. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20570 . COSPAR: 1990-034A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.30 min. Refurbished Palapa B2 retrieved by STS-51A; 107.7 deg E. Communication services for Indonesia, the Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN), and Papua New Guinea. Launch time 2227:59.719 Z. Launch complex 17, ETR. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 108 deg E in 1990-1999 As of 29 August 2001 located at 42.49 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 163.55E drifting at 2.663W degrees per day.

1992 May 14 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D209.
  • Palapa B4 - . Mass: 1,254 kg (2,764 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: PT Telkom. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 21964 . COSPAR: 1992-027A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Stationed at 118 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 118 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 2 September 2001 located at 118.02 deg E drifting at 0.020 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 164.88E drifting at 1.157W degrees per day..

1996 February 1 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-126.
  • Palapa C-1 - . Payload: Palapa C1. Nation: Indonesia. Agency: Satelind. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23779 . COSPAR: 1996-006A. Apogee: 35,798 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. 30 C-band, 6 Ku-band transponders. Geostationary at 150.4E. Launch vehicle put payload into supersynchronous earth orbit with IFR/MRS trajectory option. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg E in 1996; 150 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 50.03 deg E drifting at 0.006 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 38.04E drifting at 0.007E degrees per day.

1996 May 16 - . 01:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V86.
  • Palapa C2 - . Nation: Indonesia. Agency: PSN. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23864 . COSPAR: 1996-030A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: 34 transponders; Geostationary at 113.0E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 113 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 112.95 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 112.97E drifting at 0.011W degrees per day..

1999 August 12 - . 22:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P-3 V118.
  • Telkom 1 - . Mass: 2,763 kg (6,091 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: PT Telkom. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 25880 . COSPAR: 1999-042A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. The launch vehicle delivered its H-10-3 third stage and the Telkom 1 payload into a 221 km x 35687 km x 7.0 degree geosynchronous transfer orbit 21 minutes after launch. Telkom 1 was owned by PT Telkomunikasi of Indonesia and was a successor to the Palapa series of satellites. Mass of Telkom 1 was 1700 kg in geosynchronous orbit after its on-board engine made the apogee burn. Stationed at 108 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 108 deg E in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 107.98 deg E drifting at 0.011 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 107.98E drifting at 0.014W degrees per day.

2005 November 16 - . 23:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA3. LV Family: Ariane 5. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 5ECA. LV Configuration: Ariane 5ECA V167 (522).
  • Telkom 2 - . Mass: 1,975 kg (4,354 lb). Nation: Indonesia. Agency: PT Telkom. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Star bus. USAF Sat Cat: 28902 . COSPAR: 2005-046A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,781 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Satellite's launch delayed from April 14, May 31, October 27, November 10 and 12, 2005, for technical problems. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 118.00E drifting at 0.013W degrees per day..

2009 August 31 - . 09:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: CZ-3B s/n CZ3B12.
  • Palapa D - . Payload: Spacebus 4000B3. Mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 35812 . COSPAR: 2009-046A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Early third stage cutoff left spacecraft in sub-geostationary transfer orbit of 217 km x 21,138 km at 22.4 deg inclination. It used its on-board system to reach an operational orbit, albeit with reduced life due to the propellant consumption..

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