Encyclopedia Astronautica
Air/Lox/LH2


Ambient air (78 % nitrogen, 21% oxygen, etc.) is scooped up by air intakes and used in turbojet, turbofan, ramjet, scramjet, or other airbreathing engines as an oxidiser. In this variant the motor converts to pure rocket propulsion, using on-board liquid oxygen for the final push to orbit.

Oxidizer: Air/Lox. Fuel: LH2. Fuel Density: 0.071 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -259 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: -253 deg C.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Tu-2000 Russian manned spaceplane. Study 1986. In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. More...

Associated Engines
  • NK-33 LH2 Mod + 4 x LACE Kuznetsov air augmented rocket engine. 980.7 kN. N1-MOK. Study 1974. Isp=430s. Ultimate derivative of NK-9. Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. More...
  • Sabre Rolls Royce air augmented rocket engine. Used Air/Lox/LH2. Developed -1995. Isp=700s. In development for Skylon launch vehicl; descendent of RB545 developed for abandoned HOTOL space launcher. More...

Associated Stages
  • N1-MOK Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,200,000/300,000 kg. Thrust 15,600.00 kN. Specific impulse 430 seconds. Ultimate derivative of N1 Block A: Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 400 kg MKBS orb More...
  • Nova MM R10E-2 Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,474,000/1,188,000 kg. Thrust 140,539.00 kN. Specific impulse 620 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1980. Expendable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle. More...
  • Nova MM R10R-2 Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,647,000/1,361,000 kg. Thrust 140,539.00 kN. Specific impulse 620 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1980. Recoverable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle. More...
  • Skylon Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 263,000/42,319 kg. Thrust 1,300.00 kN. Specific impulse 425 seconds. Engine thrust, burn time estimated. More...

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