Encyclopedia Astronautica
H2O2


Hydrogen peroxide is used as both an oxidiser and a monopropellant. Relatively high density and non-toxic, it was abandoned after early use in British rockets, but recently revived as a propellant for the Black Horse spaceplane. Hydrogen peroxide is used as both an oxidiser and a monopropellant. Relatively high density and non-toxic, it was abandoned after early use in British rockets, but recently revived as a propellant for the Black Horse spaceplane.

Hydrogen peroxide solutions are clear, astringent, colorless liquids which are slightly more viscous than water. They are described by Military Specification MIL-H-16005. High-strength hydrogen peroxide solutions are very reactive oxidising agents. Hydrogen peroxide is miscible in all proportions in water; it is soluble in a large number of organic liquids which are also soluble in water. However, many of these mixtures form explosive mixtures. Hydrogen peroxide-water solutions are normally insensitive to detonation by shock or impact. Surfaces that come in contact with hydrogen peroxide must be specially treated (passivated) before use, to prevent the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide-water solutions and their vapours are considered non-toxic, but are characterised by their ability to produce local irritation.

Hydrogen peroxide is manufactured commercially by several processes. Inorganic processes employ the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid or acidic ammonium bisulphate, followed by hydrolysis of the peroxydisulfate which is formed. For reasons of economy and flexibility of plant location, organic processing methods have become important in the production of hydrogen peroxide. These include (1) the autoxidation of hydroquinone or one of its homologues in a suitable solvent system and (2) the partial gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons.

Dilute aqueous hydrogen peroxide is concentrated to about 90 per cent by conventional distillation. Higher-strength solutions are prepared by fractional crystallisation of 90 per cent feed stock. Estimated United States production for 1959 was 50,000 tonnes based upon 100 per cent hydrogen peroxide. In large quantities, 95 per cent hydrogen peroxide then cost approximately $1.00 per kg. In small drum lots, 98 per cent solutions cost $ 2.00 per kg. Density varies: 1.44 g/cc for 100% H2O2, 1.43 for 98%, 2.42 for 96%, 1.33 for 75%.

Hydrogen peroxide solutions are clear, astringent, colorless liquids which are slightly more viscous than water. They are described by Military Specification MIL-H-16005. High-strength hydrogen peroxide solutions are very reactive oxidising agents. Hydrogen peroxide is miscible in all proportions in water; it is soluble in a large number of organic liquids which are also soluble in water. However, many of these mixtures form explosive mixtures. Hydrogen peroxide-water solutions are normally insensitive to detonation by shock or impact. Surfaces that come in contact with hydrogen peroxide must be specially treated (passivated) before use, to prevent the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide-water solutions and their vapours are considered non-toxic, but are characterised by their ability to produce local irritation.

Hydrogen peroxide is manufactured commercially by several processes. Inorganic processes employ the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sulphuric acid or acidic ammonium bisulphate, followed by hydrolysis of the peroxydisulfate which is formed. For reasons of economy and flexibility of plant location, organic processing methods have become important in the production of hydrogen peroxide. These include (1) the autoxidation of hydroquinone or one of its homologues in a suitable solvent system and (2) the partial gas-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons.

Dilute aqueous hydrogen peroxide is concentrated to about 90 per cent by conventional distillation. Higher-strength solutions are prepared by fractional crystallisation of 90 per cent feed stock. Estimated United States production for 1959 was 50,000 tonnes based upon 100 per cent hydrogen peroxide. In large quantities, 95 per cent hydrogen peroxide then cost approximately $1.00 per kg. In small drum lots, 98 per cent solutions cost $ 2.00 per kg. Density varies: 1.44 g/cc for 100% H2O2, 1.43 for 98%, 1.42 for 96%, 1.33 for 75%.

Fuel: H2O2. Fuel: H2O2. Fuel: H2O2. Fuel: H2O2. Fuel: H2O2. Propellant Formulation: H2O2-100% monopropellant. Propellant Formulation: H2O2-90% monopropellant. Propellant Formulation: H2O2-95% monopropellant. Propellant Formulation: H2O2-98% monopropellant. Propellant Formulation: H2O2-75% monopropellant. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 1. Temperature of Combustion: 1,285 deg K. Temperature of Combustion: 1,015 deg K. Temperature of Combustion: 1,165 deg K. Temperature of Combustion: 1,225 deg K. Temperature of Combustion: 630 deg K. Ratio of Specific Heats: 1.25. Density: 1.45 g/cc. Density: 1.43 g/cc. Density: 1.33 g/cc. Density: 1.40 g/cc. Density: 1.42 g/cc. Characteristic velocity c: 1,045 m/s (3,428 ft/sec). Characteristic velocity c: 740 m/s (2,420 ft/sec). Characteristic velocity c: 930 m/s (3,050 ft/sec). Characteristic velocity c: 1,000 m/s (3,200 ft/sec). Characteristic velocity c: 1,020 m/s (3,340 ft/sec). Isp Shifting: 162 sec. Fuel Density: 1.440 g/cc. Fuel Density: 1.440 g/cc. Fuel Density: 1.440 g/cc. Fuel Density: 1.440 g/cc. Fuel Density: 1.440 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -1 deg C. Fuel Freezing Point: -1 deg C. Fuel Freezing Point: -1 deg C. Fuel Freezing Point: -1 deg C. Fuel Freezing Point: -1 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 150 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 150 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 150 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 150 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 150 deg C.

Location: 930.
Specific impulse: 117 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 117 s.

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Associated Spacecraft
  • Soyuz A SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1962. Original Soyuz design, allowing crew of three without spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Asset American manned spaceplane. 6 launches, 1963.09.18 (ASSET 1) to 1965.02.23 (ASSET 6). One part of the Dynasoar manned spaceplane project was ASSET ( 'Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests') . More...
  • LEK SA Russian manned spacecraft module. Study 1973. Descent module was contained within pressurized cabin of LEK ascent stage. Crew may have entered hatch in heat shield. Landing apparatus - Reentry capsule for crew and lunar samples.. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-MF6 SA Russian manned spacecraft module. One launch, 1976.09.15, Soyuz 22. Post-Soyuz 11 modification for crew of two in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Progress OKD Russian manned spacecraft module. 43 launches, 1978.01.20 (Progress 1) to 1990.05.06 (Progress 42). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section. More...
  • Soyuz T SA Russian manned spacecraft module. 18 launches, 1978.04.04 (Cosmos 1001) to 1986.03.13 (Soyuz T-15). Significantly improved Soyuz re-entry capsule, based on development done in Soyuz 7K-S program. Accommodation for crew of three in spacesuits. Reentry capsule. More...
  • Progress M OKD Russian manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1989.08.23 (Progress M-1). Fuel module for refueling space stations. Refuelling section. More...
  • Stabilo Romanian manned spacecraft. Study 2013. Stabilo was a suborbital manned system developed by ARCA. More...

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