Encyclopedia Astronautica
Nitric acid/UDMH



agenengn.jpg
Agena Engine
Credit: Bell
Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance.

The propellant combinations WFNA/ JP-4 and later IRFNA/JP-4 were the first storable systems given serious consideration in the United States. Problems which caused the abandoning of these propellants were the absence of reliable hypergolic ignition and unstable combustion. IRFNA/UDMH and IRFNA/JP-X finally did prove satisfactory.

The composition of propellant-grade nitric acids is covered by Military Specification MIL-N-7254. The nitric acids are fuming liquids which vary from colorless to brown, depending on the amount of dissolved N2O4. The vapours from these acids have a characteristic pungent odour. They are highly corrosive, toxic, oxidising agents and attack most metals. They react with most organic materials violently enough to cause fire. The acids are soluble in water in all proportions, with an accompanying evolution of heat. They cannot be made to explode. Approximately 90 per cent of the nitric acid is made by the catalytic oxidation of ammonia with air or oxygen to yield nitric oxide (NO). The latter is oxidised to N2O4 which, when treated with water, yields nitric acid (HNO3) and may be concentrated by distillation with sulphuric acid. Red fuming nitric acids may be produced by passing gaseous N2O4 into nitric acid, a slight modification of the above process. Production of nitric acid was estimated at 3 million tonnes in 1959. The price of RFNA was $ 0.20 per kg in drum lots; IRFNA was slightly higher. The varieties of nitric acid propellants include:

  • WFNA - White fuming nitric acid is based on anhydrous nitric acid (HNO3), a colourless corrosive liquid which fumes in moist air. They contain a maximum of 2 per cent water and 0.5 per cent nitrogen dioxide, and decompose to yield amounts of water, nitrogen dioxide, and oxygen which are in chemical equilibrium.

  • IWFNA - Inhibited white fuming nitric acid. Since container materials are attacked by WFNA and equilibrium products, 0.6 per cent HF is added for passivation by deposition of a protective metallic fluoride coating.

  • RFNA - Red fuming nitric acid. Since WFNA or IWFNA exhibit excessive equilibrium decomposition pressures, reaching 75 bar at 700 deg C. To suppress the high pressure through a mass-action effect, some 13 per cent N2O4 and 3 per cent H20 are added, in order to reduce equilibrium pressures to 2 bar at 700 deg C. The colour of the resulting red fuming nitric acid is imparted by N204.

  • IRFNA - Inhibited red fuming nitric acid. Addition of 0.6 per cent HF to RFNA produces inhibited RFNA (IRFNA). The IRFNA specification was published in 1954 and thereafter Russian rocket engines using the same fuel appeared.

  • AK20 - Russian formulation consisting of 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4 (AK = Azotna Kislota = Nitric Acid)

  • AK20F - Russian formulation consisting of 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4 + fluorine passivant

  • AK20I - Russian formulation consisting of 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4 + iodine passivant

  • AK20K - Russian formulation consisting of 80% nitric acid + 20% N2O4 + unknown additive

  • AK27I - Russian formulation consisting of 73% nitric acid + 27% N2O4 + iodine passivant

  • AK-27P - Russian formulation consisting of 73% nitric acid + 27% N2O4 + unknown additive

Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) is 98 to 99 per cent pure and is described by Military Specification MIL-D-25604. The normally expected impurities are dimethylamine and water. UDMH is a clear, hygroscopic liquid which yellows on exposure to air. It absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide. UDMH is a toxic volatile liquid. It exhibits the sharp ammoniacal or fishy odour which is characteristic of organic amines. It is completely miscible with water, ethanol, and most petroleum fuels. It is not shock sensitive. The vapours are flammable in air over 2.5 to 95 per cent concentration range. UDMH can be produced commercially by nitrosation of dimethylamine, to N-nitro-sodimethylrtmine, followed by reduction of the intermediate to UDMH and subsequent purification. UDMH can be prepared, also, by a modification of the Raschig process (see discussion of hydrazine), in which the chloramine intermediate is with dimethylamine rather than with ammonia. The price in 1959 for tank-car quantities was under $ 1.00 per kg. Engineering studies indicated a price of $ 1.00 per kg with large scale sustained production. But due to its toxic nature, production and transport costs soared in response to environmental regulations. By the 1980's NASA was paying $ 24.00 per kg.

Oxidizer: Nitric acid. Fuel: UDMH. Propellant Formulation: IRFNA/UDMH. Optimum Oxidizer to Fuel Ratio: 3. Temperature of Combustion: 3,225 deg K. Ratio of Specific Heats: 1.23. Density: 1.25 g/cc. Characteristic velocity c: 1,675 m/s (5,495 ft/sec). Isp Shifting: 277 sec. Isp Frozen: 268 sec. Mol: 22.00 M (72.00 ft). Oxidizer Density: 1.510 g/cc. Oxidizer Freezing Point: -42 deg C. Oxidizer Boiling Point: 86 deg C. Fuel Density: 0.793 g/cc. Fuel Freezing Point: -57 deg C. Fuel Boiling Point: 63 deg C.

Location: 1675.
Specific impulse: 323 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 276 s.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Agena B American space tug. 94 launches, (1960) to (1967). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena B; Thor Agena B. More...
  • Agena D American space tug. 205 launches, (1963) to (1987). Upper stage / space tug - out of production. Launched by Atlas Agena D; Thor Agena D; Titan 3B; Titan 34B. More...
  • Molniya-1 Russian military communications satellite. 37 launches, 1964.06.04 (Molniya-1 s/n 2 Failure) to 1975.09.02 (Molniya 1-31). This was the first Soviet communications satellite, using the twelve-hour elliptical orbit later dubbed a 'Molniya orbit'. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 Russian manned lunar flyby spacecraft. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). The Soyuz 7K-L1, a modification of the Soyuz 7K-OK, was designed for manned circumlunar missions. More...
  • Soyuz 7K-L1 PAO Russian manned spacecraft module. 12 launches, 1967.03.10 (Cosmos 146) to 1970.10.20 (Zond 8). Modification of Soyuz 7K-OK basic PAO service module with pump-fed main engines and separate RCS/main engine propellant feed system. Equipment-engine section. More...

Associated Engines
  • 11D49 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 157.5 kN. Kosmos-3M stage 2. Engine has one main and four steering nozzles. Thrust 157.5 + 4 x 25 kN. Precessor was 11D47 in R-14 (derivative ?) stage 2. Isp=303s. First flight 1964. More...
  • 45LR-35000 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Bomarc. Out of Production. Launch thrust 159.583 kN. Development begun 1953. Pressure-fed, uncooled, ceramic-lined engine. First flight 1959. More...
  • AJ10-118F Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 41.4 kN. Isp=306s. Used on Delta upper stage for Delta 0100, Delta 1000, N-2 boosters. First flight 1972. More...
  • AJ10-40 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 34.690 kN. Isp=270s. Minor modification of the Vanguard aluminum tube thrust chamber to meet the Able requirements. accomplished in the record time of only three months. More...
  • AJ10-118H Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 43.414 kN. Delta H. Isp=319s. More...
  • AJ10-118G Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 43.414 kN. Delta G. Isp=314s. More...
  • AJ10-118D Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 33.7 kN. Isp=278s. Used on Delta B, Delta C, Delta D upper stages. First flight 1962. More...
  • AJ10-118E Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 35.1 kN. Isp=278s. Used on Delta E, Delta G, Delta J, Delta L, Delta M, Delta N upper stages. First flight 1965. More...
  • AJ10-118 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 33.8 kN. Out of Production. Isp=271s. Engine originally developed for the Vanguard launch vehicle, and then for use on the Able and Delta upper stages and as the Apollo Service module engine. Flown 1957-1962. More...
  • AJ10-104 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 35.1 kN. Isp=278s. Stainless steel version of the basic Able engine, uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times First flight 1960. More...
  • AJ10-101 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 34.3 kN. Isp=270s. Derivative of Vanguard second stage for use with Thor IRBM to produce satellite launch vehicle. First tests February 21, 1958. Flown through 1960. More...
  • AJ10-33 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 509 kN. SMART Sled. Development begun early 1950s. 114,000 Ibf thrust, uncooled, ceramic lined, 3 chamber system More...
  • Bell 8048 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 68.9 kN. Out of production. Isp=276s. Used on Agena A, derived from Rascal engine. Regeneratively cooled; used drilled holes to create the same effect as more costly stacked spaghetti rubes. First flight 1959. More...
  • Bell 8081 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 71.2 kN. Out of production. Isp=285s. Used on Agena B stage atop Thor and Atlas. First flight 1960. More...
  • Bell 8096 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 71.2 kN. Out of production. Isp=292s. Used in Agena stage on top of Thor, Atlas, and Titan launch vehicles. First flight 1963. More...
  • Bell 8247 Bell Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 71.2 kN. Out of Production. Isp=291s. Version of Agena engine for the Gemini-Agena Target Vehicle. Minimum capability of five restarts and a demonstrated capability of fifteen restarts. First flight 1963. More...
  • KDU-414 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1.961 kN. Molniya 1, Mars 1, Venera 1, Zond 2-3 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine. Isp=272s. More...
  • KTDU-66 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 4.090 kN. Out of Production. Isp=280s. Maneuvering engine for Salyut 1, derivative of KTDU-35. Longer burn time of 1000 s. Comprised single-chamber main engine plus dual-chamber back-up engine. Thrusts 4.09 + 4.03 kN More...
  • KTDU-53 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 4.089 kN. Zond 4-7 maneuvering engine. Out of Production. Spacecraft maneuvering engine, derivative of KTDU-35 without back-up engine. Isp=280s. More...
  • KTDU-35 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 4.09 kN. Out of Production. Isp=280s. Soyuz, Salyut 4 maneuvering engine. KTDU-53 version in L-1 circumlunar spacecraft; KTDU-66 in Salyut 1 space station. Thrusts 4.09 kN main + 4.03 kN secondary. First flight 1966. More...
  • KTDU-417 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 18.920 kN. Luna 15-24 descent stage. Out of Production. Isp=314s. Comprised turbopump-fed high-thrust engine with plus KTDU-417-B low-thrust engine. Eleven ignitions for lunar orbit insertion and orbit corrections. More...
  • Nodong North Korean Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 144 kN. In production. Isp=255s. Used in North Korean missiles and Taepodong 1 satellite launcher. Derived from Isayev designs developed for Scud missiles and SLBM's of the Makeyev bureau. First flight 1998. More...
  • P8E-9 Rocketdyne Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Lance. Launch thrust 205.44 kN. Lance Booster and Sustainer System. Pressure-fed. Sustainer 4400 -14,400 lbf, 227 sec Isp. Thrust and specific impulse values are at sea level. First flight 1972. More...
  • RD-217 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 865 kN. R-16 stage 1. Out of Production. Original intended use unknown. Three RD-217 clustered to make RD-218. Isp=289s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-224 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1778 kN. R-26 stage 1. Out of production. RD-224 is a block of 2 RD-225s. An upper stage thrust chamber was developed under designation U102-000. Isp=294s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-223 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1697 kN. missile stage 2 (stage 1 used RD-222). Developed 1960-61. Precursor to RD-253. Isp=314s. More...
  • RD-222 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1634 kN. missile stage 1 (stage 2 used RD-223). Developed 1960-61. Precursor to RD-253. Isp=302s. More...
  • RD-225 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 889 kN. R-26 stage 1. Out of Production. Two clustered together to make RD-224. Isp=294s. First flight 1961. More...
  • RD-221 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1118 kN. missile stage 2 (stage 1 used RD-220). Developed 1960-. Isp=318s. More...
  • RD-218 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 2592 kN. R-16 stage 1. Isp=289s. Consisted of three RD-217; had 6 combustion chambers and 3 turbines; powered the R-16 ICBM. First flight 1960. More...
  • RD-216M Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. Kosmos-3M stage I. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-216 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1728 kN. R-14, Kosmos 11K65 stage 1. Isp=291s. RD-216 was an assembly of 2 RD-215's with 2 combustion chambers and 2 turbines. Two sets of these were in turn used in the first stage of the R-14. First flight 1964. More...
  • RD-215 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 864 kN. R-14, Kosmos 11K63 stage 1. Out of Production. Original intended use unknown. Two RD-215 clustered to make RD-216. Isp=291s. First flight 1966. More...
  • RD-219 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 883 kN. R-16 stage 2. Isp=293s. Derivative of RD-217 with a truss and piping changes. Despite higher expansion ratio, engine was shorter than first stage version, with relatively low performance. Flown 1960-1972. More...
  • RD-220 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1074 kN. missile stage 1 (stage 2 used RD-221). Developed 1960-. Isp=306s. More...
  • RD-68 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 380 kN. R-16 stage 1 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-69 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 49.2 kN. R-16 stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. More...
  • RD-852 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 48.250 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 2 attitude control engine. Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=255s. More...
  • RD-853 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 467.6 kN. Stage 2, no application. Developed 1960-63. Designed for second stage, no application. Two thrust levels. Thrust 467.6 kN + 11.8 kN / 7.65 kN. Isp=300s. More...
  • RD-851 Yuzhnoye Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 32.480 kN. R-16 (SS-7) stage 1 attitude control engine . Out of Production. Four thrusters are each gimbaled in one single axis. Isp=279s. More...
  • RM-100B Rocketdyne Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 0.441 kN. Satellite Reaction Control. Pressure-fed. Isp=283s. More...
  • S5.45 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1961 kN. correction engine for Zond-1, Venera-2-8, and others. Out of Production. Pressure-fed engine. Used as correction engine for spacecraft Zond-1, Vernera-8, and others. Isp=267s. More...
  • TD-2 CMIK Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 1000 kN. More...
  • U102-000 Glushko Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 468 kN. R-26 stage 2. Out of production. Isp=307s. More...
  • Von Braun-1 Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 3057.3 kN. Study 1952. Isp=286s. Used on Von Braun launch vehicle. More...
  • Von Braun-2 Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 461.5 kN. A11, Von Braun studies 1943-1952. Isp=286s. More...
  • Von Braun-3 Notional Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 392.3 kN. Study 1952. Isp=286s. Used on Von Braun launch vehicle. More...
  • YF-2A Beijing Wan Yuan Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 306.1 kN. Out of production. Isp=268s. Used on CZ-1, CZ-1C, CZ-1D, CZ-1M. First flight 1969. More...
  • YLR63AJ-3 Aerojet Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. F-86. Out of Production. Development begun 1953. Superperformance, modification of YLR45AJ-3 with gas generator turbine drive, 6 restarts. More...

Associated Stages
  • Able-Star Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,497/599 kg. Thrust 36.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. The Air Force requested increases in the propulsion system capabilities of the original Able upper stage design in an effort to meet their ever-expanding mission requirements. As a result, the stainless steel version of the basic Able engine was selected, and it was uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times (easily done with the stainless steel thrust chamber) - and this configuration was called Ablestar. More...
  • Able Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,884/429 kg. Thrust 34.69 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds. Engine for Vanguard was AJ10-37; for later Able models AJ10-41 and AJ10-42. Total of 21 stages built and delivered by Aerojet. More...
  • Agena A Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,790/885 kg. Thrust 68.95 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds. The Agena space vehicle was used in large numbers during the 1960s and 1970s as upper stage with SLV-2 Thor, SLV-3 Atlas and SLV-5 Titan boosters to launch a variety of military and civilian payloads into orbit. The Agena itself was actually the first general-purpose satellite, and formed the core for many operational satellites and experimental space vehicles. More...
  • Agena B Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,167/867 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. More...
  • Agena D Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,821/673 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. One of the real workhorses of US space exploration, Agena was a restartable upper stage which was also employed as a spacecraft, the whole vehicle going into orbit. A mainstay of the US Air Force reconnaisance satellite program, it also boosted early NASA probes to the moon and planets. Agena played a key role in manned space flight as the target vehicle for rendezvous and docking manoeuvres in NASA's Gemini project. It More...
  • CZ-1-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,000/2,700 kg. Thrust 306.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Masses, engine performance estimated based on successor improved stage and YF-2 engines in first stage. More...
  • CZ-YF-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 64,100/4,100 kg. Thrust 1,224.58 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 268 seconds. More...
  • Delta D Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,693/545 kg. Thrust 33.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds. More...
  • Delta E Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,009/785 kg. Thrust 35.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds. More...
  • Delta A Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,164/694 kg. Thrust 33.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 271 seconds. Able was only the first of many engine and application programs that flowed from the Vanguard experience base. These included Able, Ablestar, Delta, Fat Delta, the Japanese N II, and applications or offshoots such as Hydra, Saint (Satellite Intercept), and other classified programs. More...
  • Delta 104 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,472/590 kg. Thrust 35.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds. More...
  • Delta F Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,629/784 kg. Thrust 41.36 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. More...
  • Ghauri Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 16,000 kg (35,274 lb). More...
  • Kosmos-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 87,200/5,300 kg. Thrust 1,740.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit. More...
  • Nodong 1 Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,100 kg (33,290 lb). More...
  • R-16-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,609.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...
  • R-16-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 882.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH. More...
  • R-26-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 60,300/3,000 kg. Thrust 1,451.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH, Orevo. More...
  • R-26-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,500 kg. Thrust 428.06 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH, Orevo. More...
  • S3 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 20,135/1,435 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 303 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit. More...
  • Shahab 3 Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,100 kg (33,290 lb). More...
  • Taepo Dong 2-2 Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 570.00 kN (128,141 lbf) thrust. Mass 25,600 kg (56,438 lb). More...
  • Taepodong 1-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,649/3,733 kg. Thrust 577.34 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. More...
  • Taepodong 1-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,505/1,456 kg. Thrust 144.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. Included 100 kg spin table for spin-up of third stage prior to release. Burn time is 33.7 seconds at full thrust, 142.3 seconds at half thrust. More...
  • Taepodong 2-1 Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 1000.00 kN (224,809 lbf) thrust. Mass 60,000 kg (132,277 lb). More...
  • Von Braun 1956-1 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,100,000/140,000 kg. Thrust 28,257.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 257 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1956-2 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 154,000/14,000 kg. Thrust 3,254.23 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. More...
  • Von Braun 1956-3 Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,400/2,100 kg. Thrust 406.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. More...

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