Encyclopedia Astronautica
Index


Aberporth.
  • The Aberporth military test range is located on Cardigan Bay on the west coast of Wales. It already became associated with solid rocket tests during the Second World War. Development of surface-to-air missiles began there in 1948 and tests were made of re-entry and high-speed aircraft shapes in the 1960's. Due to the military nature of the site, the only sounding rocket launches have been to support military test operations. These included 40 known launches from 1959 to 1972.

Air-launched.

  • Air-launched rockets from undocumented launch positions accounted for 103 launches from 1959 to 1983, reaching up to 70 kilometers altitude.

Akhtopol.

  • Akhtopol

Akita.

  • Sounding rocket launch site for Kappa series, known to have been used for 81 launches from 1956 to 1990.

Al Amarah.

  • Al Amarah

Al Anbar.

  • Military testing range. Launch gantry located here for Tamouz satellite launcher, used for one known launch attempt in 1989. Probably destroyed in Gulf War.

     

     

     

     

     

     

Al Kahir.

  • Ballistic missile launch location known to have been used for 3 launches from 1962 to 1963, reaching up to 80 kilometers altitude.

Al Nikheb.

  • Al Nikheb

Alcantara.

  • Sounding rocket and orbital launch site. Used for 53 known launches from 1990 to 2007. The launch complex for Brazil's indigenous VLS orbital booster was located here.

Alcantara HAD.

  • HAD launcher

Alcantara MRL.

  • MRL launcher

Alcantara RAG.

  • RAG launcher

Alcantara UL.

  • UL launcher

Alcantara VLS.

  • VLS launch complex.

Aleisk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Base for units deployed with 30 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M).

Altus AFB.

  • Atlas F ICBM (SMS 577) base, 1962-1965. The 12 missiles here constituted America's ICBM deterrent force during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Altus AFB 577-1.

Altus AFB 577-10.

Altus AFB 577-11.

Altus AFB 577-12.

Altus AFB 577-2.

Altus AFB 577-3.

Altus AFB 577-4.

Altus AFB 577-5.

Altus AFB 577-6.

  • Atlas launch complex.

Altus AFB 577-7.

Altus AFB 577-8.

Altus AFB 577-9.

AMR DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 13 launches from 1958 to 1962, reaching up to 580 kilometers altitude.

Andoya.

  • Andoya Rocket Range (ARR) is the world's northernmost permanent launch facility for sounding rockets and scientific balloons and is responsible for all scientific-related balloon and rocket operations in Norwegian territory. ARR provides complete services for launch, operations, data acquisition, recovery and ground instrumentation support. The range has conducted more than 650 rocket launches and hosted scientists and engineers from more than 70 institutes and universities.

Andoya Athena.

  • Black Brant launch complex.

Andoya Haugnes.

  • Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. Haugnes site

Andoya LC10.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Andoya LC5.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Andoya LC9.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Andoya U3.

  • S, Black Brant launch complex. Universal Launcher

Anhueng.

  • South Korean sounding rocket launch site, used from June 1993, known to have been used for 5 launches from 1993 to 2002, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Anna Plains.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 4 launches in 1997, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude.

Antigua.

  • Tracking facility used for a series of NASA launches from May 1972 to January 1974. The sounding rocket launch location was known to have been used for 1042 launches from 1966 to 1992, reaching up to 79 kilometers altitude.

Arctic Ocean.

  • Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Arctic accounted for 9 launches from 1952 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

Arecibo.

  • Sounding rocket launch site near world's largest radio telescope, known to have been used for 40 launches from 1966 to 1998, reaching up to 375 kilometers altitude.

Arecibo HAD.

  • HAD launcher

Arecibo MRL.

  • MRL launcher

Arecibo VB.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Nike, Javelin, Apache launch complex. Vega Baja

Ascension.

  • Sounding rocket launch site located on an island in the South Atlantic near a NASA/USAF tracking station. Known to have been used for 1703 launches from 1963 to 2000, reaching up to 158 kilometers altitude.

Atlantic Ocean.

  • Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Atlantic accounted for 521 launches from 1947 to 1995, reaching up to 750 kilometers altitude.

Baikonur.

  • Russia's largest cosmodrome, the only one used for manned launches and with facilities for the larger Proton, N1, and Energia launch vehicles. The spaceport ended up on foreign soil after the break-up of Soviet Union. The official designations NIIP-5 and GIK-5 are used in official Soviet histories. It was also universally referred to as Tyuratam by both Soviet military staff and engineers, and the US intelligence agencies. Since the dissolution of the Soviet Union the Russian Federation has insisted on continued use of the old Soviet 'public' name of Baikonur. In its Kazakh (Kazak) version this is rendered Baykonur.

Baikonur Jubilee.

  • Jubilee Airfield

Baikonur Krainiy.

  • Krainiy Airfield

Baikonur LC1.

  • R-7 launch complex.

Baikonur LC101.

  • R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC102.

  • R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC103.

  • R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC104.

  • R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC105.

  • R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC106.

  • R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC107.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC108.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC109.

  • R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC110L.

  • N1, Energia launch complex.

Baikonur LC110R.

  • N1 launch complex.

Baikonur LC130.

  • UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC131.

  • UR-100N, UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC132.

  • UR-100N launch complex.

Baikonur LC133.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC140/18.

  • Tsiklon, R-36M launch complex.

Baikonur LC141.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC142/34.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur LC160.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC161/35.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur LC162/36.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur LC163.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC164.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC165.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC170.

  • MR-UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC171.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Baikonur LC172.

  • MR-UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC173.

  • MR-UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC174.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Baikonur LC175/2.

  • UR-100N launch complex.

Baikonur LC175/59.

  • UR-100N launch complex.

Baikonur LC176.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Baikonur LC177.

  • MR-UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC179.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Baikonur LC181.

  • MR-UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC191/66.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur LC192.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC193.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC194.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC195.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC196.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC200/39.

  • Proton, Ariane 5 launch complex.

Baikonur LC200/40.

  • Proton launch complex.

Baikonur LC241.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC242.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC243.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC244.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC245.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC246.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC250.

  • Energia launch complex.

Baikonur LC31.

  • R-7 launch complex.

Baikonur LC39/200.

  • Baikonur LC39/200

Baikonur LC41/15.

  • R-16, Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Baikonur LC41/3.

  • R-16 launch complex.

Baikonur LC41/4.

  • R-16 launch complex.

Baikonur LC45.

  • Baikonur LC45

Baikonur LC45/1.

  • Zenit launch complex.

Baikonur LC45/2.

  • Zenit launch complex.

Baikonur LC51.

  • R-9 launch complex.

Baikonur LC60/6.

  • R-16 launch complex.

Baikonur LC60/7.

  • R-16 launch complex.

Baikonur LC60/8.

  • R-16 launch complex.

Baikonur LC67/21.

  • Tsiklon, R-36M, MR-UR-100 launch complex.

Baikonur LC67/22.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur LC69L.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC69P.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC70.

  • R-9 launch complex.

Baikonur LC75.

  • Missile launcher

Baikonur LC80/17.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur LC81/23.

  • Proton launch complex.

Baikonur LC81/24.

  • Proton launch complex.

Baikonur LC90/19.

  • UR-200, Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur LC90/20.

  • UR-200, Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur PL251.

  • Buran runway

Baikonur PU31.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur PU32.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Baikonur PU33.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Balasore.

  • Indian military testing range, known to have been used for at least 489 launches from 1979 to 2008, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

Balasore IC3.

  • Prithvi launch complex.

Balasore IC4.

  • Prithvi, Agni launch complex.

Balasore IC4/TEL.

  • Tactical launcher

Balasore ITR.

  • Interim Test Range

Barbados.

  • Sounding rocket launch site located on island in the Caribbean. It was also from here that Gerard Bull tested his Martlet series of gun-launched sounding rockets. Known to have been used for 40 launches from 1963 to 1968, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Barbados HARP.

Barbados HARP gun 16 inch.

  • Barbados HARP 16 inch gun

Barbados HARP gun 5 inch.

  • Barbados HARP 5 inch gun

Barbados HARP gun 7 inch.

  • Martlet, 7 inch HARP Gun launch complex. HARP 40-cm Gun, Seawell

Barents Sea.

  • Barents Sea

Barents Sea Launch Area.

  • Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 119 launches from 1965 to 2007, reaching up to 1270 kilometers altitude.

Barents Sea LP1.

Barking Sands.

  • Military missile test and sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1962 to present. Sandia National Laboratories operates the Kauai Test Facility for the Department of Energy and, through inter-Service Support Agreements provides the Barking Sands Pacific Missile Range Facility with rocket launch services for target systems and upper atmosphere measurements. PMRF/KTF is recognized in the INF Treaty as an authorized site from which launches of the STARS missile can be conducted. The site was recently involved in anti-ballistic missile tests. Known to have been used for 2320 launches from 1962 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

Barking Sands KP.

  • Terrier launch complex. MRL 7.5K, Kokole Point Launch Site

Barking Sands LC1.

  • Strypi, Aries launch complex. Pad 1

Barking Sands LC10.

  • Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. Launcher 10

Barking Sands LC12.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Sandhawk launch complex. Launcher 12

Barking Sands LC14.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Sandhawk launch complex. Launcher 14

Barking Sands LC19.

  • Sandhawk launch complex. Launcher 19

Barking Sands LC42.

  • Polaris launch complex. PMR Pad

Barking Sands LP1.

  • SR19 launch area. Air Launch Zone

Barking Sands MLP.

Barking Sands POA.

  • Standard-ER launch complex. Pacific Ocean launch area, off Kauai

Barksdale AFB.

Barnaul.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1981-1990. Type of missiles deployed unknown.

Barter Island.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 3 launches in 1970, reaching up to 270 kilometers altitude.

Base Matienzo.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1965, reaching up to 35 kilometers altitude.

Bay of Biscay Launch Area.

  • Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 4 launches from 1983 to 2005, reaching up to 800 kilometers altitude.

Bay of Biscay Launch Area CEL.

  • SLBM Launch Zone, Bay of Biscay, off Brittany

Bay of Biscay Launch Area ZLS.

  • SLBM Launch Zone, Bay of Biscay, off Brittany, off Biscarosse

Beale AFB.

  • Titan I ICBM base. Beale was originally used as an army base in World War II. In 1959 it was selected as headquarters for the 851st Strategic Missile Squadron with nine Titan 1 missiles. Three complexes of three silos each were located 40 to 100 km west of the base. The missiles were emplaced in the silos between 28 February and 20 April 1962. However due to its poor reaction time the Titan 1's career was brief. Only three years later, by the end of April 1965, the squadron was deactivated, the missiles removed, and the silos abandoned.

Beale AFB 851-1.

Belokorovichi.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1991. In the 1950's it was the base for units deployed with four R-1 launchers, followed by two R-2 launchers, then 12 R-5. From 1961 it operated 12 R-14, and possibly additional R-12 missiles.

Bering Sea.

  • Sea-launched sounding rocket launch area known to have been used for 2 launches in 1950, reaching up to 80 kilometers altitude.

Bershet.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM initially. Later 60 light ICBM (UR-100) silos operated, later supplemented by 9 RT-23 mobile ICBM launchers.

Bigen Island.

  • Bigen Island, Aur Atoll, Marshall Islands, was a sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1997, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Bikini.

  • Nuclear test site. Sounding rockets were launched from here to monitor blast and fallout of nuclear explosions. Bikini was known to have been used for 13 launches from 1956 to 1956, reaching up to 75 kilometers altitude.

Birdling's Flat.

  • Sounding rocket launch site, known to have been used for 2 launches in 1963 and 1964, reaching up to 60 kilometers altitude. Co-located with radar site operated by University of Canterbury.

Birodbidzhan.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1964. Moved to Tatishchevo.. Base for units deployed with R-1, R-2, R-12, and R-14 missiles.

Biscarosse.

  • In April 1962 France signed the final agreements with Algeria, requiring them to evacuate their rocket test ranged there by July 1967. Three months later a site on French soil on the Bay of Biscay, at Landes, near Biscarosse, was selected. The site would allow the testing of missiles over the Atlantic out to a range of 3000 km. This would put the RV impact area near the Azores, and a tracking station was opened in October 1966 on Flores island.

Biscarosse BE.

  • Base Espace

Biscarosse BESA.

  • Base Experimentale Sol-Air

Biscarosse BLB.

  • SSBS, MSBS launch complex. Base Lancement Balistique

Biscarosse BP.

  • Base Pluton

Biscarosse BS.

  • Base Scientifique

Biscarosse CE.

  • Black Brant launch complex. Probable launch from CEL (Site "CE" in Chesser's BAL list)

Biscarosse SUD.

  • Pas de tir sud

Bitburg AB.

  • CGM-13B Mace operating base.

Black Mesa.

  • Military testing range. Known to have been used for 80 launches from 1963 to 1970, reaching up to 250 kilometers altitude.

Black Rock Desert.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 2004, reaching up to 116 kilometers altitude.

Black Sea Launch Area.

  • Naval military missile launch position known to have been used for 3 launches from 1960 to 1961.

Blue Origin.

  • Blue Origin was founded and funded by billionaire Jeff Bezos, founder of amazon.com. Commercial space passenger service would be conducted from a private spaceport at the 165,000-acre Corn Ranch, 40 kilometers north of Van Horn, west Texas. The launch point would be 8 kilometers west of Highway 54. The spaceport included a vehicle processing facility, a launch complex, vehicle landing and recovery area, an astronaut training facility, lodging, and other support facilities. The launch pad covered 3,000 square meters; the landing pad would be located 6.1 km north of it.

Bologoye/Vypolzovo.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, later 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. At the end of the UR-100's service life 47 of these continued in use with the MR-UR-100.

Bynolzovo.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-on. Perhaps operated R-12 missiles.

Camp de Suippes.

  • Test rocket launch location known to have been used for 5 launches from 1950 to 1951, reaching up to 2 kilometers altitude.

Cape Canaveral.

  • America's largest launch center, used for all manned launches. Today only six of the 40 launch complexes built here remain in use. Located at or near Cape Canaveral are the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used by NASA for Saturn V and Space Shuttle launches; Patrick AFB on Cape Canaveral itself, operated the US Department of Defense and handling most other launches; the commercial Spaceport Florida; the air-launched launch vehicle and missile Drop Zone off Mayport, Florida, located at 29.00 N 79.00 W, and an offshore submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area. All of these take advantage of the extensive down-range tracking facilities that once extended from the Cape, through the Caribbean, South Atlantic, and to South Africa and the Indian Ocean.

Cape Canaveral ETR.

  • Trident launch complex.

Cape Canaveral LA.

  • Snark, Matador, Lark launch complex.

Cape Canaveral LC1.

  • Snark launch complex. This complex was constructed for the Snark winged missile program, and may have supported some Matador combat training launches in the 1950s. The Air Force accepted the sites in 1953, and the complexes continued to support Snark launches through 5 December 1960. The pad served as a helicopter pad for the Mercury manned program in the early 1960s, and supported tethered aerostat (balloon) programs from 1983 through 1989.

Cape Canaveral LC10.

  • Navaho, Jason, Draco launch complex. The complex was built to support the Navaho winged intercontinental missile program. The Air Force accepted both sites 9 and 10 on 29 June 1956. Complex 10 supported its first Navaho launch on 622 March 1957 respectively. In all, 11 Navaho XSM-64 vehicles were launched from the sites. Both complexes were demolished in 1959 to make room for Minuteman complexes 31 and 32.

Cape Canaveral LC11.

  • Atlas launch complex. The complex was built for the Atlas ballistic missile program. Launch sites 11 to 14 were accepted between August 1957 and mid-April 1958. Complex 11 supported 28 Atlas launches and five Atlas Advanced Ballistic Reentry System flights between 19 July 1958 and 2 April 1964. Complexes 11, 12 and 14 were deactivated in 1967.

Cape Canaveral LC12.

  • Atlas launch complex. The complex was built for the Atlas ballistic missile program. Launch sites 11 to 14 were accepted between August 1957 and mid-April 1958. Complex 12 supported its first Atlas launch on 10 January 1958, and it supported nine Ranger missions and four Mariner missions between 12 August 1961 and 15 June 1967. Complexes 11, 12 and 14 were deactivated in 1967, and Complex 13 was deactivated in April 1978.

Cape Canaveral LC13.

  • Atlas launch complex. Originally built in 1958 for the Atlas ballistic missile program, Complex 13 supported 51 Atlas and Atlas/Agena launches from 1958 to 1978.

Cape Canaveral LC14.

  • Atlas launch complex. The complex was built for the Atlas ballistic missile program. Launch sites 11 to 14 were accepted between August 1957 and mid-April 1958. After its final Atlas missile launch, Complex 14 was converted into an Atlas /Agena launch complex, and later turned over to NASA. Complex 14 supported 32 Atlas and Atlas/Agena missions, including four manned Mercury missions and seven unmanned Gemini target vehicle launches. Complexes 11, 12 and 14 were deactivated in 1967. Complex 14 and the gantry on Complex 13 were declared national historic landmarks in April 1984.

Cape Canaveral LC15.

  • Titan launch complex. Complexes 15, 16, 19, and 20 were built for the Titan ballistic missile program. The sites were accepted by the U.S. Government between February and mid-September 1959. All four sites supported Titan I launches in 1959 and the early 1960s, and complexes 15 and 16 supported Titan II launches between 16 March 1962 and 10 April 1964. Complex 15 was deactivated in March 1967, and it was dismantled three months later.

Cape Canaveral LC16.

  • Titan, Pershing launch complex. Originally built for the Titan ballistic missile program in 1959. Supported Titan I and II launches from 1960 to 1964. Reassigned to NASA in 1965 for static firings of the Apollo service module propulsion engine. Deactivated in 1969, later reassigned to the U.S. Army, supported 128 Pershing ballistic missile launches 1974 -1988. Deactivated in accordance with the Intermediate Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty.

Cape Canaveral LC17A.

  • Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Pad 17A supported Thor, Delta, and Delta II launches into the 21st Century.

Cape Canaveral LC17B.

  • Delta launch complex. Part of a dual launch pad complex built for the Thor ballistic missile program in 1956. Upgraded over the decades for use with Thor, Delta, Delta II, and Delta III launch vehicles, it remained in use for over half a century.

Cape Canaveral LC18A.

  • Viking, Vanguard, Scout launch complex. The LC18 complex included two launch pads 18A and 18B. Pad 18A was used to launch 14 Vanguard space vehicles for NASA and the U.S. Navy between 8 December 1956 and 19 September 1959. Following termination of the Vanguard program, Pad 18A supported ten Blue Scout Junior launches for the Air Force between 21 September 1960 and 10 June 1965. Complex 18 was deactivated on 1 February 1967.

Cape Canaveral LC18B.

  • Scout, Delta launch complex. The LC18 complex included two launch pads 18A and 18B. Pad 18B supported 17 Thor missile launches between 4 June 1958 and 1 March 1960. Pad 18B supported half a dozen Blue Scout I, Blue Scout II and Scout missions between 7 January 1961 and 13 April 1962. Complex 18 was deactivated on 1 February 1967.

Cape Canaveral LC19.

  • Titan launch complex. Complexes 15, 16, 19, and 20 were built for the Titan ballistic missile program. The sites were accepted by the U.S. Government between February and mid-September 1959. All four sites supported Titan I launches in 1959 and the early 1960s. In 1962 and 1963, Complex 19 was converted into the space program's only manned Titan II/Gemini launch complex. It supported two unmanned and ten manned Gemini missions between 8 April 1964 and 16 November 1966. Complex 19 was deactivated on 10 April 1967, and it was declared a national historic landmark in April 1984.

Cape Canaveral LC2.

  • Snark launch complex. This complex was constructed for the Snark winged missile program, and may have supported some Matador combat training launches in the 1950s. The Air Force accepted the sites in 1953, and the complexes continued to support Snark launches through 5 December 1960. The pad served as a helicopter pad for the Mercury manned program in the early 1960s, and supported tethered aerostat (balloon) programs from 1983 through 1989.

Cape Canaveral LC20.

  • Titan, Super Chief, Loki, Prospector, Aries launch complex. Complexes 15, 16, 19, and 20 were built for the Titan ballistic missile program. The sites were accepted by the U.S. Government between February and mid-September 1959. All four sites supported Titan I launches in 1959 and the early 1960s. Complex 20 was modified to support four Titan IIIA flights which took place between 1 September 1964 and 7 May 1965. The site was deactivated in April 1967, but it got a new lease on life toward the end of the 1980s. Complex 20 was selected for the Starbird program in 1987, and it supported a Starbird launch on 18 December 1990. Between 18 June 1991 and 29 May 1993, the complex supported the commercial Joust-1 launch and four Red Tigress and Red Tigress II missions sponsored by the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization. Much of Complex 20's electronic equipment and both of its rail launchers were removed in 1995, rendering the site inactive.

Cape Canaveral LC21/1.

  • Mace launch complex. Launcher 1. In the mid-1950s, a launch area near the Cape Lighthouse was set aside for complexes 21 and 22 to support the Air Force's winged Bull Goose decoy missile project. Construction started in 1956, and the Air Force accepted both complexes on 26 February 1957. In all, the complexes supported five dummy and 15 live Bull Goose and Goose missile launches between 13 March 1957 and 6 December 1958. In 1959 and 1960, the sites were rebuilt to support a total of 44 Mace and Mace B winged cruise missile launches. The last Mace B was launched on 17 July 1963, and the complexes remained dormant pending reassignment to another program. Both complexes were finally deactivated in the early 1970s.

Cape Canaveral LC21/2.

  • Mace launch complex. Launcher 2. In the mid-1950s, a launch area near the Cape Lighthouse was set aside for complexes 21 and 22 to support the Air Force's winged Bull Goose decoy missile project. Construction started in 1956, and the Air Force accepted both complexes on 26 February 1957. In all, the complexes supported five dummy and 15 live Bull Goose and Goose missile launches between 13 March 1957 and 6 December 1958. In 1959 and 1960, the sites were rebuilt to support a total of 44 Mace and Mace B winged cruise missile launches. The last Mace B was launched on 17 July 1963, and the complexes remained dormant pending reassignment to another program. Both complexes were finally deactivated in the early 1970s.

Cape Canaveral LC22.

  • Mace launch complex. Cruise missile launch complex. Supported 20 Bull Goose and Goose missile launches 1957-1958. Rebuilt to support 44 Mace missile launches 1959-1963.

Cape Canaveral LC25A.

  • X-17, Polaris launch complex. Complex 25 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. The Navy occupied pad 25A in December 1957. Complex 25 supported 68 Polaris missile launches between 18 April 1958 and 6 March 1965. Pads 25A and 25B were dismantled in September 1969.

Cape Canaveral LC25B.

  • Polaris launch complex. Complex 25 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. The Navy occupied pad 25B in January 1958. Complex 25 supported 68 Polaris missile launches between 18 April 1958 and 6 March 1965. Pads 25A and 25B were dismantled in September 1969.

Cape Canaveral LC25C.

  • Trident, Poseidon launch complex. Complex 25 supported the U.S. Navy's submarine ballistic missile programs. Pads 25C and 25D were built in 1967 to support the Navy's Poseidon ballistic missile program. Seventeen Poseidons were launched from pads 25C and 25D between 16 August 1968 and 30 June 1970. Pad 25C supported the Cape's first Trident I ballistic missile launch on 18 January 1977. Seventeen more Trident I missiles were launched from Pad 25C between 15 February 1977 and 24 January 1979. Complex 25 was inactivated and dismantled in 1979.

Cape Canaveral LC25D.

  • Poseidon launch complex. Complex 25 supported the U.S. Navy's submarine ballistic missile programs. Pads 25C and 25D were built in 1967 to support the Navy's Poseidon ballistic missile program. Seventeen Poseidons were launched from pads 25C and 25D between 16 August 1968 and 30 June 1970. Complex 25 was inactivated and dismantled in 1979.

Cape Canaveral LC26A.

  • Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. The LC-26 dual launch pad complex was constructed for the U.S. Army's Redstone and Jupiter missile programs in 1956-1957. At least 36 Redstone, Jupiter, Jupiter C and Juno II launches were conducted 1957-1964.

Cape Canaveral LC26B.

  • Jupiter launch complex. The LC-26 dual launch pad complex was constructed for the U.S. Army's Redstone and Jupiter missile programs in 1956-1957. At least 36 Redstone, Jupiter, Jupiter C and Juno II launches were conducted 1957-1964.

Cape Canaveral LC29A.

  • Polaris launch complex. Complex 29 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. Construction began in August 1958. The Navy occupied the site in July 1959, and Pad 29A supported 47 Polaris launches between 21 September 1959 and 2 November 1967. The complex was placed on standby status in 1968, and it was upgraded to support the British Chevaline submarine ballistic missile program in the mid 1970s. Complex 29 supported ten Chevaline launches between 12 September 1977 and 20 May 1980. The site was deactivated in 1980.

Cape Canaveral LC29B.

  • Polaris launch complex. Complex 29 was built to support the U.S. Navy's Polaris submarine ballistic missile program. Construction began in August 1958. The Navy occupied the site in July 1959. The complex was placed on standby status in 1968, and it was upgraded to support the British Chevaline submarine ballistic missile program in the mid 1970s. Complex 29 supported ten Chevaline launches between 12 September 1977 and 20 May 1980. The site was deactivated in 1980.

Cape Canaveral LC3.

  • X-17, V-2, Polaris, Bomarc launch complex. This complex was built to support the Bomarc interceptor missile program, but also supported Bumper, Jason, Redstone, X-17 and Polaris ballistic missile operations. The Air Force accepted Complex 3 in November 1951. The location had already supported the Cape's first major launch - Bumper 8 - on 24 July 1950. Following the last Bomarc launch in April 1960, some Bomarc support facilities were converted into a medical support area for Project Mercury. Later the complex supported tethered aerostat programs from 1983 through 1989.

Cape Canaveral LC30A.

  • Pershing launch complex. This complex was built as a dual launch pad facility to support the U.S. Army's Pershing missile program in the early 1960s. The complex was occupied by the Army on 8 January 1960. Between 25 February 1960 and 25 April 1963, Complex 30 supported 49 Pershing launches from its pads or from tactical erector/launchers positioned on or near the pads. Following completion of the Pershing test flight program, the mobile gantry on Complex 26 was dismantled in February 1968. Pershing 1A follow-on tests began at Complex 31 on 21 February 1973.

Cape Canaveral LC30B.

  • This complex was built as a dual launch pad facility to support the U.S. Army's Pershing missile program in the early 1960s. The complex was occupied by the Army on 8 January 1960. Between 25 February 1960 and 25 April 1963, Complex 30 supported 49 Pershing launches from its pads or from tactical erector/launchers positioned on or near the pads. Following completion of the Pershing test flight program, the mobile gantry on Complex 26 was dismantled in February 1968. Pershing 1A follow-on tests began at Complex 31 on 21 February 1973.

Cape Canaveral LC30D.

  • Pershing launch complex. This complex was built as a dual launch pad facility to support the U.S. Army's Pershing missile program in the early 1960s. The complex was occupied by the Army on 8 January 1960. Between 25 February 1960 and 25 April 1963, Complex 30 supported 49 Pershing launches from its pads or from tactical erector/launchers positioned on or near the pads. Following completion of the Pershing test flight program, the mobile gantry on Complex 26 was dismantled in February 1968. Pershing 1A follow-on tests began at Complex 31 on 21 February 1973.

Cape Canaveral LC30E.

  • Pershing launch complex. This complex was built as a dual launch pad facility to support the U.S. Army's Pershing missile program in the early 1960s. The complex was occupied by the Army on 8 January 1960. Between 25 February 1960 and 25 April 1963, Complex 30 supported 49 Pershing launches from its pads or from tactical erector/launchers positioned on or near the pads. Following completion of the Pershing test flight program, the mobile gantry on Complex 26 was dismantled in February 1968. Pershing 1A follow-on tests began at Complex 31 on 21 February 1973.

Cape Canaveral LC31A.

  • Pershing, Minuteman, M55E1 launch complex. Built 1959-1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. Used for Minuteman tests 1961-1970. In 1973 used briefly for the Army's Pershing 1A follow-on testing program.

Cape Canaveral LC31B.

  • Minuteman launch silo. Complexes 31 and 32 were built between July 1959 and July 1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. Each complex had one blockhouse and two launch pads. The two "A" pads were constructed as conventional flat pads, and the two "B" pads were built as ballistic missile silos. The sites were modified subsequently to support later versions of the Minuteman missile. In all, 92 Minuteman I, II and III missiles were launched from the complexes between 1 February 1961 and 15 December 1970.

Cape Canaveral LC32A.

  • Complexes 31 and 32 were built between July 1959 and July 1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. Each complex had one blockhouse and two launch pads. The two "A" pads were constructed as conventional flat pads, and the two "B" pads were built as ballistic missile silos. The sites were modified subsequently to support later versions of the Minuteman missile. In all, 92 Minuteman I, II and III missiles were launched from the complexes between 1 February 1961 and 15 December 1970.

Cape Canaveral LC32B.

  • Minuteman launch silo. Complexes 31 and 32 were built between July 1959 and July 1960 to support the Air Force's Minuteman missile program. Each complex had one blockhouse and two launch pads. The two "A" pads were constructed as conventional flat pads, and the two "B" pads were built as ballistic missile silos. The sites were modified subsequently to support later versions of the Minuteman missile. Pad 32B supported the first Minuteman II and III launches on 24 September 1964 and 16 August 1968 respectively. In all, 92 Minuteman I, II and III missiles were launched from the complexes between 1 February 1961 and 15 December 1970.

Cape Canaveral LC34.

  • Saturn I launch complex. Saturn I and IB program launch complex, built 1959-1961. Four Saturn I and three Saturn IB vehicles were launched from Complex 34 between 27 October 1961 and 12 October 1968.

Cape Canaveral LC36A.

  • Atlas launch complex. Launch site built in 1960 for NASA's Atlas/Centaur development program, and used for launches of that launch vehicle until its retirement.

Cape Canaveral LC36B.

  • Atlas V, Atlas launch complex. Atlas Centaur launch pad, in service from 1964 until the retirement of the launch vehicle.

Cape Canaveral LC37A.

  • Complexes 34 and 37 were designed to support NASA's Saturn I and Saturn IB program. Complex 37 was built in 1962, and it was occupied by NASA in January 1963. Complex 37 supported eight Saturn I and Saturn IB missions, including the first flight of an unmanned Apollo lunar module, between 29 January 1964 and 23 January 1968. Complexes 34 and 37 were mothballed in November 1971, and their service structures were scrapped in April 1972. NASA retained control of both complexes, and both sites became NASA tour stops.

Cape Canaveral LC37B.

  • Saturn I, Delta IV launch complex. Complexes 34 and 37 were designed to support NASA's Saturn I and Saturn IB program. Complex 37 was built in 1962, and it was occupied by NASA in January 1963. Complex 37 supported eight Saturn I and Saturn IB missions, including the first flight of an unmanned Apollo lunar module, between 29 January 1964 and 23 January 1968. Complexes 34 and 37 were mothballed in November 1971, and their service structures were scrapped in April 1972. NASA retained control of both complexes, and both sites became NASA tour stops.

Cape Canaveral LC39.

  • Cape Canaveral LC39

Cape Canaveral LC39A.

  • Shuttle, Saturn V launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program. Construction began in December 1963. Complex 39A was completed on 4 October 1965. Complex 39A supported two unmanned and nine manned Saturn V/Apollo missions between 9 November 1967 and 8 December 1972. The site also supported the launch of the Skylab space station on 14 May 1973. Both complexes were modified to support Space Shuttle missions later on. Complex 39A supported the first Space Shuttle launch on 12 April 1981.

Cape Canaveral LC39B.

  • Shuttle, Saturn V, Saturn I launch complex. LC39A and LC39B, part of the Kennedy Space Center, were built on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape) to support the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program in 1963-1966. The sites were modified in the last half of the 1970s to support the manned Space Shuttle program.

Cape Canaveral LC39C.

  • This complex would have been part of the Kennedy Space Center, on Merritt Island (north/northwest of the Cape), and supported the Saturn V/Apollo lunar landing program. However this third Saturn V pad was never built. LC-39C was the original designation for the pad closest to the Vertical Assembly Building, and LC-39A for the farthest of the three planned pads. When it was decided not to build the third launch pad, LC-39C was renamed LC-39A.

Cape Canaveral LC39D.

  • If NASA had received funding for its schemes for manned Mars expeditions and enormous space stations in the 1970's, two additional pads would have been built at LC39 for advanced versions of the Saturn V. LC39D would have been west of the also-unbuilt LC39C.

Cape Canaveral LC39E.

  • If NASA had received funding for its schemes for manned Mars expeditions and enormous space stations in the 1970's, two additional pads would have been built at LC39 for advanced versions of the Saturn V. LC39E would have been northwest of the also-unbuilt LC39C.

Cape Canaveral LC4.

  • Redstone, Matador, Bomarc launch complex. This complex was built to support the Bomarc interceptor missile program, but also supported Bumper, Jason, Redstone, X-17 and Polaris ballistic missile operations. The Air Force accepted Complex 4 in 1952. Following the last Bomarc launch in April 1960, some Bomarc support facilities were converted into a medical support area for Project Mercury. Later the complex supported tethered aerostat programs from 1983 through 1989.

Cape Canaveral LC40.

  • Titan launch complex. Constructed as part of the Titan Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. Supported a wide variety of military space missions involving Titan IIIC, Titan 34D and Titan IV vehicles.

Cape Canaveral LC41.

  • Titan, Atlas V launch complex. Complexes 40 and 41 were constructed as part of the Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) Titan launch facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. Over the next three decades, the complexes supported a wide variety of military space missions involving Titan IIIC, Titan 34D and Titan IV. Complex 41 was deactivated at the end of 1977, then upgraded for the Titan IV program in the 1986-88 period. In October 1999, Complex 41 was demolished with high explosives in order for a new pad for launch of the Atlas 5 rocket to be erected. By then it had been the starting point for 27 Titan flights.

Cape Canaveral LC42.

  • Complexes 40 and 41 were constructed as part of a $39 million project to build an Integrate-Transfer-Launch (ITL) facility at the north end of Cape Canaveral in the early 1960s. An additional LC-42 was planned at the ITL to support ambitious military space projects that never materialized. It was intended to be used by Titan 3 rockets, and would have branched to the north of the Titan causeway, symmetrical to LC-40. It is doubtful that LC-42 would actually have been built because it would pose a safety problem to operations from LC-39A.

Cape Canaveral LC43.

  • Viper, Loki, Hopi, Arcas, Rocketsonde launch complex.

Cape Canaveral LC46.

  • Trident, Athena launch complex. This complex was built as part of the U.S. Navy's Trident II ballistic missile effort at the Cape. Construction was underway in February 1984, and the complex was ordnance-certified in November 1986. Complex 46 supported the Cape's first Trident II test missile launch on 15 January 1987. Eighteen more Trident IIs were launched from the site between 17 March 1987 and 27 January 1989. As Trident launch operations moved out to sea later in 1989, the complex was placed on standby status awaiting special Trident II test requirements. No new requirements surfaced in the 1990s, but the Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) won $4,890,000 in Air Force grants to redesign Complex 46 to handle small commercial space launch operations (e.g., Lockheed Martin's new LMLV-2 space launch vehicle).

Cape Canaveral LC47.

  • Loki, Rocketsonde launch complex. Complex 47 was used to support weather rocket launches at the Cape. In March 1984, weather rocket operations were relocated from Complex 43 to Complex 47 to make room for the construction of Complex 46. In addition to weather rocket launches, Complex 47 was designated part of Spaceport Florida and supported the commercial launch of a single-stage solid rocket (LOFT-1) in November 1988. The site also supported a student suborbital launch of a Super Loki weather rocket in October 1992.

Cape Canaveral LC4A.

  • Bomarc launch complex. This complex was built to support the Bomarc interceptor missile program, but also supported Bumper, Jason, Redstone, X-17 and Polaris ballistic missile operations. The Air Force accepted Complex 4 in 1952. Following the last Bomarc launch in April 1960, some Bomarc support facilities were converted into a medical support area for Project Mercury. Later the complex supported tethered aerostat programs from 1983 through 1989.

Cape Canaveral LC5.

  • Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. Pad 5 supported its first Jupiter A launch on 19 July 1956. In addition to Redstone and Jupiter launches, the complex supported Explorer and Pioneer missions and all six Redstone /Mercury suborbital flights. On 31 January 1964, Complexes 5 and 6 were reassigned to become part of the USAF Space Museum.

Cape Canaveral LC6.

  • Redstone, Jupiter launch complex. Pad 6 supported its first Redstone launch on 20 April 1955, three months before the complex was finally accepted by the U.S. Government. In addition to Redstone and Jupiter launches, the complex supported Explorer and Pioneer missions and all six Redstone /Mercury suborbital flights. On 31 January 1964, Complexes 5 and 6 were reassigned to become part of the USAF Space Museum.

Cape Canaveral LC9.

  • Navaho launch complex. The complex was built to support the Navaho winged intercontinental missile program. The Air Force accepted both sites 9 and 10 on 29 June 1956. Complex 9 and 10 supported its first Navaho launch on 6 November 1956. In all, 11 Navaho XSM-64 vehicles were launched from the sites. Both complexes were demolished in 1959 to make room for Minuteman complexes 31 and 32.

Cape Canaveral RW15/33.

  • Shuttle Landing Facility, NASA Kennedy Space Center

Cape Canaveral RW30/12.

  • Navaho, Matador launch complex. Skid Strip, Cape Canaveral Air Station

Cape Canaveral SLC17.

  • Cape Canaveral SLC17

Cape Canaveral SLC41.

  • Cape Canaveral SLC41

Cape Karikari.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 7 launches in 1965, reaching up to 88 kilometers altitude.

Cape Karikari L1.

  • Arcas launch complex. Launcher 1

Cape Karikari L2.

  • Arcas launch complex. Launcher 2

Cape Parry.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 18 launches from 1969 to 1982, reaching up to 662 kilometers altitude.

Cape York.

  • Seriously studied and proposed as an Australian near-equatorial launch site for the Ukrainian Zenit-3 launch vehicle in the early 1990's. The Sea Launch alternative was pursued instead.

Carnarvon.

  • Location of a major NASA tracking station. Sounding rocket launch locations nearby were known to have been used for 12 launches from 1964 to 1965, reaching up to 120 kilometers altitude.

Carnarvon CARN.

  • HAD launch complex. T

Carnarvon CARN2.

  • HAD launch complex. Carnarvon north site

Cassino.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 27 launches in 1966, reaching up to 297 kilometers altitude.

CELPA.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 92 launches from 1962 to 1974, reaching up to 406 kilometers altitude.

Centre Interarmees d'Essais d'Engins Speciaux.

Centre Spatial Guyanais.

  • Alternate name for Kourou launch site.

Charlestown.

  • Sounding rocket launch site, used from 1965. One launch in 1991 reached 90 kilometers altitude.

Chelkar.

  • Tactical missile site, known to have been used for 32 launches from 1958 to 1962, reaching up to 500 kilometers altitude.

Chiha-ri.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1991, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Chilca.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 34 launches from 1974 to 1983, reaching up to 742 kilometers altitude.

Chilca PLOB.

  • Chilca PLOB

China Lake.

  • US Navy aviation ordnance and rocketry development and test center, in operation since 1943 as the Naval Ordnance Test Station (NOTS) .

China Lake G-2.

  • Project Pilot launch complex. Test Stand G-2

China Lake RW.

  • Runway, Naval Ordnance Test Station, China Lake

Chio He AFB.

  • At 2230 hours, 14 December 2004, Taiwan's National Space Organization launched Sounding Rocket-4 from Pingtung's Chio He Base, carrying out secondary orbital scientific experiments. The NSPO was responsible for planning this particular scientific experiment; it commissioned the sounding rocket made by the Chung Shan Institute of Science and Technology to serve as the carrier. The plan was implemented in cooperation with scientific teams from National Central University and National Cheng Kong University.

Christmas Island.

  • Asia Pacific Space Centre Pty Ltd was an Australian company that in 1997 planned to build and operate a commercial satellite launch facility (APSC) on the Australian Territory of Christmas Island. This was one of several schemes in the 1990's to move Russian launch vehicle operations to near-equatorial launch sites. However prior to the launch market collapse, insufficient backing was found to allow the plan to go ahead.

Christmas Island (Pacific).

CIEES.

Cigli.

  • Base for 15 Jupiter IRBM's, 1962-1963.

Cold Lake.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 18 launches in 1990, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.

Comiso.

  • US base in the 1980's for 37 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Coronie.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 4 launches in 1965, reaching up to 205 kilometers altitude.

Cuddeback Dry Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 1965, reaching up to 21 kilometers altitude.

Cuddeback Dry Lake DZ RW01/19.

  • Runway

Cuxhaven.

  • As the only site in Germany with an unrestricted over-water firing sector over the North Sea, Cuxhaven was once touted as 'the Cape Canaveral of Germany'. Primarily known to space historians for the three post-war V-2 launches under project Backfire, it played an important role in the nascent post-World War II German rocketry. A nearly completely unknown series of scientific sounding rocket launches were made from the area in 1957-1964 before the launch site was closed on (purportedly) safety and (actually) military grounds.

Datil.

  • Military testing range, known to have been used for 3 launches in 1963, reaching up to 50 kilometers altitude.

Davis-Monthan AFB.

  • Titan 2 ICBM base. Davis-Monthan, a US military base since 1925, was selected in 1960 as the headquarters for a Titan 2 ICBM wing (the 570th). By the end of 1962 18 silos had been built, at the cost of five lives and many injuries. The missiles remained on alert in their silos for nearly twenty years, until the decision was taken to retire them in October 1981. The missiles were removed for refurbishment and use as space launchers. The silos were demolished with explosives beginning 30 November 1983. One silo was preserved as the Titan Missile Museum.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-1.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-11.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-12.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-13.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-14.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-15.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-16.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-18.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-2.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-3.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-4.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-5.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-6.

Davis-Monthan AFB 570-8.

Delamar Dry Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 62 launches from 1962 to 1968, reaching up to 95 kilometers altitude.

Delamar Dry Lake DZ RW00/18.

  • Runway

Derzhavinsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-1996. Operated 52 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M2).

Deversoir.

  • Deversoir

Dobele.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.

Dombarovskiy.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36/R-36M). One silo was modified to launch surplus R-36M missiles as orbital launch vehicles, and used for used for 3 launches from 2004 to 2007.

Drovyanaya.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. Base for a peak of 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N). Number had declined to 50 by 1993.

Dumont d'Urville.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 4 launches from in 1967, reaching up to 340 kilometers altitude.

Dyess AFB.

  • Atlas F (SMS 578) ICBM base.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 01.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 03.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 04.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 05.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 06.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 07.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 08.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 09.

Dyess AFB Missile Site 10.

Dzhambul.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1965, operating 12 R-14 missile launchers. Earlier the base deployed with two R-1 (followed by R-2) launchers.

Eareckson.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 701 launches from 1975 to 1989, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude.

East Quoddy.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 8 launches from 1970 to 1972, reaching up to 156 kilometers altitude.

Edwards.

  • Edwards Air Force Base, originally known as Muroc Field, is the main test flight centre for the US Air Force. It has been used since the 1940's for flight test of advanced aircraft, rocketplanes, and air-dropped aerospace vehicles launched from B-29, B-50, B-52, F-15, 747 or L-1011 carrier aircraft.

Edwards AFB DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 3 launches in 1959, reaching up to 117 kilometers altitude.

Edwards RW04/22.

  • X-15 launch complex. Runway

Edwards RW18/36.

  • Runway

Edwards TL1.

  • Minuteman tethered launch test silo

Edwards TL2.

  • Minuteman tethered launch test silo

Eglin.

  • This US Air Force proving ground and missile test range, based in Valparaiso, Florida and extending over a vast expanse of the Gulf of Mexico, was founded in 1935, In early 1946 the First Experimental Guided Missiles Group was activated at Eglin. The highly-instrumented Eglin Gulf Test Range supported flight tests of Bomarc, Matador, Quail, and Hound Dog cruise missiles. Both the military and NASA used Eglin to support launch of sounding rockets in support of their programs. Eglin was known to have been used for 441 launches from 1959 to 1980, reaching up to 686 kilometers altitude. The actual number of missile tests was many times greater.

Eglin A-11.

  • Site A-11, Santa Rosa Island

Eglin A-15.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Honest John launch complex. Site A-15, Santa Rosa Island

Eglin AFB.

  • Base for missile and rocket testing range over the Gulf of Mexico. Missile and sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 11 launches from 1967 to 1992, reaching up to 169 kilometers altitude.

Eglin D-3.

  • Viper launch complex. Site D3, Cape San Blas

El Arenosillo.

  • Spanish sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 335 launches from 1966 to 1994, reaching up to 700 kilometers altitude.

Elgava.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.

Ellsworth AFB.

  • Titan I and Minuteman ICBM base 1962-1994. Ellsworth hosted the unique 'Long Life' test of a Minuteman ICBM in 1965. This was the only launch of an ICBM from an operational inland US missile site.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site A-01.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site A-02.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site A-03.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site A-04.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site A-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site A-07.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site A-08.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-01.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-02.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-03.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-04.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-06.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-07.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-08.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-09.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site B-11.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site C-01.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site C-02.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site C-03.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site C-04.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site C-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site C-10.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site C-11.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-02.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-03.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-04.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-06.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-07.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-08.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-09.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-10.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site D-11.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-01.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-02.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-03.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-04.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-06.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-07.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-08.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-09.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-10.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site E-11.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site I-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-01.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-03.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-04.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-06.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-07.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-08.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-09.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site K-10.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site L-05.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site L-06.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site L-07.

Ellsworth AFB Missile Site L-08.

Elmendorf AFB.

  • Elmendorf AFB

Elmendorf AFB LCS.

  • Elmendorf AFB LCS

Emamshahr.

  • Iranian military testing range. In use for flight test of the Shahab 3 IRBM from 1998.

Emba.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 4 launches from 1967 to 1970, reaching up to 250 kilometers altitude.

Eniwetok.

  • Nuclear test sites. Sounding rockets were launched from here to monitor nuclear blast effects and fallout from 22 October 1957. Known to have been used for 7 launches from 1957 to 1958, reaching up to 5000 kilometers altitude.

ETR Launch Area.

Fairchild AFB.

  • Atlas E (SMS 567) ICBM base.

Fairchild AFB Missile Site 1.

Fairchild AFB Missile Site 2.

Fairchild AFB Missile Site 4.

Fairchild AFB Missile Site 5.

Fairchild AFB Missile Site 8.

Florennes.

  • US base in the 1980's for 12 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Forbes AFB.

  • Atlas E (SMS 548) ICBM base.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 1.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 2.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 3.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 4.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 5.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 6.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 7.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 8.

Forbes AFB Missile Site 9.

Fort Bliss.

  • Military testing range. In use from 1945 to present. Known to have been used for 75 major launches from 1963 to 2000, reaching up to 365 kilometers altitude.

Fort Bliss MCG.

  • Pershing, Excalibur Target System launch complex. McGregor Range

Fort Churchill.

  • Fort Churchill is an Arctic site on Hudson Bay with a rail link. It is near the point of maximum auroral activity. This combination of circumstances made it ideal for far-north sounding rocket launches. In 1954, the Canadian Army conducted the first series of rocket firings at Fort Churchill. Following a period of inactivity, construction of more elaborate facilities in support of the International Geophysical Year began in 1956. IGY firings began in July 1957. The range was closed again in December 1958 after the IGY program ended. It was reopened again in August 1959 by the US Army as part of its network of sounding rocket stations. This allowed use of the site by other groups over the years.

Fort Churchill LC1.

  • Universal Launcher, Pad 1

Fort Churchill LC3.

  • Aerobee Launcher, Pad 3

Fort Churchill LC4AE.

  • Arcas East Launcher, Pad 4A

Fort Churchill LC4AW.

  • Arcas West Launcher, Pad 4A

Fort Churchill LC7.

  • Nike, Black Brant launch complex. Auroral Launcher, Pad 7

Fort Greely.

  • In 2004 Fort Greely, Alaska, became the first launch site for the anti-ballistic missile Ground-Based Interceptors of the United States' Ground-based Midcourse Defense system. The 260,000-hectacre site was located 160 km southeast of Fairbanks, 16 km south of the town of Delta Junction.

Fort Greely 5 inch gun.

  • Fort Greely 5 inch gun

Fort Sherman.

  • US Army base used for a series of NASA launches from January 1969 to November 1970. The sounding rocket launch location here was known to have been used for 1160 launches from 1966 to 1979, reaching up to 99 kilometers altitude.

Fort Wainwright.

  • Fort Wainwright

Fort Wainwright LCP.

  • Fort Wainwright LCP

Fort Wingate.

  • Military testing range. In use from 1958 to present. Known to have been used for 71 major launches from 1960 to 2002, reaching up to 250 kilometers altitude.

Fort Wingate LC96.

  • Storm-2, Hera launch complex.

Fort Yukon.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1984, reaching up to 500 kilometers altitude.

Gan Island.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 21 launches from 1969 to 1970, reaching up to 66 kilometers altitude.

Gando.

  • Launch site on Canary Islands, near NASA tracking station, considered for several planned Spanish and Italian orbital launch vehicles. L-1011 carrier aircraft staging from Gran Canaria air-launch Pegasus launch vehicles into orbit near here (drop point 27.00 N 15.30 W).

Gando RW03/21.

  • RW03/21L and RW03/21R, Base Aerea de Gando

Gezgaly.

  • Base for units deployed with twelve R-12, and later six Pioner, launchers.

GIK-1 / GNIIP.

  • Alternate name for Plesetsk launch site.

GIK-2.

GIK-5 / NIIP-5.

  • Alternate name for Baikonur launch site.

Gillam.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches from 1972 to 1973, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Gilson Butte.

  • Military testing range. In use from 1964 to 1970. Known to have been used for 34 major launches from 1965 to 1968, reaching up to 250 kilometers altitude.

Gioia.

  • Base for 30 Jupiter IRBM's, 1961-1963.

Gitdaeryung.

  • North Korean intermediate missile base, south east of Wonson, said to be capable of launching Scud-C's, SCUD-X's and Nodong-A ballistic missiles. Known to have been used for 18 launches from 1984 to 2006, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Gladkaya/Krasnoyarsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units operating 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos. By 1993 number of active silos was down to 40.

Glukhov.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 and R-14 missiles.

Goheung.

  • South Korean space center, built on Woenaro Island, off the Goheung peninsula, at the southern end of the Korean peninsula. The space center would be built in four phases through 2015 on a 4.95 million square meter landfill on the shore of the island.

Gran Canaria DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 1997, reaching up to 580 kilometers altitude.

Grand Forks AFB.

  • Minuteman ICBM base.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site D-00.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site D-33.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site D-35.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site D-36.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site D-37.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site D-39.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-00.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-42.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-43.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-44.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-45.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-46.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-47.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site E-48.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site F-58.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site F-59.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site F-60.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site H-29.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site I-37.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site I-39.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-41.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-42.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-43.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-44.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-45.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-46.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-47.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-49.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site J-50.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site M-21.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site M-22.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site M-23.

Grand Forks AFB Missile Site M-24.

Grand Turk Island.

  • Grand Turk Island

Grand Turk Island DZ.

  • Rocket air-launch position known to have been used for 7 launches from 1976 to 1978, reaching up to 10 kilometers altitude.

Great Mercury Island.

  • Open field site on Great Mercury Island off the Coromandel Coast of New Zealand used for launches of the commercial Atea sounding rocket.

Green River.

  • Military testing range used to launch several hundred Athena rockets from 1964 to 1973. These sent re-entry test vehicles or anti-ballistic missile targets to impact points in the US Army's White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This was one of the few examples of sustained interstate missile tests within the United States. Known to have been used for 244 launches from 1964 to 1975, reaching up to 281 kilometers altitude.

Green River Pad 1.

  • Athena RTV launch complex.

Green River Pad 2.

  • Athena RTV launch complex.

Green River Pad 3.

  • Athena RTV launch complex.

Greenham Common.

  • US base in the 1980's for 29 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

GTsP-4.

Guam.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 12 launches from 1957 to 1958, reaching up to 85 kilometers altitude.

Gvardeisk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. This was one of the oldest rocket units in the Soviet Union, being first formed at Kapustin Yar, 1950-1953, then deploying to Medved, Novgorod 1953-1960. Earlier had fielded R-1, R-2, and R-5 missiles. These were followed by R-12 IRBM's.

Hahn AB.

  • MGM-13A Mace operating base.

Haikou.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 5 launches from 1988 to 1991, reaching up to 120 kilometers altitude.

Hainan.

  • New Chinese launch center for manned and low-inclination orbital launches.

Hall Beach.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 7 launches in 1971, reaching up to 270 kilometers altitude.

Hama-Allepo.

  • Syrian military testing range, known to have been used for 9 launches from 1992 to 2007, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Hammaguira.

  • The constellation of launch complexes and nuclear weapons test sites established by France in Algeria began with the Special Weapons Test Center (CIEES). This began operations at Colomb-Bechar, Algeria, on April 24, 1947. Development of the larger Veronique series required a new facility. This went into operation at Hammaguir, 120 km southwest of Colomb-Bechar, in May 1952. The evacuation of these launch sites was a condition of the final agreement signed in March 1962 that ended the Algerian Civil War. The sites continued in use until finally turned over to the Algerian government on 1 July 1967. French missile test activities moved to Biscarosse, in France, and orbital launches to Kourou, in French Guiana. Hammaguira was known to have been used for at least 271 launches from 1952 to 1967.

Hammaguira Bacchus.

  • VE, Diamant, Belier launch complex.

Hammaguira Beatrice.

  • Europa launch complex. Sounding rocket launcher

Hammaguira Bechar.

  • Veronique, Belier launch complex. Bou Hammadi, CIEES B0, Colomb-Bechar

Hammaguira Beni.

  • Beni Abbes

Hammaguira Blandine.

  • Veronique launch complex. Blandine, CIEES B2

Hammaguira Brigitte.

  • VE, SSBS, MSBS, Diamant launch complex. Brigitte, CIEES B2

Hammaguira Brigitte/A.

  • Agate launcher, Brigitte, CIEES B2

Hammaguira CB.

  • Monica launch complex.

Hammaguira Leger.

  • Base Georges Leger, CIEES B1, Hameida Hammada, Colomb-Bechar

Harbin.

  • Military testing range. In use from 1967 to present.

Heidekraut.

  • German test range for production V-2 missiles. Used for 265 launches from 1944 to 1945, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.

Heidelager.

  • German test range for production V-2 missiles, used for 278 launches from 1943 to 1944, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.

Hidden Hills DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 50 launches from 1961 to 1968, reaching up to 54 kilometers altitude.

Hidden Hills DZ RW14/32.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Holloman.

  • Military missile and sounding rocket launch site. Also notable for several rocket-powered sleds, used to test a variety of manned and unmanned aircraft and aerospace vehicles at supersonic speeds. Known to have been used for 147 major launches from 1948 to 1959, reaching up to 235 kilometers altitude.

Holloman A.

  • Aerobee launch complex. Aerobee tower

Holloman NATIV.

  • Navaho launch complex. NATIV pad

Holloman SLED.

  • Snark launch complex. Sled Test Track

Holloman ZEL.

  • Matador launch complex. Able-51/ZEL for Matador/Mace

Ile du Levant.

  • In October 1950 a military missile test site was established at the French naval base on the Ile du Levant, an offshore island in the Mediterranean near Toulon. This was named CERES (Special Weapons Research and Tests Center) in 1952 and replaced a beach site at Pampelone used for ad-hoc launches since 1948. In 1968 it was expanded to include the La Renardiere site on Pont ST Mandrier and renamed CEM (Mediterranean Test Center). La Renardiere had been used in 1945 for testing the first French liquid propelled rocket, the EA 41. Ile du Levant was known to have been used for at least 111 launches from 1956 to 1969, reaching up to 270 kilometers altitude.

Ile du Levant Nemo.

  • MSBS launch complex. Caisson Nemo

Indian Ocean.

  • Launches from naval vessels at undocumented locations in the Indian Ocean accounted for 8 launches from 1967 to 1976, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Irkutsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1982-present. Division moved from Lithuania. Base for units deployed with 36 RT-2PM launchers.

Itatka.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1978. Operated R-16 launchers.

Jabal Hamzah.

  • Jabal Hamzah

Jebel Himreen.

  • Jebel Himreen

Jebel Himreen G350.

  • Jebel Himreen G350

Jingyu.

  • Chinese ICBM missile test site. Not used for satellite launches to date.

Jiu Peng.

  • Jiu Peng air base, Pingtung, Formosa

Jiu Peng AB.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 5 launches from 1998 to 2006, reaching up to 282 kilometers altitude.

Jiuquan.

  • China's first launch center, also known as Shuang Cheng Tzu. Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre, situated at 100 degrees East, 41 degrees North, is located in the Jiuquan Region, Gansu province, north-western China. It was China's first ballistic missile and satellite launch centre.

Jiuquan LA2A.

  • DF-3, CZ-1, DF-4 launch complex.

Jiuquan LA2B.

  • CZ launch complex.

Jiuquan LA3.

  • R-2, DF-2, DF-1 launch complex.

Jiuquan LA3B.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Jiuquan SLS.

  • CZ launch complex. New launch complex for the CZ-2F manned spacecraft launcher. Vehicle processed at nearby Vertical Assembly Facility.

Jiuquan SLS-2.

  • CZ launch complex. A second pad was built at the new launch complex for the CZ-2F manned spacecraft launcher, but used for smaller CZ-2D launch vehicles. Vehicles were processed at nearby Vertical Assembly Facility.

Johnston Island.

  • US military base on this island in the Pacific Ocean. Used for rocket-launched nuclear tests in the 1950's. In the 1960's it was the site for the operational AFP-437 anti-satellite system. The system was retired in 1975. Several sounding rockets were also launched over the years, either in support of nuclear tests or in experiments related to anti-satellite technology. Known to have been used for 124 launches from 1958 to 1975, reaching up to 1158 kilometers altitude.

Johnston Island HAD23.

  • Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. HAD Launcher 23

Johnston Island LC1.

  • Redstone launch complex. Pad 1

Johnston Island LC2.

  • Redstone launch complex. Pad 2

Johnston Island LE1.

  • Delta launch complex. Launch Emplacement 1

Johnston Island LE2.

  • Delta launch complex. Launch Emplacement 2

Johnston Island S.

  • Johnston Island DOMINIC south launchers

Johnston Island UL6.

  • Sandhawk launch complex. Universal Launcher 6

Kadena AB.

  • CGM-13B Mace operating base.

Kagoshima.

  • Japanese launch center for solid fueled sounding rockets and satellite launchers. Limited to two months a year due to disturbance of local fisheries.

Kagoshima K.

  • Kappa Pad

Kagoshima L.

  • SB-735, S, Lambda launch complex. Lambda Pad

Kagoshima M.

  • Mu launch complex. Mu Pad

Kagoshima M-V.

  • M-V launch complex. M-V Pad

Kagoshima TMP.

  • Kappa launch complex. Temporary pad

Kamyshin.

  • Base for units deployed with two R-1/R-2 launchers, followed by six R-5.

Kansk.

  • Base for units deployed with 27 RT-2PM missiles.

Kapani Tonneo.

  • In December 1975 Otrag signed an agreement with the Congolese government to established a rocket range to test its low-cost rockets deep in the interior at Shaba (Katanga) province. The austere site included logistic support via antique British Argosy transports landing at a dirt strip on a plateau overlooking the jungle. Here a pad and gantry were erected and flight tests began in 1977. However Otrag's activities made the great powers nervous. The USSR was not interested in Germany achieving an indigenous long-range rocket activity. The government of the Congo was pressured by the USSR to withdraw permission to use the site. Otrag was thrown out of the country in April 1979.

Kapustin Yar.

  • Russia's first missile test range and used for satellite launches of smaller Kosmos vehicles. V-2's launched from here in 1946 were the first ballistic missiles fired on Soviet territory. It was greatly expanded as the test site for innumerable Soviet intermediate and short range missile projects in the 1950's.. Kapustin Year was also headquarters of the first operational R-1/R-2 units, 1950-1953, and later a base for 12 operational R-14 missile launchers. Kapustin Yar was known to have been used for over 3519 major launches from 1946 to 2007.

Kapustin Yar LC107/1.

  • Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Kapustin Yar LC107/1a.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/1b.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2.

  • Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Kapustin Yar LC107/2a.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2b.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2c.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2d.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2e.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2f.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2g.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC107/2h.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC84.

  • RT-15, R-5, Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Kapustin Yar LC86.

  • PU 1 or 4

Kapustin Yar LC86/1.

  • Kosmos 2, R-31 launch complex.

Kapustin Yar LC86/4.

  • Kosmos 2 launch complex.

Kapustin Yar LC86/4a.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC86/4b.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar LC86/4c.

  • Orbital launch vehicle launcher

Kapustin Yar Mayak-1.

  • Kosmos 2 launch silo.

Kapustin Yar Mayak-2.

  • Kosmos 2 launch silo.

Kapustin Yar MR-100.

  • MR-100 launch area

Kapustin Yar OKB1.

  • Korolev launch area

Kapustin Yar PL1.

  • Kosmos 2 launch complex. PL 1, Vladimirovka Air Force test area

Kapustin Yar PL87.

  • RT-2 launch complex.

Kapustin Yar S.

  • Launch area south

Kapustin Yar SAM.

  • SAM Test area

Kapustin Yar silo.

  • Kosmos 3 launch silo. Unknown location.

Kapustin Yar SM-49.

  • R-11 launch complex. SM-49 submarine simulator

Kapustin Yar SP-2.

  • R-2 launch complex. Unknown site for R-2A launches

Kapustin Yar START Pioner.

  • START SS-20 Site

Kapustin Yar START R-12.

  • START R-12 Site

Kapustin Yar V-2.

  • V-2, RT-15, R-5, R-2, R-17, R-11, R-1, Pioner, MR-12, M-100, Kosmos 3, Kosmos 2, RT-1, R-13, MMR-06, MERA launch complex. V-2 Launch Area

Kapustin Yar VLAD.

  • Burya launch complex. Vladimirovka Air Force test area

Karmelava.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1990. Base for units deployed with 12 R-14, and probably R-12 missiles.

Kartaly.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. Base for 46 heavy ICBM (R-36/R-36M) silos.

Kauai.

  • Kauai

Kennedy Space Center.

Kerguelen.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 186 launches from 1963 to 1981, reaching up to 416 kilometers altitude.

Kermanshah.

  • Kermanshah

Keweenaw.

  • In 1962 the University of Michigan proposed a launch site near the center of the North American continent. This would fill in a gap in the US Army's Meteorological Rocket Network. Following a survey of available sites a location on the Keweenaw Peninsula in Lake Superior was selected. The site was in use from 1964-1971.

Khatami.

  • Khatami Air Base, located northeast of Isfahan, is a dual military/civilian facility, also known as Isfahan Shahid International Airport. Two tactical fighter squadrons are based there. Aerospace manufacturing and test facilities were being built there prior to the 1979 Iranian revolution by by Bell, Northrop, and Grumman. In the decades thereafter these were developed into aircraft overhaul and repair facilities. Manufacturing and research were accomplished by the Iranian military at Khatami in collaboration with the University of Isfahan, which designed most of Iran's remote piloted vehicles. It was believed the Iran-140 tactical rocket was manufacturered here.

Kheysa.

  • Soviet arctic sounding rocket launch site, known to have been used for 1950 launches from 1957 to 1990, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Kheysa KRE.

  • Krenkel Polar Station, Kheysa Island

Khmelnitskiy.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1993, equipped with 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N) and possibly operating some R-12 launchers. In the 1950's this was the base for units deployed with two R-1 launchers.

Kiev.

  • Base for units deployed with six R-5 launchers.

Kimotsuki.

Kindley.

  • Weather rocket launch site, known to have been used for 21 launches from 1962 to 1971, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.

Kindley COOP.

  • Deacon, Arcas launch complex. Kindley AFB, Coopers Island

Kiritimati.

  • Kiritimati (Christmas Island) in the Pacific Ocean was originally selected by Von Braun in his Collier magazine series of the early 1950's as an ideal equatorial launch site. A half century later, Boeing Sea Launch used an offshore location for orbital launches. The launch platform was a seagoing converted Norwegian offshore oil rig. Between missions it was berthed in Long Beach, California. It was towed to a location off Kiritimati for launches of the Ukrainian Zenit-3 launch vehicle.

Kiruna.

  • The sounding rocket launch site at Kiruna was officially opened in September 1966 under the auspices of ESRO (European Space Research Organisation). When ESA was created in 1972 and replaced ESRO, Kiruna came under the management of the Swedish Space Corporation, a state-owned limited liability company under the Swedish Ministry of Industry. The 'Esrange' is located 45 km from the town of Kiruna and has seven permanent pads able to launch the largest sounding rockets, including the Black Brant 9, Skylark 12, and Castor 4B-boosted vehicles.

Kiruna A.

  • Aries launch complex. Aries launcher

Kiruna C.

  • Belier launch complex. Centaure launcher

Kiruna L.

  • Super Loki Pad

Kiruna MRL.

  • Black Brant launch complex. MRL Launcher

Kiruna N.

  • Nike launcher

Kiruna S.

  • Skylark launch complex. Skylark Tower

Kittaeryong.

Kodiak.

  • In January 1998, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation began building a commercial spaceport at Narrow Cape on Kodiak Island, about 400 km south of Anchorage and 40 km southwest of the City of Kodiak. Kodiak Island was advertised as one of the best locations in the world for polar launch operations, providing a wide launch azimuth and unobstructed downrange flight path.

Kola Peninsula Launch Area.

  • Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 3 launches in 1961, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Kolomiya.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. In the 1950's it was a base for units deployed with two R-2 launchers. Probably during the period as an RVSN division it operated R-12 missiles.

Koroni.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 371 launches from 1966 to 1989, reaching up to 114 kilometers altitude.

Koroni LP1.

  • Arcas launch complex.

Koroni LP2.

  • Arcas launch complex. Beach launch area

Kostroma.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Operated 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100). 60 of these were later converted to MR-UR-100. After these were retired 12 RT-23 mobile launchers were headquartered here.

Kourou.

  • After the agreement with newly independent Algeria for France to evacuate their launch sites in that country, a location near Biscarosse was selected for French missile testing. However since only launches westwards across the Bay of Biscay could be made from this site, it was unsuitable for France's Diamant orbital launch vehicle. After reviewing 14 potential sites, a location in the South American French colony of Guiana was selected. This would allow over-water launches to a tremendous range of possible orbital inclinations -- from -100.5 deg to 1.5 deg. Being near the equator, it would provide the maximum assist from the earth's rotation for launches into equatorial orbits. The decision was formalized in April 1964 and in July 1966 ELDO chose the site for future launches of the Europa II launch vehicle.

Kourou ALFS.

  • Veronique, Stromboli, Skua, Cajun, Belier, Arcas launch complex. Aire de Lancement Fusee-Sondes

Kourou ALFS V.

  • Ensemble Veronique, Aire de Lancement Fusee-Sondes

Kourou CECLES.

  • Aire de Lancement CECLES

Kourou Diamant.

  • Diamant launch complex. Aire de Lancement Diamant

Kourou ELA1.

  • Europa, Cajun, Ariane launch complex. Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 1

Kourou ELA2.

  • Ariane launch complex. Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 2

Kourou ELA3.

  • Ariane 5 launch complex. Ensemble de Lancement Ariane 3

Kourou ELS.

  • Ensemble de Lancement Soyuz

Kozelsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Originally R-9 ICBM launchers were controlled from here. Later 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100) were built. By the time of installation of the updated UR-100N only 70 silos remained operational.

Kronogard.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 18 launches from 1961 to 1964, reaching up to 135 kilometers altitude.

Kronogard J.

  • Arcas launch complex. Jokkmokk (Vidsel)

Kummersdorf.

  • German Army firing range, on the rail line 46 km south of Berlin. The German Army conducted rocket firing tests here from 1930 to 1945, and von Braun's rocket team worked here at first while developing the V-2. Actual launches of the rockets, after the earliest tests, moved to Greifswalder Oie and then Peenemuende on the Baltic.

Kwajalein.

  • The US military base located on this Pacific island group has major tracking facilities and is near the impact area for dummy warheads fired by ICBM's from Vandenberg AFB. It is a key test location for anti-ballistic missile systems.

Kwajalein DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 2000, reaching up to 641.4927 kilometers altitude.

Kwajalein IL.

  • Sprint launch complex. Illegini Island

Kwajalein KW.

  • Kwajalein Atoll

Kwajalein LC38.

  • Nike Zeus launch complex.

Kwajalein Meck.

  • Minuteman, Sprint, Spartan, OBV, ERIS launch complex. Meck Island

Kwajalein Meck 1.

  • Silo 1, Meck Island

Kwajalein OM.

  • Falcon launch complex. Omelek Island

Kwajalein RN.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Terrier, Super Chief, Sergeant, Nike, Honest John, Cajun, Black Brant, Asp, DOT launch complex. Roi-Namur Island

Kwajalein RW06/24.

  • Bucholz Army Airfield

Lancelin.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1974, reaching up to 320 kilometers altitude.

Laogang.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1960, reaching up to 8 kilometers altitude.

Larson AFB.

  • Titan I ICBM base.

Larson AFB Missile Site 1.

Larson AFB Missile Site 2.

Larson AFB Missile Site 3.

Las Palmas.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1966, reaching up to 274 kilometers altitude.

Le Cardonnet.

  • Test rocket launch location known to have been used for 5 launches in 1952, reaching up to 1 kilometers altitude.

Leach Spring.

  • Leach Spring

Leba.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 134 launches from 1963 to 1974, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.

Lida.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1997. Base for units deployed with twelve R-12, 27 RT-2PM, and later nine Pioner, launchers.

Lincoln AFB.

  • Atlas F (SMS 551) ICBM base.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 01.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 02.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 03.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 04.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 05.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 06.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 07.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 08.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 09.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 10.

Lincoln AFB Missile Site 11.

Little Carter Bay.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 5 launches from 1964 to 1966, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Little Carter Bay CB.

  • Little Carter Bay, Bahama Island (Same as Walker Cay?)

Little Carter Bay LC.

  • Javelin launch complex.

Little Rock AFB.

  • Titan 2 ICBM base.

Little Rock AFB Missile Site 09.

Little Rock AFB Missile Site 18.

Lowry AFB.

  • Titan I ICBM base.

Lowry AFB Missile Site 3.

Lutsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1992. Probably an R-12 missile base.

Lvov.

  • Base for units deployed with two R-1 missile launchers.

Mace South Korea.

  • Mace/Matador operating location 1956-1966.

Mace Taiwan.

  • Mace/Matador operating location 1956-1966.

Makat.

  • Tactical missile base, known to have been used for 34 launches from 1961 to 1965, reaching up to 460 kilometers altitude.

Malmstrom AFB.

  • Minuteman ICBM base.

Malmstrom AFB Missile Site A-01.

Manzovka/Ussuriysk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1970, probably operating R-12 launchers. In the 1950's the base for originally fielded two R-1 launchers, followed by eight R-5 launchers.

Mar Chiquita.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 69 launches from 1968 to 1976, reaching up to 430 kilometers altitude.

Marambio.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 7 launches from 1975 to 1982, reaching up to 400 kilometers altitude.

Marka.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 12 launches from 1983 to 1984, reaching up to 75 kilometers altitude.

Marshall Islands.

  • Bigen Island, Aur Atoll, Marshall Islands

Matagorda Island.

  • Launch site for sounding rockets and commercial launch vehicles. Good site for southerly launches into a variety of orbits but no tracking facilities. Known to have been used for at least 2 launches in 1981 - 1982.

Matienzo.

  • Base Matienzo, Antarctica

Mayport DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 5 launches from 1993 to 2003, reaching up to 794 kilometers altitude.

McConnell AFB.

  • Titan 2 ICBM base.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 01.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 02.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 03.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 04.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 08.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 10.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 11.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 12.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 14.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 15.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 16.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 17.

McConnell AFB Missile Site 18.

McMurdo.

  • McMurdo Station, Ross Ice Shelf, New Zealand Antarctic Territory

McMurdo Station.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 28 launches from 1962 to 1963, reaching up to 69 kilometers altitude.

Meck Island.

  • Meck Island

Medved.

  • Early ballistic missile operating base, 1953-1960, for units deployed with two R-2 launchers, later eight R-5 missiles.

Mercury.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 9 launches in 1957, reaching up to 30 kilometers altitude, for support of nuclear tests.

Midway.

  • Midway Island is approximately half way between North America and Asia. The uninhabited place was seized as an American possession in 1903 to provide a base for the first transpacific cable. It was later developed into a naval air station and figured importantly in early military and commercial aviation as a refuelling point for transpacific flights. It consists of two major atolls, Sand Island and Eastern Island, both of them almost entirely taken up by airfields.

Midway Island NDZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 2005, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude.

Midway Island SDZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 1 launch in 2004, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude.

Minakh.

  • Syrian missile base.

Minot AFB.

  • Minuteman ICBM base.

Minot AFB Missile Site N-01.

Minot AFB Missile Site O-01.

Mirniy.

  • Alternate name for Plesetsk launch site.

Mojave.

  • Location of Scaled Composites flight test facility, and the first FAA-certified inland spaceport. It was used for 17 launches of the Tier One manned spaceplane from 2003 to 2004, reaching up to 112 kilometers altitude.

Mojave RW12/30.

  • Tier One launch complex. -

Molesworth.

  • US base in the 1980's for 6 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Molodezhnaya.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1104 launches from 1969 to 1990, reaching up to 108 kilometers altitude.

Mountain Home AFB.

  • Titan I ICBM base.

Mountain Home AFB Missile Site 2.

Mountain Home AFB Missile Site 3.

Mozyr.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1996. Base for units deployed with R-12, 27 RT-2PM, and nine Pioner missile launchers.

Mud Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 34 launches from 1961 to 1967, reaching up to 75 kilometers altitude.

Mud Lake DZ RW08/26.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Mud Lake DZ RW18/36.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Muroc.

  • Alternate name for Edwards launch site.

Musudan.

  • Austere coastal missile test site used for launch of long-range missile tests over the Pacific, and North Korea's space launch vehicle.

     

     

     

     

     

     

NAMFI.

  • The NATO Missile Firing Installation is NATO's main Firing Range. It is located on the island of Crete, outside the town of Chania.

NAOTS.

  • F2H aircraft flying from this Naval Air Station launched Rockair sounding rockets in 1955, known to have been used for 5 launches, reaching up to 55 kilometers altitude.

Natal.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 233 launches from 1965 to 2007, reaching up to 1100 kilometers altitude.

Natal MAN.

  • Skylark launch complex. MAN site

Naval Ordnance Test Station.

Negev.

  • Military testing range, known to have been used for 3 launches from 1990 to 2000, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude.

Nenoksa.

  • Primary missile testing range of the Russian Navy. Known to have been used for 22 launches from 1965 to 1997, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude, but the number of actual missile tests was in the hundreds.

Nerchinsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1965. Moved to Drovyanaya.. Base for units deployed with 12 R-14 and perhaps R-12 missiles.

Neu Ulm.

  • US base in the 1980's for 43 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Nevada Test Site.

  • Nuclear test site. Sounding rockets and test vehicles have been launched in support of US nuclear weapons development from the site since the 1950's.

Nevada Test Site Area 26.

  • Castor-Orbus launch complex. Sounding rocket launcher

Niijima.

  • Sounding rocket and test vehicle launch site, known to have been used for 18 launches from 1963 to 1965, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Nissaki-Karystos.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 4 launches in 1966, reaching up to 140 kilometers altitude.

Nizhniy Tagil.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, much later 45 RT-2PM mobile missiles.

North Atlantic Drop Zone.

  • Launch area used for Hound Dog missile tests.

North Pole.

  • North Pole

North Truro.

  • Nike-Hydac launch site located at North Truro Air Force Station on Cape Cod, used 1969-1970.

Nouadhibou.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1973, reaching up to 180 kilometers altitude.

Novaya Zemlya.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1961, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude.

Novogrudok.

  • Base for units deployed with twelve R-12 missile launchers.

Novosibirsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division from 1961. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM launchers. Later operated 64 heavy ICBM (R-36M) silos.

Obachi.

  • Location used for release and launch of balloon-launched Kappa sounding rockets in 1961.

Offutt AFB.

  • Atlas D (SMS 566) ICBM base.

Offutt AFB Missile Annex 1.

Offutt AFB Missile Annex 2.

Offutt AFB Missile Annex 3.

Okhotsk.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 27 launches from 1981 to 2005, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude. From 2009 offshore point used for launch of Volna SLBM's from submarines.

Omsk.

  • Base for units deployed with launchers for the R-9 ICBM.

Ordzhonikidze.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1981, probably operating R-12 launchers. The division then moved to Barnaul. The base was used for deployment of two R-1/R-2 launchers in the 1950's.

OTRAG Libya.

  • Alternate name for Tawiwa launch site.

OTRAG Zaire.

Overberg.

  • The Overberg Test Range (OTR) was developed by the Houwteq organization in the 1980's as part of South Africa's ballistic missile and R5b space program. It was located at the southernmost tip of Africa on the south-eastern coast of the Western Cape at Latitude 34 deg 35 min S and Longitude 20 deg 19 min E. The facility had a total area of 43,000 hectares.

Pacific Ocean.

  • Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Pacific accounted for 280 launches from 1949 to 2006, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

Palmachim.

  • Israeli coastal missile test site from which the Shavit satellite launch vehicle is also launched. A due-west launch over the Mediterranean is required to avoid overflying Arab countries, resulting in unique orbital inclinations and directions.

    The site was known to have been used for 40 launches from 1987 to 2007.

Palmachim IAFTR.

  • Arrow launch complex. Sea Launch Area, Palmachim Beach

Palmachim SH.

  • Shavit pad, Palmachim Beach

Palmdale Omni DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 8 launches from 1960 to 1961, reaching up to 16 kilometers altitude.

Pameungpeuk.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 10 launches from 1965 to 2005, reaching up to 191 kilometers altitude.

Patrick AFB.

Peenemuende.

  • First launch site in the world, used for development of the V-1, A-4/V-2, Wasserfall, and other missiles. Among many major facilities, engine test stands were built that were capable of accommodating planned engines for the A-10 intercontinental missile. 296 known launches were made from the site between 1937 and 1945.

Peenemuende GWO.

  • V-2, Wasserfall launch complex. Greifswalder Oie

Peenemuende P10.

  • V-2, A4b launch complex. Launch Site P10

Peenemuende P12.

  • V-2 launch complex.

Peenemuende P6.

  • V-2 launch complex.

Peenemuende P7.

  • V-2 launch complex. Test Stand P7

Peenemuende Rail.

  • V-2 launch complex.

Peenemuende SK.

  • V-2 launch complex. Kalrshagen

Peenemuende Tower.

  • V-2 launch complex.

Pervomaisk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1993. Base for units deployed with 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos and later 46 mobile RT-23 launchers.

Petrikov.

  • Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.

Pinsk.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.

Plattsburgh AFB.

  • Atlas F (SMS 556) ICBM base.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 03.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 04.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 06.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 07.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 08.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 09.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 10.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 11.

Plattsburgh AFB Missile Site 12.

Plesetsk.

  • Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change.

Plesetsk LC(T1).

  • 15Zh58 SP

Plesetsk LC(T2).

  • 15Zh44/15Zh60 SP

Plesetsk LC(T3).

  • Topol-M SP

Plesetsk LC(T4).

  • 15Zh44 SP

Plesetsk LC131.

  • Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC132.

  • Plesetsk LC132

Plesetsk LC132/1.

  • Kosmos-3, Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC132/2.

  • Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC133/1.

  • UR-100N, Kosmos 2 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC133/3.

  • UR-100N, Kosmos 3 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC157.

  • Temp-2S, RT-20P launch complex.

Plesetsk LC158.

  • Topol launch complex.

Plesetsk LC16/2.

  • R-7 launch complex. Complex 16 was the second R-7A ICBM launch complex to become operationall at Plesetsk, in 1960. In 1969, Pad 2 was cannibalized to upgrade the Area 1 facility in Baikonur. Pad 2 was not again brought into operation until 1979. It was then completely renovated as a space launch pad for Molniya 8K78M/Soyuz 11A511U class vehicles. The first launch was on 19 February 1981, and it continued in use in this role into the 21st Century.

Plesetsk LC161.

  • RT-2 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC163.

  • RT-23 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC167.

  • Topol launch complex.

Plesetsk LC32.

  • Tsiklon launch complex.

Plesetsk LC32/1.

  • Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster.

Plesetsk LC32/2.

  • Tsiklon launch complex. Construction of this highly-automated launch complex for the Tsiklon-3 launch vehicle started in 1970. The complex was designed by the Transmash Design bureau led by Chief Designer V N Solovyev. The complex consisted of two pads. The vehicle was assembled and integrated with its payload in the assembly building. It was then delivered to the launch pad by railway in a horizontal position. A launch pad erector placed the rocket into vertical position. No service tower was needed for the storable-propellant booster.

Plesetsk LC41/1.

  • R-7 launch complex. Code named 'Lesobaza', this was the first complex completed at Plesetsk, being declared ready for military service with the R-7A ICBM in November 1959. The complex followed the design of the protoype facility built at Area 31 of Baikonur and included its own residential area for military personnel and assembly buildings for launchers and payloads.

Plesetsk LC43.

  • Plesetsk LC43

Plesetsk LC43/3.

  • R-7 launch complex.

Plesetsk LC43/4.

  • R-7 launch complex.

Plesetsk PL31.

  • R-9 launch complex.

Plesetsk PU11.

  • R-16 launch complex.

Plesetsk Yu-1.

  • Topol launch complex.

Plunge.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.

Point Arguello.

  • The US Navy had established a Naval Air Facility at Point Mugu for cruise missile test in November 1945. After the Air Force had acquired the northern part of Camp Cooke from the Army for use as Vandenberg AFB, the surplus southern portion of the former camp, encompassing over 19,800 acres, was transferred to the U.S. Navy in May 1958. The Navy subsequently established a Pacific Missile Range with headquarters at Point Mugu and instrumentation sites along the California coast and at various islands in the Pacific.

Point Arguello WADZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 28 launches from 1990 to 2007, reaching up to 4539 kilometers altitude.

Point Barrow.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 73 launches from 1965 to 1972, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Point Mugu.

  • US Naval Air Station and major missile testing centre, known to have been used for 2551 launches from 1955 to 2005. The actual total of missile tests is many times greater.

Point Mugu LC1.

  • Pad 1

Point Mugu LC2.

  • Pad 2

Poker Flat.

  • Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1969 to present. Poker Flat Rocket Range (PFRR) contains five major launch pads. Pads 1 and 2 each have a 7.5K launcher, pads 3 and 4 each contain 20K MRL launchers, and pad 5 contains a 4K twin boom launcher. Pad 3 is equipped with a moveable launcher enclosure which can be used to protect a rocket on pad 3 and workers from the severe winter weather.

Poker Flat FW.

  • Nike, Deacon launch complex. Fort Wainwright

Poker Flat LC1.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Nike, Black Brant launch complex. MRL 7.5K launcher, Pad 1

Poker Flat LC2.

  • Terrier, Hawk, Black Brant launch complex. MRL 7.5K launcher, Pad 2

Poker Flat LC3.

  • Terrier, Hawk, Black Brant launch complex. AML 20K launcher, Pad 3

Poker Flat LC4.

  • Black Brant launch complex. AML 20K launcher, Pad 4

Poker Flat LC5.

  • Terrier launch complex. AML 4K3 launcher, Pad 5

Poker Flat LC6.

  • Hilltop 7.5K launcher, Pad 6

Polotsk.

  • Base for units deployed with nine Pioner launchers.

Postavy.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1993. Base for units deployed with 12 R-12 and later 9 Pioner missile launchers.

Presque Isle AFB.

  • At this site the 556th Squadron of the USAF 702nd Strategic Missile Wing Squadron 556th operated the Snark intercontinental cruise missile from January 1959 to 25 June 25 1961.

Priekule.

  • Base for units deployed with up to 12 R-14 missile and R-12 missile launchers. Launcher deployment at site retirement was:

    • Vainode: 3 x R-14
    • Nikrace: 3 x R-14
    • Nigrande: 4 x R-14
    Martin Trolle Mikkelsen has photo-documented the site here.

Primrose Lake.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1299 launches from 1968 to 1991, reaching up to 81 kilometers altitude.

Puente del Inca.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1964, reaching up to 35 kilometers altitude.

Punta Lobos.

  • Sounding rocket launch site. In use from 1980 to 1990. Known to have been used for 23 launches in 1983, reaching up to 590 kilometers altitude.

Qom.

  • Military testing range, located near this Iranian religious centre, known to have been used for one launch in 1991, reaching 200 kilometers altitude.

RAF Driffield.

  • At this location the 8th RAF Strategic Missile Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 22 December 1959 to April 1963. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.

RAF Feltwell.

  • At this location the 77th RAF Strategic Missile Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 15 June 22 1959 to 1 July 1963. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.

RAF Hemswell.

  • At this location the 7th RAF Strategic Missile Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 11 Sept. 1959 to 15 May 1963. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.

RAF North Luffenham.

  • At this location the RAF No. 144 (Strategic Missile) Squadron operated 15 Thor IRBM launchers from 29 April 29 1960 to September 1963. The other units in the North Luffenham Thor complex were No. 218 (SM) Sqn at Harrington, Northamptonshire, No. 223 (SM) Sqn at Folkingham, Lincolnshire, No. 130 (SM) Sqn at Polebrook, Northamptonshire and No. 254 (SM) Sqn at Melton Mowbray, Leicestershire. They were withdrawn as part of the secret agreement between Kennedy and Khrushchev ending the Cuban missile crisis, under which all Thor missiles were to be removed from Europe.

Railroad Valley Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 2 launches in 1968, reaching up to 81 kilometers altitude.

Raketenflugplatz.

  • The world's first rocket port, an abandoned German Army storage facility in the northern suburbs of Berlin. Used for 6 launches from 1931 to 1931, reaching up to 1 kilometer altitude.

Ramey.

  • Sounding rocket launch site used in support of high-altitude monitoring after Project Argus nuclear tests. Six launches in 1958 reached up to 825 kilometers altitude.

Rarotonga.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 5 launches in 1965, reaching up to 270 kilometers altitude.

Rechitsa.

  • Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.

Red Lake.

  • Sounding rocket range, known to have been used for 23 launches in 1979, reaching up to 215 kilometers altitude.

Red Lake CHK.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Nike, Loki, Honest John, Hawk, Black Brant, Arcas launch complex. Chukuni Range

Red Lake MCM.

  • Astrobee launch complex. McMarmac Site

Reggane.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 12 launches from 1961 to 1965, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Resolute Bay.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 17 launches from 1966 to 1971, reaching up to 200 kilometers altitude.

Robins AFB.

  • Originally known as the Georgia Air Depot, this major Air Force maintenance facility was established in 1941.

Romny.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1992. Probably an R-12 missile base.

Rosamund.

  • Rosamund Dry Lake, California

Rosamund Dry Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 18 launches from 1959 to 1960, reaching up to 26 kilometers altitude.

Rothera.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 26 launches in 1998, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude.

Ruzhany.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1990. Base for units deployed with R-12 and later 6 Pioner missile launchers.

Ryori.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 777 launches from 1970 to 2000, reaching up to 65 kilometers altitude.

Salto di Quirra.

  • Salto di Quirra, in southeast Sardinia near the town of Perdas de Fogu, is an inter-service missile test center operated by the Italian Air Force. It also supports sounding rocket launches and test of larger rockets in support of Italy's abandoned ballistic missile and on-and-of satellite launcher programs.

Salto di Quirra SL.

  • Scout launch complex. San Lorenzo pad

San Clemente.

  • Military facility on the California Channel Islands, used for rocket launches in support of other missile tests from Vandenberg or Point Mugu. In use from 1957. Known to have been used for 10 launches from 1958 to 1984, reaching up to 672 kilometers altitude. Later plans were made for an off-shore launch platform here for the Starstruck vehicle.

San Clemente E.

  • Dolphin launch complex.

San Marco.

  • In 1962 NASA signed an agreement with the Centro Ricerche Aerospaziali at the University of Rome creating the San Marco program. The purpose of the program was to place an Italian satellite in orbit and to create an Italian equatorial launch site for the Scout rocket. Permission was obtained from Kenya to emplace two modified oil platforms off their coast, on the equator. The Santa Rita platform would serve as a launch control center and would also be used for launch of sounding rockets. The San Marco platform would be dedicated to launch of Scout rockets to orbit.

San Marco Rita.

  • Apache launch complex. Santa Rita Platform

San Nicolas.

  • Military facility on the California Channel Islands, used for rocket launches in support of other missile tests from Vandenberg or Point Mugu. Known to have been used for 35 launches from 1957 to 2004, reaching up to 443 kilometers altitude.

Santa Barbara Channel DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 6 launches in 1958, reaching up to 12 kilometers altitude.

Santiago Ixcuintla.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1991, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.

Sary Shagan.

  • Primary Soviet anti-ballistic missile test site. Known to have been used for 85 launches from 1958 to 2007, reaching up to 300 kilometers altitude. The actual number of missile tests ran into the thousands.

Sary Shagan LC A.

  • Launch Complex A

Sary Shagan LC B.

  • Launch Complex B

Sary Shagan LC6.

  • A-35, V-1000 launch complex.

Saryozek.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-on. Perhaps operated R-12 missiles.

Satish Dhawan Space Centre.

Schilling AFB.

  • Atlas F (SMS 550) ICBM base.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 01.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 02.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 03.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 06.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 07.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 09.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 10.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 11.

Schilling AFB Missile Site 12.

Schwaebisch-Gmuend.

  • US base in the 1980's for 36 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Scud Batteries.

  • Mobile Iraqi Scud batteries were known to have been used for 59 wartime launches from 1990 to 1991, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude, en route to targets in Israel and Saudi Arabia.

Sea Launch.

Sea of Okhotsk Launch Area.

  • Sea of Okhotsk Launch Area

Sea-launched.

  • Sounding rocket launched from a naval vessel at an undocumented location. 2001 launches from 1956 to 2008, reaching up to 35,820 kilometers altitude, fall into this category.

Seba Oasis.

  • Alternate name for Tawiwa launch site.

Sembach AB.

  • Matador and MGM-13A Mace operating base, 1955 to 1966.

Semnan.

  • Launch site for Iran's Safir space launch vehicle.

Sendai.

Shaba North.

Shadrinsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1962. Base for units deployed with R-16 launchers.

Shahroud.

  • Shahroud

Shijiedu.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 7 launches from 1960 to 1966, reaching up to 115 kilometers altitude.

Shuang-cheng-tzu.

  • Alternate name for Jiuquan launch site.

Siauliai.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-1982. Division then moved to Irkutsk. Base for units deployed with two R-1/R-2 launchers, followed by six R-5, and probably finally R-12 missiles.

Sierra de Juarez.

  • Sounding rocket launch site, used in 1959.

Silver Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 14 launches from 1960 to 1967, reaching up to 41 kilometers altitude.

Silver Lake DZ RW15/33.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Simferopol.

  • Base for units deployed with two R-5 launchers.

Siple.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 11 launches from 1978 to 1981, reaching up to 211 kilometers altitude.

Siple A.

  • Arcas launch complex. Arcas launcher

Siple RAG.

  • Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. RAG launcher

Slavuta.

  • Base for units deployed with two R-5 launchers.

Slonim.

  • Base for units deployed with twelve R-12, and later nine Pioner missile launchers.

Slutsk.

  • Base for units deployed with nine Pioner launchers.

Smith Ranch Lake DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 10 launches from 1963 to 1968, reaching up to 107 kilometers altitude.

Smith Ranch Lake DZ RW03/21.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Smorgon.

  • Base for units deployed with 18 Pioner launchers.

Sonde Stromfjord.

  • The Danish Meteorological Institute established this sounding rocket range in 1971. The site was located next to an airport at the end of the fjord and was only occupied during launch campaigns. The location was well-suited for observation of the Arctic aurora and ionosphere. Known to have been used for 31 launches from 1971 to 1987, reaching up to 816 kilometers altitude.

Sonde Stromfjord DL.

  • Danish Launcher

Sonde Stromfjord HAD.

  • HAD Launcher

Sonde Stromfjord HAD3.

  • HAD Launcher No 3

Sonde Stromfjord MRL.

  • MRL Launcher

Sonde Stromfjord T.

  • Test Launcher

Sonmiani.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 90 launches from 1962 to 2007, reaching up to 423 kilometers altitude.

South China.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1995, reaching up to 100 kilometers altitude.

South Uist.

  • British missile test range, occupying a good portion of northwest South Uist island in the Hebrides. Aside from missile testing, it has also been used for launch of Skua and Petrel meteorological rockets. Known to have been used for 222 launches from 1962 to 1982, reaching up to 174 kilometers altitude.

Southend.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1980, reaching up to 156 kilometers altitude.

Southwest Regional Spaceport.

Sovetskaya Gavan.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 6 launches from 1963 to 1964, reaching up to 402 kilometers altitude.

Sovietsk.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 missiles.

Spaceport America.

  • Spaceport America was conceived in the early 1990s by the Southwest Space Task Force, a private group of New Mexican space activists. Studies led them to concentrate on 70 square-km of state-owned land, 72 km north of Las Cruces, New Mexico, near a locale known as Upham. In 2003 the governor and state legislature were finally sold on the idea of developing the site as America's premiere inland commercial spaceport.

Sriharikota.

  • India's primary space launch center, located on the east coast of the peninsula with a firing sector over the Bay of Bengal. In use from 1971 to present.

Sriharikota GSLV.

  • GSLV pad

Sriharikota PSLV.

  • PSLV, GSLV launch complex. PSLV pad

Sriharikota RH.

  • Sounding rocket complex

Sriharikota SLP.

  • PSLV, GSLV launch complex.

Sriharikota SLV.

  • SLV, ASLV launch complex. SLV pad

SvalRak.

  • Sounding rocket launch site, known to have been used for 41 launches from 1997 to 2004, reaching up to 1108 kilometers altitude. This launch site, on the arctic archipelago Svalbard, provides unique conditions for rocket studies of the dayside polar cusp, cleft and cap. The site is ideal for scientific exploration of the dayside aurora and processes in the magnetospheric boundary layer.

SvalRak LONG.

  • Viper launch complex. Longyearbyen

Sverdlovsk.

  • Sverdlovsk

Svobodniy.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1994, equipped with 90 light ICBM (UR-100) silos. The number of operational silos declined to 60 by 1993. The break-up of the Soviet Union left the main Russian cosmodrome on foreign territory (Baikonur, in Kazakhstan). The Northern Cosmodrome at Plesetsk did not have facilities for large launch vehicles and was not suited for support of launches into lower-inclination orbits. Therefore Svobodniy Cosmodrome, located 7,777 km east of Moscow, was established as the Second State Space Trials Launch Centre (GIK-2) on 2 February 1996.

Svobodniy LC5.

  • Topol launch complex.

Syowa Base.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 54 launches from 1970 to 1985, reaching up to 222 kilometers altitude.

Tabriz.

  • What has been identified by Sean O'Connor as Iran's first IRBM field is located 10 kilometers southwest of Tabriz. As of 2008 site consisted of the silo field, an administrative and support area, missile storage bunkers, and an unoccupied HQ-2 surface-to-air missile site. The latter was used as a staging area for mobile Shahab missile transport-erector launchers. The two silos seemed to include blast vents, indicating a hot-launch design.

Taiyuan.

  • China's launch site for launch of polar orbiting satellites, also known as Wuzhai. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) is situated in Kelan County, the northwest part of Shanxi Province, 280 km by road from Taiyuan City.

Taiyuan LC1.

  • CZ launch complex. Pad 1

Taiyuan LC2.

Tall Afar.

  • Tall Afar

Tanegashima.

  • Japan's main launch site for he larger N and H launch vehicles. In use for sounding rockets from 1967 and orbital launches from 1975. As of 2007 over 140 major launches had been made from the site.

Tanegashima N.

  • J, Delta launch complex. N Launch Complex

Tanegashima Q.

  • Mu launch complex. Q Launch Complex

Tanegashima T.

  • TR-1, S, MT-135, Lambda launch complex. Takesaki Launch Site

Tanegashima Y.

  • H-2 launch complex. Yoshinobu Launch Complex

Tanegashima Y2.

  • H-2 launch complex. Completed in 2000, for H-IIIB launches.

Tartagal.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 16 launches in 1966, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.

Tatishchevo.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1964-present. Base for units deployed with 110 light ICBM silos (UR-100/UR-100N) and later ten RT-23 mobile ICBM launchers. A single live launch was known to have been made from here in 1987, reaching 1000 km altitude.

Taurage.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 missile.

Tawiwa.

  • Libyan rocket test range, 600 km south of Tripoli. Site of tests of Otrag's low cost launch vehicle from 1981 to 1982, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Teikovo.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present, operating a peak of 90 light ICBM (UR-100/UR-100N) silos. By 1993 the number of operational silos had declined to 26.

Thule AFB.

  • Air Force base used for a series of geomagnetic pole sounding rocket launches from 1970 to 1976. Also known to have been used for 988 launches from 1964 to 1980, reaching up to 122 kilometers altitude.

Thule AFB TUTO.

  • Loki launch complex. Thule/Camp Tuto (Geopole Station)

Thumba.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 1385 launches from 1963 to 2004, reaching up to 400 kilometers altitude.

Thumba Pad 1.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Thumba Pad 2.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Thumba Pad 3.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Thumba Pad 4.

  • Sounding rocket launcher

Thumba Pad 5.

  • RH launch complex.

Tilla.

  • Military testing range, known to have been used for 7 launches from 1998 to 2006, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

Tomsk.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1962. Moved to Gladkaya.

Tonopah.

  • Sounding rocket and test vehicle launch site. Conducted launches in support of US nuclear weapons development programs. Known to have been used for 93 launches from 1957 to 1986, reaching up to 270 kilometers altitude.

Tonopah HAD4.

  • Tomahawk Sandia launch complex. HAD Launcher No. 4

Tonopah UL3.

  • Malemute launch complex. Universal Launcher No. 3

Tripoli.

  • Tripoli

Tyumen.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1964. Base for units deployed with nine R-9 launchers. Moved to Aleisk.

Tyuratam.

  • Alternate name for Baikonur launch site.

Uchinoura.

Uchinoura LCK.

  • Uchinoura LCK

Ukmerge.

  • Base for units deployed with R-12 missile.

Umm Qasr.

  • Umm Qasr

Upham.

Urda.

  • Urda

Urumqi.

  • Chinese mobile long range ballistic missile test area.

Uzhur.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-present. The division operated 64 heavy ICBM silos (R-36). By the 1990's these were supplemented with 12 RT-23 launchers.

V-2 Battery 444.

  • V-2 battery 444 was assigned to the northern group of V-2 mobile launchers and began operations on 31 August 1944, with the first successful launch on 2 September 1944. V-2 Gruppe Nord launchers were distributed along the English Channel, in a restricted zone north and south of The Hague, which included Hoek den Holland, Den Haag, and Wassenaar, all used for launches against London. On 28 January 1945 Battery 444 moved to Burgsteinfurt in the southern group of V-2 launchers, and continued operations with launches against Antwerp and Lille.

V-2 Battery 485.

  • V-2 batteries 1./485, 2./485 and 3./485 were assigned to the northern group of V-2 mobile launchers around the Hague and began operations on 3 September 1944, with the first successful launch on 8 September 1944. In late October 1944 3./485 was moved to Burgsteinfurt, and conducted operations from the southern group with launches against Antwerp and Lille. All units of battery 485 ended operations in the face of allied advances in the last days of March 1945.

V-2 Battery 836.

  • V-2 batteries 1./ 836, 2./836, and 3./836 were part of the southern group of V-2 mobile launchers based in the Ardennes forest and kept a constant barrage against Paris, Lille, and other French towns for three weeks from 10 September 1944. Focus then shifted to the Allied port facilities at Antwerp from 19 October until the end of March 1945. After retreating farther into Germany, on 8 April the battery destroyed its rockets and launching equipment and ceased to exist.

V-2 Battery SS Abt 500.

  • V-2 Battery SS Abt 500 was first assigned to the southern group of V-2 mobile launchers and began operations near Breitenfurt on 10 October 1944. Just over a month later it was moved to the northern group near the Hague. It operated from various locations there until forced cease operations and retreat before the Allied advance on 28 March 1945.

V-2 Gruppe Nord.

  • The northern group of V-2 mobile launchers began operations on 31 August 1944, with the first successful launch on 2 September 1944. Batteries assigned to Gruppe Nord included 444, 1./485, 2./485, and SS Battery 500. V-2 Gruppe Nord launchers were distributed along the English Channel, in a restricted zone north and south of The Hague, which included Hoek den Holland, Den Haag, and Wassenaar, all used for launches against London; Zwolle-Hellendoorn-Enchede, used for launches by SS 500 against Antwerp; and Burgsteinfurt, used for launches against Antwerp and Lille.

V-2 Gruppe Sued.

  • The southern group of V-2 mobile launchers saw a few initial launches by Battery 444 from the Ardennes forest against Paris beginning on 6 September, 1944. 444 moved on to Holland on the 10 September. Thereafter the batteries 1./ 836, 2./836, and 3./836 deployed and kept a constant barrage against Paris, Lille, and other French towns for three weeks. Focus then shifted to the Allied port facilities at Antwerp from 19 October until the end of the war.

Valga.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1960-on. Perhaps operated R-12 missile.

Vandenberg.

  • Vandenberg Air Force Base is located on the Central Coast of California about 240 km northwest of Los Angeles. It is used for launches of unmanned government and commercial satellites into polar orbit and intercontinental ballistic missile test launches toward the Kwajalein Atoll.

Vandenberg 395-A1.

  • Titan launch silo.

Vandenberg 395-A2.

  • Titan launch silo.

Vandenberg 395-A3.

  • Titan launch silo.

Vandenberg 395-B.

  • Titan launch silo.

Vandenberg 395-C.

  • Titan launch silo.

Vandenberg 395-D.

  • Titan launch silo.

Vandenberg 4300C.

  • Sergeant, Scout launch complex. Complex

Vandenberg 576A1.

  • Atlas launch complex. Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad, dedicated to ABM target payloads for Nike Zeus at Kwajalein. Upgraded for use as ABRES re-entry vehicle test program pad in 1965, and for BMRS program in 1971.

Vandenberg 576A2.

  • Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES re-entry vehicle test program pad in 1965, and for BMRS program in 1971.

Vandenberg 576A3.

  • Atlas, AMROC launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965, and for BMRS program in 1971.

Vandenberg 576B1.

  • Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965.

Vandenberg 576B2.

  • Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965.

Vandenberg 576B3.

  • Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas 576 SMS ICBM pad. Upgraded for use as ABRES pad in 1965.

Vandenberg 576C.

  • Atlas launch complex. Complex

Vandenberg 576D.

  • Atlas launch complex. Complex

Vandenberg 576E.

  • Taurus, Pegasus, Atlas, OBV launch complex. Complex

Vandenberg BOM1.

  • Bomarc launch complex. Bomarc Complex 1

Vandenberg BOM2.

  • Bomarc launch complex. Bomarc Complex 2

Vandenberg HP-06.

  • HP-06 GLCM launcher

Vandenberg LC-A.

  • Scout, Javelin, Honest John, Black Brant, Astrobee, Asp, Seagull, Journeyman, Dac Roc launch complex. Launch Complex A, Naval Missile Facility, Point Arguello

Vandenberg LC-B.

  • Viper, Terrier, Hopi, Deacon, Cajun, Astrobee launch complex. Launch Complex B, Naval Missile Facility, Point Arguello

Vandenberg LE-8.

  • Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS IRBM pad. Upgraded for use as a launch emplacement in 1961.

Vandenberg LF02.

  • Minuteman, Peacekeeper launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Peacekeeper.

Vandenberg LF03.

  • Minuteman, Minotaur launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Minotaur.

Vandenberg LF04.

  • Minuteman launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964.

Vandenberg LF05.

  • Minuteman, Peacekeeper launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964.

Vandenberg LF06.

  • Minuteman, Minotaur launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Peacekeeper.

Vandenberg LF07.

  • Minuteman launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964.

Vandenberg LF08.

  • Minuteman, Peacekeeper, Astrid launch silo. Originally a Minuteman 394 SMS silo. Upgraded for use as a Launch Facility in 1964, and later again modified to launch the Peacekeeper.

Vandenberg LF09.

  • Minuteman launch complex.

Vandenberg LF10.

  • Minuteman launch complex.

Vandenberg LF21.

  • Minuteman, Orbus launch complex.

Vandenberg LF22.

  • Minuteman launch complex.

Vandenberg LF23.

  • Minuteman, OBV launch complex.

Vandenberg LF24.

  • Minuteman launch complex.

Vandenberg LF25.

  • Minuteman launch complex.

Vandenberg LF26.

  • Minuteman launch complex.

Vandenberg LF7632.

  • R-17 launch complex.

Vandenberg OSTF.

  • Titan launch silo. Operational Silo Test Facility

Vandenberg OSTF1.

  • Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas Operational Silo Test Facility. Upgraded to a 576 SMS launch pad in 1963.

Vandenberg OSTF2.

  • Atlas launch complex. Originally an Atlas Operational Silo Test Facility. Upgraded to a 576 SMS launch pad in 1963.

Vandenberg PLC-C.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Aerobee launch complex. Probe Launch Complex C

Vandenberg RW30/12.

  • Runway

Vandenberg SLC10E.

  • Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a launch emplacement in 1961.

Vandenberg SLC10W.

  • Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a launch emplacement in 1965.

Vandenberg SLC1E.

  • Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1967.

Vandenberg SLC1W.

  • Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966.

Vandenberg SLC2E.

  • Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966.

Vandenberg SLC2W.

  • Delta launch complex. Originally a Thor 75 SMS launch pad. Upgraded to a space launch complex in 1966.

Vandenberg SLC3E.

  • Atlas V, Atlas launch complex. Atlas test facility, originally designated PALC1-2, then LC1-2, and finally upgraded to a Space Launch Facility in 1966.

Vandenberg SLC3W.

  • Delta, Atlas launch complex. First designated LC1-1 and used to launch Atlas Agena B with Samos payloads. After Samos cancellation, rebuilt in 1963 to support launch of KH-4 Corona spysats atop Thor-Agena. Refurbished in 1973 to accomodate surplus Atlas ICBM's in space launch role.

Vandenberg SLC4E.

  • Titan, Atlas launch complex. First designated PALC2-4 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats. Rebuilt after MOL cancellation in 1970 to handle Titan 3D with KH-9 and KH-11 spysats. Upgraded in 1989-1990 for Titan 4.

Vandenberg SLC4W.

  • Titan, Atlas launch complex. First designated PALC2-3 and used to launch Atlas Agena D with KH-7 spysats. Rebuilt in 1966 to handle Titan 3B with various military payloads. From 1988 used to launch refurbished surplus Titan 2 ICBM's in space launch role.

Vandenberg SLC5.

  • Scout launch complex. Dedicated Scout launch pad, used during the life of that vehicle from 1962 to 1994.

Vandenberg SLC6.

  • Delta IV, Athena launch complex. Space Launch Complex

Vandenberg SLC8.

  • Minotaur launch complex. Commercial Space Launch Facility, California Spaceport

Vandenberg SLTF.

  • Titan launch silo. Lift Test Facility.

Vandenberg TP-01.

  • SICBM, Peacekeeper launch silo.

Vandenberg WTR.

  • Trident launch complex.

Vernon.

  • Test rocket launch location known to have been used for 1 launch in 1951.

Vetrino.

  • Base for units deployed with nine Pioner launchers.

Vik.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 4 launches from 1964 to 1965, reaching up to 451 kilometers altitude.

Villa Reynolds.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 2 launches in 1973, reaching up to 240 kilometers altitude.

Visakhapatnam.

  • Visakhapatnam

Vorkuta Sovetskiy.

  • Vorkuta Sovetskiy

Vostochniy.

  • Vostochniy, Russia's new cosmodrome, was to be constructed at the missile base of Uglegorsk, population 5135, not far from the Svobodniy Cosmodrome. The site would include a modern residential town to accomodate the tens of thousands of workers at the cosmodrome. The space center would be designed to handle the Angara rocket family.

Wake Island.

  • US Pacific test vehicle launch site. In use from 1974 for launches of re-entry test vehicles and anti-ballistic missile targets. Known to have been used for 18 launches from 1974 to 2004, reaching up to 500 kilometers altitude.

Waldheide-Neckarsulm.

  • US base in the 1980's for 36 Pershing 2 IRBM's. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Walker AFB.

  • Operational US Atlas F (SMS 579) ICBM base, location of several fuelling accidents in 1963-1964.

Walker AFB Missile Site 01.

Walker AFB Missile Site 03.

Walker AFB Missile Site 05.

Walker AFB Missile Site 06.

Walker AFB Missile Site 08.

Walker AFB Missile Site 09.

Walker AFB Missile Site 10.

Walker AFB Missile Site 12.

Walker AFB Missile Site 579.

  • Atlas launch complex.

Wallops.

  • Wallops

Wallops Island.

  • Small NASA launch site for sounding rocket launches and occasional Scout launches to orbit. Air launches are conducted from the Drop Zone Wallops Island, 37.00 N 72.0 W. With the last orbital launch in 1985 and the decline in sounding rocket launches, Wallops fell into near-disuse as a launch center. Its fortunes revised with the establishment of Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport in 2005 and orbital launches resumed in 2010.

Wallops Island DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 6 launches from 1996 to 1999, reaching up to 834 kilometers altitude.

Wallops Island LA0 HAD.

  • Launch Area 0, HAD launcher

Wallops Island LA0A.

  • Conestoga launch complex. Launch Area 0A

Wallops Island LA0B.

  • Minotaur, ALV launch complex. Launch Area 0B, Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport

Wallops Island LA1.

  • Little Joe, Iris, Astrobee, Aerobee, Little Joe 1 2C launch complex. Aerobee Launcher, Launch Area 1

Wallops Island LA1 AML.

  • AML 50K Launcher, Launch Area 1

Wallops Island LA2.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Black Brant, Astrobee, Arcas, Apache launch complex. Launch Area 2

Wallops Island LA2 AML-1.

  • Thiokol AML-1 North, Launch Area 2

Wallops Island LA2 AML-2.

  • Thiokol AML-2 South, Launch Area 2

Wallops Island LA2 ARC.

  • ARC Launcher, Launch Area 2

Wallops Island LA2 HAD.

  • HAD Launcher, Launch Area 2

Wallops Island LA2 JUP.

  • Jupiter Launcher, Launch Area 2A

Wallops Island LA2 MLS.

  • Military Launcher South, Launch Area 2

Wallops Island LA2 RAG.

  • RAG Launcher, Launch Area 2A

Wallops Island LA3.

  • Scout, Nike, Apache launch complex. Mk I Launcher, Launch Area 3

Wallops Island LA3 HAD.

  • HAD Launcher, Launch Area 3

Wallops Island LA3A.

  • Scout launch complex. Mk II Launcher, Launch Area 3

Wallops Island LA3B.

  • 20K AML launcher, Pad 3B, Launch Area 3

Wallops Island LA4.

  • Tomahawk Sandia, Sergeant, Little Joe, Journeyman launch complex. Launch Area 4

Wallops Island LA4 HAD.

  • HAD launcher, Launch Area 4

Wallops Island LA4 MAST.

  • MAST launcher, Launch Area 4

Wallops Island LA4 ML.

  • Military Launcher, Launch Area 4

Wallops Island LA5.

  • Cajun, Black Brant, Apache launch complex. Launch Area 5

Wallops Island LP08B.

  • Wallops Island LP08B

Wallops Island RW04/22.

  • Runway, WFF Research Airport, Wallops Main Base

Warren AFB.

  • Atlas D (SMS 564), SMS 564) and E (SMS 549) ICBM base. Later a Minuteman ICBM base.

Warren AFB Missile Site 01.

Warren AFB Missile Site 02.

Warren AFB Missile Site 03.

Warren AFB Missile Site 04.

Warren AFB Missile Site 05.

Warren AFB Missile Site 06.

Warren AFB Missile Site 07.

Warren AFB Missile Site 08.

Warren AFB Missile Site 09.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-03.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-04.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-05.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-06.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-07.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-08.

Warren AFB Missile Site A-11.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-01.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-03.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-04.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-05.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-06.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-07.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-08.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-09.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-10.

Warren AFB Missile Site B-11.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-01.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-04.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-05.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-06.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-07.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-08.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-09.

Warren AFB Missile Site G-11.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-01.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-03.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-04.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-05.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-06.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-07.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-08.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-09.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-10.

Warren AFB Missile Site H-11.

Warren AFB Missile Site I-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site I-03.

Warren AFB Missile Site I-04.

Warren AFB Missile Site I-05.

Warren AFB Missile Site I-09.

Warren AFB Missile Site I-10.

Warren AFB Missile Site I-11.

Warren AFB Missile Site J-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site J-09.

Warren AFB Missile Site J-10.

Warren AFB Missile Site J-11.

Warren AFB Missile Site N-05.

Warren AFB Missile Site N-06.

Warren AFB Missile Site N-08.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-01.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-03.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-04.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-05.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-06.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-07.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-08.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-09.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-10.

Warren AFB Missile Site S-11.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-01.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-02.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-04.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-06.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-07.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-08.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-09.

Warren AFB Missile Site T-11.

Western Test Range DZ.

  • Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 5 launches from 1984 to 1986, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

Wheelus AFB.

  • Mace/Matador operating location. Crews from Europe would come here once a year to live-fire one of the cruise missiles then deployed around-the-clock in Germany.

White Sands.

  • White Sands Missile Range occupies an area 160 x 65 km in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico, across the Sacramento Mountain range from Roswell. In the 1930's, Robert Goddard, after surveying weather conditions and population densities, had selected Roswell for his pioneering rocket tests. White Sands, a true desert area, was even more unpopulated than Roswell. German advances in rocketry during World War II impelled the US Army to begin programs to exploit this technology. The White Sands Proving Ground was established for testing German and American long-range rockets on 9 July 1945. Seven days later the first atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site, near the north boundary of the range. The first launch of a Tiny Tim rocket was on 26 September 1945. On 11 October a Tiny Tim boosted a WAC Corporal rocket from the tower. This was the first use of Launch Complex 33, later to be used for V-2, Nike, Viking, Corporal, Lance and Multiple Launch Rocket System testing.

White Sands LC32.

  • Storm-2, Hera launch complex. Launch site for anti-ballistic missile targets. These are most often test vehicles composed of surplus Minuteman ICBM stages.

White Sands LC33.

  • Wac, Viking, V-2, Nike, Javelin, Hermes, Corporal, Atlas, Apache launch complex. LC 33 was the United States' first major rocket launch facility. The original Army Launch Area 1 complex consisted of a blockhouse, several concrete launching pads for captured German V-2 rockets, a 30-m tall launch tower for Aerobee rockets, a gantry and blast pit.

White Sands LC35.

  • Standard-ER, Black Brant, Aerobee launch complex. Work on LC-35 was begun by the US Navy in 1946. Although no specific requirement had been identified, Captain Robert McLaughlin of the Bureau of Naval Ordnance realized the Navy would need an instrumented range to test the surface-to-air missiles planned for Navy ships. The first facilities built were a blockhouse and two launch towers for Aerobee sounding rockets. From 1947 a total of 675 Aerobees were launched from White Sands, most of these from LC-35.

White Sands LC36.

  • Terrier, Redstone, Nike, Little Joe II, Honest John, Black Brant, Storm, Aries, Apollo LES launch complex. Originally designated Army Launch Area 2, LC36 was later a LC36 was a NASA facility that supported tests of the Apollo Launch Escape System. It was also used to launch NASA sounding rocket missions. The complex included a blockhouse, launch control equipment, and launchers with environmental shelters. These launchers included:

    • An 11-m rail with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 15-m rail with 11,000 kg capacity
    • A 50-m tower with 3600 kg capacity
    • A 1.2-m diameter stool with 23,000 kg capacity
    • A 9-m rail with 7000 kg capacity.

White Sands LC37.

  • Squirt, HEDI launch complex. LC 37 (Army Launch Area Three) was the main test complex for the Nike Ajax and Nike Hercules surface-to-air missiles. Later additions were used for HIBEX and HEDI KITE launches, and as the Army's Advanced Gun Munitions Test Site.

White Sands LC38.

  • Nike Zeus launch complex. LC 38 (Army Launch Area Five) was originally built in the 1960's for test of the Nike Zeus anti-ballistic missile. The Nike Zeus system required elaborate infrastructure to house the large missiles, and even larger assembly of radars, computers, and electronics. There were two R&D Zeus Launch Cells and later one tactical Launch Cell. In 1969 LC-38 was modified for test of the Patriot surface-to-air missile system, which eventually was developed to be capable against short-range ballistic missiles. The complex continued to be used for Patriot testing into the 21st Century.

White Sands LC39.

  • Launch Complex

White Sands LC50.

  • Sprint, HIBEX launch complex. West Center 50 was located in the central portion of the range near Rhodes Canyon. The facility included a hardened blockhouse to accommodate test of Sprint short-range anti-ballistic missiles without a destruct charge. The only missiles (with the possible exception of a HIBEX) that were ever launched from LC50 were Sprints (except for other small missile launched from there in later years). LC-50 was a mound built up in the desert with a ramp up to it coming from the south-southwest. The mound originally had three launch cells. One was destroyed by an explosion of FLA-3 in the cell. It was fenced and locked.

White Sands LC94.

  • Nike Zeus, Hera launch complex. Launch Complex 94 (FIX)

White Sands SULF.

  • Storm launch complex. The SULF complex was located at the northwest end of the range and was equipped with a blockhouse, ordnance assembly building, three launchers, and a 30-m long environmental shelter. This complex was used to launch anti-ballistic missile targets (generally composed of surplus Minuteman ICBM motors) and to launch technology demonstrations or unique science and engineering payloads into sub-orbital trajectories.

White Sands WSSH.

  • White Sands Space Harbor

White Sea Launch Area.

  • Submarine-launched ballistic missile area known to have been used for 27 launches from 1955 to 2007, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

Whiteman AFB.

  • Minuteman ICBM base.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-03.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-05.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-06.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-09.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-10.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site A-11.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-03.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-10.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site B-11.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-05.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-06.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-09.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-10.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site C-11.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-03.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-05.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-06.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-09.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site D-11.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-03.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-05.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-06.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-09.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-10.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site E-11.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-03.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-05.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-06.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-09.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site F-10.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-03.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-05.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-06.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-09.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-10.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site G-11.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-02.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-03.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-04.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-05.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-06.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-07.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-08.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-09.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-10.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site H-11.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site I-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site J-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site K-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site L-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site M-01.

Whiteman AFB Missile Site N-01.

Woensdrecht.

  • US base for BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. Never became operational prior to the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Woomera.

  • After World War II British government recognized the need for a large range to test the incredible array of long-range missile systems then planned. After considering sites in Canada, it was decided that Australia would best meet the projected needs. The Long Range Weapons Establishment was created on 1 April 1947 as a joint British/Australian enterprise. 23 days later the name Woomera (an aboriginal word of axtlaxtl, or spear thrower) was selected for the new town to be built as its administrative center. Woomera town peaked at a population of 6,000 in the 1960's. Thereafter the progressive cancellation of British missile and space projects put Woomera went into sustained decline. However it played a key role in the history of rocketry, including orbital launches or launch attempts by Black Arrow, Sparta, and Europa boosters.

Woomera HAD.

  • HAD launcher

Woomera LA1.

  • S launch complex.

Woomera LA2.

  • Stonechat, Skylark, Rook, Jaguar, Black Brant, Lorikeet, Long Tom, Kookaburra, HAD, Corella, Cockatoo, Aero High launch complex. Sounding rocket launcher

Woomera LA2 D.

  • Moraba mobile launcher, LA2

Woomera LA2 HRV.

  • Hypersonic launcher, LA2

Woomera LA2 N.

  • Nike Launcher, LA2

Woomera LA2 SL.

  • Skylark launcher, LA2

Woomera LA3.

  • Launch Area 3

Woomera LA4.

  • Launch Area 4

Woomera LA5A.

  • Black Knight launch complex. Launch Area 5A

Woomera LA5B.

  • Black Knight, Black Arrow launch complex. Launch Area 5B

Woomera LA6A.

  • Europa, Blue Streak launch complex. Launch Area 6A

Woomera LA8.

  • Redstone, Aerobee launch complex. Launch Area 8

Woomera LA9.

  • Launch Area 9

Woomera MRL.

  • MRL launcher

WTR Launch Area.

Wueschheim.

  • US base in the 1980's for 31 BGM-109G ground-launched cruise missiles. The launchers and missiles were withdrawn and destroyed under the INF Treaty with the Soviet Union.

Wurtsmith AFB.

  • The base was used by the Army Air Corps under tha names of Loud-Reames Aviation Field (1923-1942) and Oscoda Army Air Field (1942-1951). It was received its current name in 1951 when a he first of a succession of Air Defence Command squadrons were based there. Following runway and hangar improvements, B-52 bomber wings also occupied the base from 1961. In 1973 the Air Force base was closed and the facility began a new life as the public Oscoda-Wurtsmith Airport.

Wuzhai.

  • Alternate name for Taiyuan launch site.

Xichang.

  • China's launch site for geosynchronous orbit launches. Xichang Satellite Launch Centre is situated in Xichang, Sichuan Province, south-western China. The launch pad is at 102.0 degrees East and 28.2 degrees North. The head office of the launch centre is located in Xichang City, about 65 kilometers away. Xichang Airport is 50 km away. A dedicated railway and highway lead directly to the launch site.

Xichang LC1.

  • CZ launch complex. Launch Complex 1

Xichang LC2.

  • CZ launch complex. Launch Complex 2

Yasnaya/Oloynyaya.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-1992, equipped with 90 light ICBM silos (UR-100). Also a base for units deployed with 12 R-14 missiles.

Yasniy.

  • Alternate name of Dombarovskiy ICBM / orbital launch vehicle launch site.

Yellow Sea Launch Area.

  • Submarine-launched ballistic missile launch area known to have been used for 7 launches from 1982 to 2005, reaching up to 1000 kilometers altitude.

Yemen.

  • Yemen

Yoshkar-Ola.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Originally operated R-16 ICBM launchers. Later the only base for 60 silos equipped with the RT-2 solid propellant ICBM. These were progressively replaced by RT-2PM missiles.

Yuma.

  • Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 16 launches in 1966, reaching up to 180 kilometers altitude.

Yuma gun 16 inch.

  • Yuma 16 inch gun

Yuma gun 5 inch.

  • Yuma 5 inch gun

Yurya.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1961-present. Base for units deployed with R-16 ICBM, much later 45 RT-2PM mobile missiles.

Zaisimovichi.

  • Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.

Zhangiz-Tobe.

  • Headquarters of an RVSN Division, 1965-1995. Operated 52 heavy ICBM (R-36/R-36M2) silos.

Zhitkovichi.

  • Base for units deployed with six Pioner missile launchers.

Zingst.

  • A simple launch pad was set up at this East German firing range on the Baltic Sea for some of the last firings of the MMR-06 sounding rocket. Known to have been used for 62 launches from 1988 to 1992, reaching up to 79 kilometers altitude.

Znamensk.

  • Base for units deployed with twelve R-12 launchers.

More... - Chronology...

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