Encyclopedia Astronautica
Jiuquan



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Jiuquan
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Jiuquan
Location of Jiuquan
Credit: © Mark Wade
China's first launch center, also known as Shuang Cheng Tzu. Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre, situated at 100 degrees East, 41 degrees North, is located in the Jiuquan Region, Gansu province, north-western China. It was China's first ballistic missile and satellite launch centre.

The Jiuquan Airport was 75 km south of the site. A dedicated railway at Jiuquan went directly to the launch site. Jiuquan's facilities provided support for every phase of a satellite launch campaign. It included the Technical Centre, the Launch Complex, the Launch Control Centre, the Mission Command and Control Centre, propellant fuelling system, tracking systems, communications systems, gas supply systems, weather forecast systems, and logistic support systems. Jiuquan was originally used to launch scientific and recoverable satellites into medium or low earth orbits at high inclinations.

In 1999 the new South Center (LA4) became operational for heavy CZ-2E/CZ-2F launches. This consisted of two areas, the Technical Center and the Launch Center. The Launch Center was located at 100 deg 17.4' E, 40 deg 57.4' N at an elevation of 1073 m. The 75 m high umbilical tower was equipped with an explosion-proof elevator. The mobile launch pad weighed 75 metric tons with dimensions of 24.4 m x 21.7 m x 8.4 m and had a top speed of 28 m per minute. The Technical Center was 1.5 km away from the Launch Center. This included the VAB Vertical Processing Building with two 26.8 x 28 x 81.6 m processing halls. All important buildings, including the vertical processing building and an area of the umbilical tower, were air-conditioned to cleanness class 100,000. The VAB, code name 920-520, was built by the 8th Division of CSCEC, and was the world's tallest single-floor concrete building. It also had the world's tallest (86.1m above the ground) and heaviest (13,000 metric tons) concrete roof.

Jiuquan was known to have been used for at least 73 launches from 1960 to 2007.

Minimum Inclination: 56.0 degrees. Maximum Inclination: 40.0 degrees.

AKA: Shuang-cheng-tzu.
Location: Jiuquan Space Center.
Longitude: 100.4633 deg.
Latitude: 41.1180 deg.
Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Tiangong Chinese man-tended space laboratory. Operational, first launch planned September 2011. A series of three of these laboratories will be visited by a series of Shenzhou manned spacecraft between 2011 and 2018. The 8.5-ton design will then be extended to a 13-ton cargo carrier for resupply of the Chinese multi-module space station after 2020. More...
  • DFH-1 Chinese communications technology satellite. 3 launches, 1969.11.16 (DFH Mao 1) to 1971.03.03 (SJ-1). First Chinese satellite. The initial satellite was flown for purely propaganda purposes, using a tune generator to play the 'East is Red'. More...
  • JSSW Chinese military surveillance satellite. 6 launches, 1973.09.18 (JSSW 1) to 1976.11.10 (JSSW 6). Mysterious early Chinese satellite, orbited by the cancelled FB-1 launch vehicle. More...
  • FSW Chinese military surveillance satellite. 24 launches, 1974.11.05 (FSW-0) to 2006.09.09 (SJ-8). More...
  • SJ Chinese communications technology satellite. First launch 1979.07.28. SJ (Shijian) series were Chinese scientific research, technological experiment and military operational satellites of a variety of configurations. More...
  • Freja Swedish earth magnetosphere satellite. 2 launches, 1992.10.06 (Freja) and (Freja). Freja was designed to image the aurora and measure particles and fields in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere. More...
  • Shenzhou Chinese manned spacecraft. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The Chinese Shenzhou manned spacecraft resembled the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but was of larger size and all-new construction. More...
  • Shenzhou OM Chinese manned spacecraft module. Operational, first launch 1999.11.19. The orbital module provided quarters for the crew during the space mission, and could be fitted out with different internal and external equipment according to mission requirements. More...
  • CX-1 Chinese communications technology satellite. 2 launches, 2003.10.21 (CX-1) and 2008.11.05 (Chuanxin-1-02). More...
  • Shiyan Chinese civilian surveillance satellite. 2 launches, 2004.04.18 (Tansuo 1) to 2008.11.05 (Shiyan Weixing 3). The first 'Experiment Satellite', with a mass of 204 kg, was China's first transmission-type small satellite capable of stereo mapping. More...
  • Yaogan Chinese synthetic aperture radar military surveillance radar and ELINT satellite. Operational, first launch 2006.04.26. More...
  • Zheda Pixing Chinese technology satellite. Experimental microelectronics research picosatellite. Launched 2007.05.25, More...
  • Ban Xing Chinese technology satellite. One launch, 2008.09.25, BX-1. BanXing (companion satellite) subsatellite released by Shenzhou. If maneuvered away and back to the Shenzhou orbital module after the mission. More...

See also
  • CZ China's first ICBM, the DF-5, first flew in 1971. It was a two-stage storable-propellant rocket in the same class as the American Titan, the Russian R-36, or the European Ariane. The DF-5 spawned a long series of Long March ("Chang Zheng") CZ-2, CZ-3, and CZ-4 launch vehicles. These used cryogenic engines for upper stages and liquid-propellant strap-on motors to create a family of 12 Long-March rocket configurations capable of placing up to 9,200 kg into orbit. In 2000 China began development of a new generation of expendable launch vehicles using non-toxic, high-performance propellants with supposedly lower operating costs. However these encountered development delays, and it seemed the reliable Long March series of rockets would continue in operational use for nearly fifty years before being replaced. More...
  • CZ-1 China began development of the CZ-1 (Changzheng-1 = Long March-1) launch vehicle in the second half of 1965. The project was undertaken with the specific objective of launching China's first satellite, the DFH-1. The CZ-l's first and second stages were adapted from those of the DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile. The third stage used a new-design solid rocket motor. More...
  • DF-2 First Chinese IRBM, a single stage missile with the objective of carrying a 1500 kg warhead to Japan. The starting point for the design were R-12 construction drawings and a single exemplar of the missile provided by the Soviet Union prior to the break with Moscow in 1960. Following protracted development the design was accepted by the Chinese military for service in 1970. More...
  • DF-3 The DF-3 project began in 1964 with the objective of developing a nuclear-tipped missile capable of reaching the Philippines (earlier referred to as the DF-1). More...
  • R-2 The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry. More...
  • T-7 China's first sounding rocket and first indigenously-built sounding rocket, launched from 1960-1965. The basic vehicle consisted of a single liquid propellant stage. This was later augmented with solid propellant booster stages. Later versions dispensed with the liquid propellant stage. More...

Associated Flights
  • Shenzhou 5 Crew: Yang Liwei. First Chinese man in space. Highly conservative mission. Single astronaut stayed in the re-entry capsule for the entire 21-hour mission, and did not enter the orbital module. Backup crew: Zhai Zhigang.Support crew: Nie Haisheng. More...
  • Shenzhou 6 China's second manned mission took two astronauts into space for nearly five days, and featured use by a crew of the Shenzhou orbital module for the first time. Crew: Fei Junlong, Nie Haisheng. Backup crew: Liu Buoming, Jing Haipen.Support crew: Zhai Zhigang, Wu Jie. More...
  • Shenzhou 7 Crew: Zhai Zhigang, Liu Buoming, Jing Haipen. First Chinese EVA. First Chinese three-crew spaceflight. Third Chinese manned space mission. The Shenzhou was flown with the full complement of three crew and astronaut Zhai conducted China's first spacewalk. Backup crew: Chen Quan, Fei Junlong, Nie Haisheng. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-2 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry. More...
  • T-7 Chinese sounding rocket. China's first sounding rocket and first indigenously-built sounding rocket, launched from 1960-1965. The basic vehicle consisted of a single liquid propellant stage. This was later augmented with solid propellant booster stages. Later versions dispensed with the liquid propellant stage. More...
  • DF-2 First Chinese IRBM, a single stage missile with the objective of carrying a 1500 kg warhead to Japan. The starting point for the design were R-12 construction drawings and a single exemplar of the missile provided by the Soviet Union prior to the break with Moscow in 1960. Following protracted development the design was accepted by the Chinese military for service in 1970. More...
  • T-7A Chinese sounding rocket. Boosted version of China's first indigenously-built sounding rocket. Included solid propellant booster. The upper stage and payload were recovered by parachute and reused. Launches began in 1965. Consisted of a solid propellant booster mated to the basic liquid propellant T-7. Flown from 1965 to the end of the 1960's. More...
  • DF-2A Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Extended-range version of DF-2. The missile featured reduced thrust, but 20% more range, and used autonomous gyroscopic guidance in place of the DF-2's radio system. More...
  • DF-3 Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. The DF-3 project began in 1964 with the objective of developing a nuclear-tipped missile capable of reaching the Philippines (earlier referred to as the DF-1). More...
  • T-7/GF-01A Chinese sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of T-7A + GF-01A More...
  • CZ-1 Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China began development of the CZ-1 (Changzheng-1 = Long March-1) launch vehicle in the second half of 1965. The project was undertaken with the specific objective of launching China's first satellite, the DFH-1. The CZ-l's first and second stages were adapted from those of the DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile. The third stage used a new-design solid rocket motor. More...
  • DF-4 Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the DF-4 began in 1964 with the objective of fielding a ballistic missile capable of hitting Guam. The technical solution was to add a second stage to the DF-3 IRBM. More...
  • DF-5 Development of the the DF-5 began in 1964. The goal was an ICBM capable of reaching the United States. Although deployed in very limited numbers as an ICBM, this rocket became the basis for an entire family of space launch vehicles and the foundation of the Chinese space program. More...
  • FB-1 Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The FB-1, like the CZ-2 launch vehicle begun the following year, was a two-stage booster developed from the DF-5 intercontinental ballistic missile. Payload for the booster was the JSSW, believed to have been a television-transmission military reconnaissance satellite. The incredible decision to develop two nearly identical rockets concurrently can be blamed on the turbulent factional politics after the Cultural Revolution. More...
  • CZ-2A Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2 was originally designed for launch of the FSW-1 recoverable military reconnaissance satellite. More...
  • CZ-2C Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The CZ-2C was the definitive low earth orbit launch vehicle derived from DF-5 ICBM. It became the basis for an entire family of subsequent Long March vehicles. Many adaptive modifications were made to the configuration of the CZ-2A to handle a variety of new satellites and upper stages. The CZ-2C had improved technical performance and payload capacity compared to the CZ-2A, with later versions having a payload capability of 2,800 kg into a 200 km circular orbit. More...
  • CZ-2D Chinese orbital launch vehicle. The Long March 2D was a two-stage launch vehicle with storable propellants, suitable for launching a variety of low earth orbit satellites. Developed and manufactured by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology, the CZ-2D had a typical payload capability of 3,500kg in a 200 km circular orbit. Its first stage was identical to that of the CZ-4. The second stage was essentially the same as that of the CZ-4, except for an improved vehicle equipment bay. More...
  • CZ-2F Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Man-rated version of CZ-2E, designed for launch of the Shenzhou spacecraft. Little difference externally. Modifications were related to improved redundancy of systems, strengthened upper stage to handle large 921-1 spacecraft fairing and launch escape tower. President Jiang Zemin gave the name 'Shenjian' ('Divine Arrow') to the CZ-2F after the successful launch of the Shenzhou-3 mission. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Official Site of the Topic, Information obtained from the manufacturer or operator's official web site.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Jiuquan SLS-2 CZ launch complex. A second pad was built at the new launch complex for the CZ-2F manned spacecraft launcher, but used for smaller CZ-2D launch vehicles. Vehicles were processed at nearby Vertical Assembly Facility. More...
  • Jiuquan SLS CZ launch complex. New launch complex for the CZ-2F manned spacecraft launcher. Vehicle processed at nearby Vertical Assembly Facility. More...

Jiuquan Chronology


June 1956 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Beginning of construction at Jiuquan missile test site - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Program: Long March. Summary: The 20th Corps of the People's Liberation Army begins construction of launch and tracking facilities at Jiuquan. Wells are dug, willow and poplar trees are planted, roads and housing are constructed..

1960 September 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: The rocket was built in the Soviet Union but used Chinese propellants. This launch took place just a month after all Soviet experts were withdrawn from China..

1960 November 5 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: First launch of all-Chinese version of Russian R-2, model 1059. Radio guidance was used. Nie Rongzhen is present to observe the event..

1960 December 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1960 December 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-1.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Two further launches are made from Jiuquan..

1962 March 21 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2. FAILURE: Failure of guidance and engine mounting. Impacted after 69 seconds of flight.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). First DF-2 launch attempt. The rocket impacted the earth after only 69 seconds of flight. Fundamental design errors were discovered in calculating flexing of the rocket in flight, placement of the guidance system, and engine mounting. The missile was completely redesigned for reduced thrust.

1964 June 29 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: This followed a two-year complete redesign and test program following the first launch failure in 1962. The reduced-thrust missile had a range of 1050 km with a 1550 kg warhead, barely enough to reach Japan..

1964 July 9 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1964 July 11 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1965 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7.
  • DFH test Technology test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRCAS. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

November 1965 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2A.
  • First successful test of DF-2A. - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: First launch of redesigned DF-2. The flight demonstrated a 20% improvement in range for the same 1500 kg payload, and replaced the radio guidance of the DF-2 with an autonoumous gyroscopic system..

1966 October 27 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. LV Family: DF-2. Launch Vehicle: DF-2A.
  • Nuclear test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). DF-2A launched with a 1290 kg, 12 kt warhead from Jiuquan flew over a range of 800 km to Lop Nor, where the warhead successfully exploded. The Ninth Academy was responsible for development of the nuclear package. Tsien protégé Guo Yonghuai was the liaison between the Fifth and Ninth Academies for the development.

1966 December 26 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. LV Family: DF-3. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1967 Jan - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. Launch Vehicle: DF-3. LV Configuration: DF-3 601602?.
  • R&D - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1967 May 26 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • R&D - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1967 June 10 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • R&D - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1968 August 8 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7/GF-01A.
  • GF-01A satellite test - . Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi).

1968 August 20 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7/GF-01A.
  • GF-01A satellite test - . Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi).

1969 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7.
  • DFH test Technology test - . Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1969 June 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7A.
  • FSW satellite technology test - . Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1969 July 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: T-7. Launch Vehicle: T-7A.
  • FSW satellite technology test - . Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1969 November 16 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. LV Family: CZ-1. Launch Vehicle: CZ-1. FAILURE: The program distributor in the second stage broke down. The rocket crashed into the earth within view of the launch site after 69 seconds of flight.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • First Chinese satellite launch attempt ends in failure. - . Payload: DFH 1. Mass: 170 kg (370 lb). Nation: China. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-1. COSPAR: F691116Z. The launch vehicle arrived at the site on 18 March 1969. The objective was to launch China's first satellite before Japan lofted its counterpart. Ren Xinmin had obtained this specific order from Deng Hsiao Peng. Great difficulties were encountered in the middle of the Cultural Revolution, including the sending of most of the satellite engineers to work on irrigation ditch construction in the provinces. The skirt for the satellite, designed to make it easily visible to ground observors, had to be made from a special silk produced in a factory without the knowledge of the Red Guards. The engineers went by bus to a department store in Beijing to study an imported folding umbrella as a model for the deployment mechanism -- they could not afford to buy it. The entire launch was kept secret until a documentary was released in 2001.

1969 November 16 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4. LV Configuration: DF-4 601902.
  • R&D (Destruct) - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1970 January 30 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • R&D (Minfeng target) - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Summary: First test of prototype DF-3 (perhaps same configuration as CZ-1); not deployed..

1970 April 24 - . 13:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. LV Family: CZ-1. Launch Vehicle: CZ-1.
  • DFH Mao 1 - . Payload: DFH 1. Mass: 173 kg (381 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-1. USAF Sat Cat: 4382 . COSPAR: 1970-034A. Apogee: 2,162 km (1,343 mi). Perigee: 434 km (269 mi). Inclination: 68.4000 deg. Period: 111.60 min. The final campaign to launch China's first satellite began on April 1, 1970, when two DFH-1 satellites and the CZ-1 rocket arrived by train at the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre. This was over a year after the first attempt in 1969. Ren Xinmin was project leader and Qi Faren was leader of the DFH-1 experiment team. On April 2 Premier Zhou Enlai called a special meeting in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing for a final readiness review of the satellite and the launch vehicle. Zhou wanted special guarantees that the satellite would transmit the march 'The East is Red' from orbit.

    On the morning of April 24, 1970, the first and second stages of CZ-1 were loaded with propellant and stacked. The satellite was mated to the spin-stabilized solid-propellant third stage, and the launcher entered the final eight hours of launch preparation. Weather forecast for the launch at 9:30 p.m. called for clouds at above 7,000 meters and a wind speed of less than 4 to 5 meters per second.

    The historic launch came at 9:35 p.m. local time (13:35 UTC). Upon hearing the command "ignition", a launch controller pressed the button to start the rocket engines. The three-stage CZ-1, which was 29.46 meters tall and had a maximum diameter of 2.25 meters, lifted off the launch pad with a thrust of 104 tonnes. Liftoff weight of the CZ-1 was 81.5 tonnes. Rocket expert Shen Jianan recounted that "..as soon as I saw the liftoff on the TV screen inside the bunker, I ran outside. I could only see the beautiful rocket lighting up the night sky and streaking towards the southeast. I ran back inside to listen to the transmissions. Broadcasting on the speaker were status reports like 'capturing target', 'nominal tracking', 'nominal flight', 'nominal second and third stage separation'..." Thirteen minutes after launch, at 9:48 p.m., mission control announced "...satellite and rocket stage separation, satellite enters orbit...the bunker was filled with cheers".

    China became the fifth nation after the former Soviet Union, the United States, France and Japan to achieve an indigenous space launch capability. At 9:50 p.m., the National Broadcasting Bureau announced the acquisition of the tune 'East is Red' from the satellite loud and clear. In the following days, the People's Central Broadcasting radio and newspapers in Beijing announced and printed worldwide times of DFH-1 and CZ-1 third stage passages, and directions of travel in the sky. Senior officials in Beijing dispatched a chartered plane to JSLC to bring back Qi and other scientists. In the International Labour Day celebration on May 1, Chairman Mao and Premier Zhou warmly welcomed them at the Tiananmen Square.


1971 March 3 - . 12:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2A. LV Family: CZ-1. Launch Vehicle: CZ-1.
  • SJ-1 - . Payload: Shi Jian 1. Mass: 221 kg (487 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-1. Decay Date: 1979-06-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 5007 . COSPAR: 1971-018A. Apogee: 1,833 km (1,138 mi). Perigee: 265 km (164 mi). Inclination: 69.8000 deg. Period: 106.10 min. Summary: Similar in appearance to the American Telstar and conducted communications technology tests..

1971 September 10 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Research and Development Suborbital Flight.

1971 Nov - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1972 August 10 - . 00:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-02.
  • Shiyan Peizhong - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Research and Development Suborbital Flight.

1973 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1973 September 18 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-03. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • JSSW 1 - . Payload: JSSW 1. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: JSSW. COSPAR: F730918A.

1974 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1974 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA3. Launch Vehicle: DF-2.
  • - . Nation: China. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1974 July 14 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-04. FAILURE: Vehicle lost attitude stability and destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • JSSW 2 - . Payload: JSSW 2. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: JSSW. COSPAR: F740714A.

1974 Nov - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • Reentry wake test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1974 November 5 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2A. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2A CZ2A-1 (3). FAILURE: Cable carrying pitch rate gyro signal disconnected.. Failed Stage: G.
  • FSW-0 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. A. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Decay Date: 1974-11-05 . COSPAR: F741105A.

1974 Dec - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • Reentry wake test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1975 July 26 - . 13:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-05.
  • JSSW 3 - . Payload: JSSW 3. Mass: 1,107 kg (2,440 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: JSSW. Decay Date: 1975-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 8053 . COSPAR: 1975-070A. Apogee: 455 km (282 mi). Perigee: 190 km (110 mi). Inclination: 69.0000 deg. Period: 90.90 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; radio transmission. .

1975 November 26 - . 03:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-1 (4).
  • FSW-0 No. 1 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 01. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-12-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 8452 . COSPAR: 1975-111A. Apogee: 483 km (300 mi). Perigee: 183 km (113 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. First orbital test of Chinese recoverable photo surveillance satellite. The spacecraft was brought down early, after three days in orbit, due to problems with the attitude control system cold gas supply. Along the skirt of the return capsule some wires and instruments were burnt during re-entry and capsule impacted far from its planned landing point. However usable film was obtained from the capsule. The Chinese Academy of Space Technology organised a team to determine the cause, and improvements were made in the next spacecraft of the model. Additional Details: here....

1975 December 16 - . 09:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-06.
  • JSSW 4 - . Payload: JSSW 4. Mass: 1,110 kg (2,440 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: JSSW. Decay Date: 1976-01-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 8488 . COSPAR: 1975-119A. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 69.0000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; radio transmission. .

1976 May 14 - . 21:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4. LV Configuration: DF-4 702601.
  • Performance test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 June 1 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • Date uncertain. First test of DF-4. - . Nation: China. Program: Long March.

1976 August 24 - . 22:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4. LV Configuration: DF-4 702602.
  • Performance test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 August 30 - . 11:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-07.
  • JSSW 5 - . Payload: JSSW 5. Mass: 1,108 kg (2,442 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: JSSW. Decay Date: 1978-11-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 9394 . COSPAR: 1976-087A. Apogee: 2,145 km (1,332 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 69.2000 deg. Period: 108.80 min.

1976 November 10 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701-08. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • JSSW 6 - . Payload: JSSW 6. Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: JSSW. COSPAR: F761110A.

1976 December 7 - . 04:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-2 (5).
  • FSW-0 No. 2 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 02. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 2.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-01-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 9587 . COSPAR: 1976-117A. Apogee: 489 km (303 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 59.4000 deg. Period: 91.10 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 9 December. First completely successful test of the FSW spy satellite. Many improvements in comparison to the first FSW orbited..

1977 September 14 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701(II)-01.
  • DDDS test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1977 September 30 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • Full range test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1977 November 22 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • Full range test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1978 January 26 - . 04:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-3 (6).
  • FSW-0 No. 3 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 03. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-02-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 10611 . COSPAR: 1978-011A. Apogee: 507 km (315 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; film capsule; capsule returned January 30. Second fully successful FSW mission..

1978 April 15 - . 16:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 701(II)-02.
  • DDDS test - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1979 January 7 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1979 July 15 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1979 July 28 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 XCZ-1-02. FAILURE: Second stage failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • SJ-1 - . Payload: Shi Jian 1. Mass: 221 kg (487 lb). Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: SJ. COSPAR: F790728A. Summary: The SJ-1 was similar in appearance to the American Telstar and conducted communications technology tests..

1979 August 21 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan on 2 August..

1979 September 4 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1979 November 26 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan on 15 October..

1980 February 9 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • Test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 May 18 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 May 21 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • Test mission - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 August 2 - . 15:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4. LV Configuration: DF-4 802013.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 October 31 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 September 19 - . 21:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: FB-1. LV Configuration: Feng Bao 1 XCZ-1-02.
  • SJ-2A - . Payload: Shi Jian 2B. Mass: 257 kg (566 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SJ. Decay Date: 1981-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 12842 . COSPAR: 1981-093A. Apogee: 1,598 km (992 mi). Perigee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 59.5000 deg. Period: 103.30 min.
  • SJ-2B - . Payload: Shi Jian C. Mass: 28 kg (61 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SJ. Decay Date: 1982-10-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 12843 . COSPAR: 1981-093B. Apogee: 1,615 km (1,003 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 59.4000 deg. Period: 103.50 min. Summary: Balloon for drag studies..
  • SJ-2 - . Payload: Shi Jian 2. Mass: 483 kg (1,064 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: SJ. Decay Date: 1982-08-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 12845 . COSPAR: 1981-093D. Apogee: 1,608 km (999 mi). Perigee: 232 km (144 mi). Inclination: 59.4000 deg. Period: 103.40 min.

1981 December 7 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: DF-5.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: PRC. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Other sources say launch was from Taiyuan..

1982 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • Long life test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1982 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • Long life test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1982 September 9 - . 07:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-4 (7).
  • FSW-0 No. 4 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 04. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 13521 . COSPAR: 1982-090A. Apogee: 392 km (243 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 14 September..

1983 August 19 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-5 (8).
  • FSW-0 No. 5 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 05. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 14288 . COSPAR: 1983-086A. Apogee: 493 km (306 mi). Perigee: 170 km (100 mi). Inclination: 63.3000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 24 August..

1984 September 12 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-6 (11).
  • FSW-0 No. 6 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 06. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1984-09-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 15279 . COSPAR: 1984-098A. Apogee: 398 km (247 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 67.9000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; film capsule recovered 17 September..

1985 October 21 - . 05:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-7 (12).
  • FSW-0 No. 7 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 07. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1985-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 16177 . COSPAR: 1985-096A. Apogee: 393 km (244 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Fanhui Shi Weixing photo surveillance satellite; film capsule recovered 26 October..

1985 Dec - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-3A.
  • R&D range test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1986 Jan - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-3A.
  • R&D range test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1986 Oct - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • Op test - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1986 October 6 - . 05:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-8 (14).
  • FSW-0 No. 8 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 08. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 17001 . COSPAR: 1986-076A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; capsule re-entered October 11 after five day mission..

1987 August 5 - . 06:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-9 (15).
  • FSW-0 No. 9 - . Payload: FSW-0 No. 09. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 5.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-08-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 18306 . COSPAR: 1987-067A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 169 km (105 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 89.90 min. Summary: Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; carried microgravity experiments; return capsule recovered August 10 after five days in space..

1987 September 9 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-10 (16).
  • FSW-1 No. 1 - . Payload: FSW-1 No. 01. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-10-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 18341 . COSPAR: 1987-075A. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; return capsule recovered September 17 after eight days in space..

1988 August 5 - . 07:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-11 (18).
  • FSW-1 No. 2 - . Payload: FSW-1 No. 02. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-08-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 19368 . COSPAR: 1988-067A. Apogee: 311 km (193 mi). Perigee: 204 km (126 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: German crystal growth experiment in recoverable capsule. Results marred by hard landing..

1990 October 5 - . 06:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-12 (25).
  • FSW-1 No. 3 - . Payload: FSW-1 No. 03. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Decay Date: 1990-10-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 20838 . COSPAR: 1990-089A. Apogee: 312 km (193 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable satellite; carried biological research experiments..

1992 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-4.
  • Training - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1992 August 9 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-1 (27).
  • FSW-2 No. 1 - . Payload: FSW-2 No. 01. Mass: 2,500 kg (5,500 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-09-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 22072 . COSPAR: 1992-051A. Apogee: 332 km (206 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 63.1000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable imaging satellite; carried microgravity experiments; capsule returned August 25 after 15 days in orbit..

1992 October 6 - . 06:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-13 (29).
  • Freja - . Payload: FSW-1 4 / Freja. Mass: 259 kg (570 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Freja. USAF Sat Cat: 22161 . COSPAR: 1992-064A. Apogee: 1,763 km (1,095 mi). Perigee: 590 km (360 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 108.90 min. Ionospheric, auroral, amgnetospheric studies. Freja is a Swedish/German satellite designed for research into the aurora. The satellite was launched piggyback on a Long March 2C (CZ-2C) rocket and weighs 214 kg in orbit. It is a sun-pointing spinner (10 rpm) with a 2.2 m diameter. It will make high re solution measurements in the upper ionosphere and lower magnetosphere. Data will be received at Esrange, Kiruna, Sweden and at the Prince Albert Satellite Station in Canada's Saskatchewan Province. Launch time 0620 UT.
  • Freja - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: PRC. Spacecraft: Freja. USAF Sat Cat: 22161 . COSPAR: 1992-064xx. Apogee: 1,782 km (1,107 mi). Perigee: 521 km (323 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 108.40 min.
  • FSW-1 No. 4 - . Payload: FSW-1 No. 04. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 22162 . COSPAR: 1992-064B. Apogee: 309 km (192 mi). Perigee: 213 km (132 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Fanhui Shi Weixing recoverable imaging satellite; carried remote sensing, microgravity experiments; capsule recovered October 13 after 6 days in orbit..

1993 October 8 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-14 (31).
  • FSW-1 No. 5 - . Payload: Jian Bing 93. Mass: 2,099 kg (4,627 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Decay Date: 1993-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 22859 . COSPAR: 1993-063A. Apogee: 2,860 km (1,770 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 56.6000 deg. Period: 116.50 min. The only FSW-1 mission conducted during 1993-1994 was launched into an orbit of 209 km by 300 km at an inclination of 57.0 deg. In addition to an Earth observation Payload, FSW-1 5 carried microgravity research equipment and a diamond-studded medallion commemorating the 100th anniversary of Chairman Mao Tse-Tung's birth. The spacecraft operated normally until 16 October when an attempt to recover the satellite failed. An attitude control system failure aligned the spacecraft 90 deg from its desired position, causing the re-entry capsule to be pushed into a higher elliptical orbit (179 km by 3031 km) instead of returning to Earth. Natural decay did not bring the capsule back until March 12, 1996.

1994 July 3 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. Launch Pad: LA2B?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-2 (33).
  • FSW-2 No. 2 - . Payload: FSW-2 No. 02. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-09-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 23145 . COSPAR: 1994-037A. Apogee: 350 km (210 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 90.08 min. The second Fanhui Shi Weixing FSW-2 was launched on 3 July 1994 into an orbit of 173 km by 343 km at an inclination of 63.0 deg. The spacecraft remained in orbit for 15 days, making four small manoeuvres before successfully returning to Earth. The payload included Earth observation systems, a biological experiment, and microgravity research instruments. The retrievable capsule was recovered in China on July 18

1996 October 20 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan LA2B. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-3 (43).
  • FSW-2 No. 3 - . Payload: FSW-2 No. 03. Mass: 2,600 kg (5,700 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 15.00 days. Decay Date: 1996-12-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 24634 . COSPAR: 1996-059A. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi). Perigee: 121 km (75 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 87.00 min. Summary: Final launch in the FSW series. Landed in China on November 4 after 15 days in orbit..

1999 November 19 - . 22:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2F CZ2F-1 (59).
  • Shenzhou - . Mass: 7,600 kg (16,700 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Manufacturer: CALT. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 0.88 days. Decay Date: 1999-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 25956 . COSPAR: 1999-061A. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi). Perigee: 195 km (121 mi). Inclination: 42.6000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. The unmanned first test flight of a prototype of the Chinese Project 921-1 spacecraft took place 49 days after the planned date of October 1, 1999. Shenzhou separated from its launch vehicle and went into orbit about ten minutes after lift-off. The spacecraft was controlled from the new Beijing Aerospace Directing and Controlling Centre. The spacecraft did not manoeuvre during the flight. The first attempt to return the spacecraft to earth came on orbitt 12, but the retrofire command would not be accepted by the spacecraft's computer. A retry on the next orbit also failed.

    The Yuanwang-3 tracking ship off the coast of Namibia picked up the spacecraft's signal at 18:49 UT, and commanded retro-fire. This time the spacecraft accepted the command, which probably saved the entire program. The spacecraft passed out of range of the tracking ship nine minutes later. Its trajectory arced over Africa, skimmed the coast of the Arabian peninsula, and then over Pakistan, before re-entering over Tibet.

    Following re-entry, the drogue chute deployed at an altitude of 30 km with the capsules soft-landing rockets firing 1.5 m above the ground. The capsule landed at 41 deg N, 105 deg E, (415 km East of its launch pad and 110 km north-west of Wuhai, Inner Mongolia), at November 20 19:41 UT. The spacecraft had completed 14 orbits of the earth in 21 hours and 11 minutes.

    After the flight it was reported that not a single primary spacecraft system had failed, so none of the back-up systems were tested. The touchdown point was only 12 km from the predicted position. The soft landing braking rocket worked well - no damage was found to the capsule structure, heat shield or the seals. The jettisoned heat shield, parachute hatch, and drogue chute were found within 5 km of the landing point. The orbital module, which separated prior to retro-fire, continued in controlled flight until 27 November, when it decayed and reentered the atmosphere. A primary payload returned by Shenzhou were 100 kg of seeds, considered valuable to the Chinese after one day of exposure to the space environment. The Chinese space tracking fleet returned from the Shenzhou mission between 12 December 1999 and 4 January 2000. During their 259-day voyage, the four ships traveled 185,000 km and experienced some heavy seas while tracking and communicating with the Shenzhou for a total of 150 minutes. Additional Details: here....


2001 January 9 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2F CZ2F-2 (65).
  • Shenzhou 2 - . Mass: 7,400 kg (16,300 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Manufacturer: CALT. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 6.77 days. Decay Date: 2001-01-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 26664 . COSPAR: 2001-001A. Apogee: 345 km (214 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 42.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. The second unmanned test flight of the Shenzhou manned spacecraft design carried a monkey, a dog and a rabbit in a test of the spaceship's life support systems. Shenzhou 2 was the first test of an all-up flight model of the spacecraft, with a functioning orbital module. It was also the most ambitious space science laboratory ever launched by China. It carried 64 scientific payloads: 15 in the re-entry module, 12 in the orbital module and 37 on the forward external pallet. These included a micro-gravity crystal growing device; life sciences experiments with 19 species of animals and plants, cosmic ray and particle detectors; and China's first gamma ray burst detectors.

    The launch was originally scheduled for January 5, but the second stage of the launch vehicle was dented by an access platform while being prepared for roll-out in the vehicle assembly building. This caused several days of delay until it was cleared for flight. Shenzhou 2 made three orbit-raising manoeuvres during its flight, reaching a 330 x 345 km orbit by the end of the initial phase of the mission. Ninety minutes before landing the orbital module depressurised, and the spacecraft went briefly out of control. However this was regained after venting of the atmosphere from the module ended. The descent module and service modules separated from the forward orbital module and external pallet normally. After retrofire by the service module, it separated and the descent module landed at 11:22 GMT on January 16 in Inner Mongolia. Lack of post-recovery photographs led to speculation that the recovery may not have been completely successful. The Shenzhou orbital module had its own solar panels and remained operational in orbit, conducting scientific experiments. It was actively controlled for six months, maneuvering in orbit several times (reaching a final orbit of 394 x 405 km). It then was allowed to decay and reentered the atmosphere at 09:05 GMT on August 24, 2001. The reentry point was near 33.1 deg S in latitude and 260.4 deg E in longitude, over the western Pacific Ocean between Easter Island and Chile.


2001 August 21 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Vehicle: DF-3.
  • - . Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

2002 March 25 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2F CZ2F-3 (66).
  • Shenzhou 3 - . Mass: 7,800 kg (17,100 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CAS. Manufacturer: CALT. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 6.78 days. Decay Date: 2002-04-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 27397 . COSPAR: 2002-014A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 374 km (232 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. The third unmanned test of the Shenzhou spacecraft was delayed almost three months when a defective connector was found on the booster after roll-out to the pad in January 2002. The vehicle was disassembled, and all suspect connectors were replaced. The stand-down also revealed ten previously undetected defects in the space capsule. The spacecraft, the first all-up flight model with a functioning (but deactivated) launch escape system, was finally launched and placed into an initial 197 x 326 km x 42.4 deg orbit at 1425 UTC. At about 2120 UTC Shenzhou used its own engine to raise its orbit to 332 x 337 km. The capsule included a dummy astronaut instrumented to monitor life support systems. The descent module returned to Earth on April 1 at 0851 UTC, landing in Inner Mongolia. The orbital module remained in orbit to carry out further experiments, finally being deorbited on 12 November 2002. The spacecraft carried 44 scientific payloads, including a medium-resolution imaging radiometer developed by Chinese Academy of Sciences, installed on the instrument pallet atop the orbital module.

2002 December 29 - . 16:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2F CZ2F-4 (69).
  • Shenzhou 4 - . Mass: 7,794 kg (17,182 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CAS. Manufacturer: CALT. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 6.77 days. Decay Date: 2003-01-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 27630 . COSPAR: 2002-061A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Final unmanned test of the Shenzhou spacecraft. First night launch of the CZ-2F was viewed by Party leaders on a very cold but clear night. The spacecraft carried fifty-two science payloads in four main areas: microwave Earth observation, space environment monitoring, microgravity fluid physics, and biological technology research. The spacecraft's reentry capsule was successfully recovered on 5 January 2003 at 1116 UT. The Chinese released the news and photographs of the capsule in the dusk snow only an hour later. The landing site was 40 km from Hohhot (40.51deg N, 111.38 deg E). As in prior missions, the orbital module continued in orbit. Chinese astronauts trained on the actual flight hardware before the launch and it was officially announced that this successful mission set the stage for a first Chinese manned spaceflight in the second half of 2003. Western observors noted that the orbit and ground track allowed launch of a second rendezvous vehicle, an indication of future manned space station missions. Shenzhou 4 carried 52 scientific payloads including a microwave radiometer using a reflector antenna, installed on top of the orbital module.

2003 October 15 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F.
  • Shenzhou 5 Orbital Module - . Mass: 1,100 kg (2,400 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Shenzhou OM. Decay Date: 2004-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 28049 . COSPAR: 2003-045G. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 338 km (210 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. The Shenzhou 5 orbital module was essential an unmanned military reconnaisance satellite. It was never entered by the astronaut during the mission, and was equipped with two high resolution (1.6 m) surveillance cameras. It was expected to operate until at least spring 2004.
  • Shenzhou 5 - . Crew: Yang Liwei. Backup Crew: Zhai Zhigang. Support Crew: Nie Haisheng. Mass: 7,840 kg (17,280 lb). Nation: China. Related Persons: Yang Liwei; Zhai Zhigang; Nie Haisheng. Agency: PLAAF. Manufacturer: CALT. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Shenzhou 5. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 0.89 days. Decay Date: 2003-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 28043 . COSPAR: 2003-045A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 332 km (206 mi). Inclination: 42.4192 deg. Period: 91.20 min. China's first manned spaceflight began with the lift-off of the CZ-2F booster into the clear blue morning sky. All went according to plan and China's first man in space, Yang Liwei, entered an initial 200 km x 343 km orbit ten minutes after launch. The naval vessels standing buy for rescue in the Sea of Japan were called back to port.

    The highly conservative mission plan was for Yang to remain in the Shenzhou re-entry capsule for the entire 21-hour mission, and not to enter the orbital module. He had two rest periods of three hours each, and was scheduled to eat once or twice meals of what was said to be a superior form of Chinese space food. Frequent communications sessions, including colour television links to the spacecraft, were made possible by China's four tracking ships deployed in the oceans of the world.

    As the spacecraft was in its 21st orbit, the orbital module separated. It would stay in the 343 km orbit for a planned six-month military imaging reconnaissance mission. Retrofire was commanded via a tracking ship in the Atlantic off the coast of Africa. Shenzhou-5 landed only 4.8 km from the aim-point in Inner Mongolia with the parachute being sighted by the ground recovery forces prior to landing. Yang landed after 21 hours 23 minutes aloft.


2003 November 2 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS-2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-4 (73).
  • FSW-3 No. 1 - . Payload: FSW-18, FSW-3.1, Jianbing 4. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SAST. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Decay Date: 2003-12-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 28078 . COSPAR: 2003-051A. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi). Perigee: 141 km (87 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 87.50 min. Summary: Expected to have been long-awaited 'seeds in space' mission but official announcements spoke only of photography..

2004 August 29 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-25 (78).
  • FSW-3 No. 2 - . Payload: FSW-19. Mass: 2,100 kg (4,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 26.67 days. Decay Date: 2004-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 28402 . COSPAR: 2004-033A. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 168 km (104 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Recoverable satellite officially stated to be conducting space scientific research, land surveying, mapping and other scientific experiments. Said to have improved experimental technology, with higher orientation precision and more complex on-board computers and software. Controlled from the Xian Satellite Monitoring and Control Centre. Successfully re-entered and recovered after 27 days in space at 23:55 GMT on 24 September.

2004 September 27 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-5 (80).
  • FSW-3 No. 3 - . Payload: FSW 20. Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 17.78 days. Decay Date: 2004-11-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 28424 . COSPAR: 2004-039A. Apogee: 297 km (184 mi). Perigee: 205 km (127 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Summary: Recoverable military satellite. Returned to Earth at 02:48 GMT on October 15, falling through the roof of a house in the village of Penglai, Sichuan province..

2005 July 5 - . 22:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS-2. Launch Pad: SLS-2?. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-6 (85).
  • SJ-7 - . Payload: Shi Jian 7. Nation: China. Manufacturer: CASC. Spacecraft: SJ. USAF Sat Cat: 28737 . COSPAR: 2005-024A. Apogee: 573 km (356 mi). Perigee: 555 km (344 mi). Inclination: 97.6000 deg. Period: 95.90 min.

2005 August 2 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-27 (86).
  • FSW-3 No. 4 - . Payload: FSW-21. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Manufacturer: SAST. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 27.00 days. Decay Date: 2005-08-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 28776 . COSPAR: 2005-027A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 153 km (95 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Military reconnaisance satellite, which maneuvered to raise its apogee on Aug 5 and 7 to a 166 x 552 km x 63.0 orbit; and again to the same altitude on Aug 19 after the apogee decayed to 535 km. Return capsule with film aboard recovered on 29 August..

2005 August 29 - . 08:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-7 (87).
  • FSW-3 No. 5 - . Payload: FSW-22. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CAST. Manufacturer: SAST. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 49.00 days. Decay Date: 2005-10-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 28824 . COSPAR: 2005-033A. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Decayed 17 October 2005..

2005 October 12 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2F CZ2F-6 (88).
  • Shenzhou 6 - . Crew: Fei Junlong; Nie Haisheng. Backup Crew: Liu Buoming; Jing Haipen. Return Crew: Zhai Zhigang; Wu Jie. Mass: 8,040 kg (17,720 lb). Nation: China. Related Persons: Fei Junlong; Nie Haisheng; Liu Buoming; Jing Haipen; Zhai Zhigang; Wu Jie. Agency: SISE. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Shenzhou 6. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 4.81 days. Decay Date: 2005-10-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 28879 . COSPAR: 2005-040A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 331 km (205 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Moved up from October 13. Second Chinese manned space mission. The two-astronaut crew spent 5 days in space, and worked in the Shenzhou orbital module for the first time. Aside from biomedical experiments, the nature of their work was not divulged, and few images of the interior of the orbital module (with its probable military experiments) were released.

2006 September 9 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2C CZ2C-28 (90).
  • SJ-8 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CASC. Manufacturer: SAST. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: FSW. Duration: 14.82 days. Decay Date: 2006-11-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 29385 . COSPAR: 2006-035A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Long delayed Seed Satellite, an experiment in which a large payload of seeds were exposed to te space environment for two weeks. The modified FSW optical reconnaisance satellite capsule was recovered in Sichuan at 02:43 GMT on September 24..

2007 May 25 - . 07:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2D CZ2D-8 (99).
  • Yaogan 2 - . Mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb). Nation: China. Agency: CNSA. Manufacturer: CAST. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Yaogan. USAF Sat Cat: 31490 . COSPAR: 2007-019A. Apogee: 655 km (406 mi). Perigee: 631 km (392 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Second Chinese synthetic aperture radar military surveillance satellite..
  • Zheda Pixing 1 - . Mass: 2.00 kg (4.40 lb). Nation: China. Agency: Zhejiang. Manufacturer: SIMIT. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Zheda Pixing. COSPAR: 2007-019x. Summary: Experimental microelectronics research picosatellite..

2008 September 25 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. Launch Complex: Jiuquan SLS. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F. LV Configuration: CZ-2F s/n CZ2F7.
  • Shenzhou 7 - . Crew: Zhai Zhigang; Liu Buoming; Jing Haipen. Mass: 7,840 kg (17,280 lb). Nation: China. Related Persons: Zhai Zhigang; Liu Buoming; Jing Haipen. Agency: SISE. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Shenzhou 7. Spacecraft: Shenzhou. Duration: 2.85 days. Decay Date: 2008-09-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 33386 . COSPAR: 2008-047A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 329 km (204 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Third Chinese manned space mission. The crew consisted of Zhai Zhigang, backup astronaut for China's first manned space mission; and Liu Buoming and Jing Haipeng, backups for the second mission. The astronauts demonstrated the capability of the Shenzhou spacecraft to carry its full complement of three crew for the first time. Zhai, wearing a Chinese-developed Feitian space suit, emerged from the orbital module of the Shenzhou and became China's first astronaut to conduct a spacewalk. Liu, wearing a proven Russian Orlan spacesuit, remained in the depressurized orbital module, ready to assist Zhai in an emergency. A subsatellite, weighing 40 kg, was released after the EVA, and relayed back images of Shenzhou 7 from close range to a distance of several kilometers. The crew returned safely to earth in a pinpoint landing in Outer Mongolia, carried live on television. The orbital module remained in space, conducting space network experiments with the subsatellite.
  • BX-1 - . Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Flight: Shenzhou 7. Spacecraft: Ban Xing. Decay Date: 2009-10-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 33392 . COSPAR: 2008-047G. Apogee: 331 km (205 mi). Perigee: 321 km (199 mi). Inclination: 42.4000 deg. Period: 91.00 min. Summary: BanXing (companion satellite) subsatellite released by Shenzhou 7. If maneuvered away and back to the Shenzhou orbital module after the mission..

2008 November 5 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D.
  • Chuanxin-1-02 - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: CX-1. USAF Sat Cat: 33433 . COSPAR: 2008-056A. Apogee: 805 km (500 mi). Perigee: 785 km (487 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Summary: Microsat built by the Shanghai Institute of Microsystems and Information Technology) and the Shanghai Academy of Space Technology. The satellite was designed to collect and relay hydrological and meteorological data and data for disaster relief..
  • Shiyan Weixing 3 - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Shiyan. USAF Sat Cat: 33434 . COSPAR: 2008-056B. Apogee: 806 km (500 mi). Perigee: 785 km (487 mi). Inclination: 98.5000 deg. Period: 100.80 min. Summary: Built by the Harbin Institute of Technology and the DFH Satellite Company for 'experiments on new technologies in atmospheric exploration'..

2008 December 1 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: CZ-2D s/n CZ2D10.
  • Yaogan Weixing 4 - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Yaogan. USAF Sat Cat: 33446 . COSPAR: 2008-061A. Apogee: 654 km (406 mi). Perigee: 632 km (392 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Summary: Fourth 'Remote Sensing Satellite'; presumed military mission..

2009 November 12 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C.
  • SJ-11-01 - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Spacecraft: SJ-11. USAF Sat Cat: 36088 . COSPAR: 2009-061A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 688 km (427 mi). Inclination: 98.3000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Summary: Experimental Satellite, believed to carry infrared surveillance system sensors..

2009 December 9 - . 08:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: CZ-2D s/n CZ2-34.
  • Yaogan Weixing 7 - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Spacecraft: Yaogan. USAF Sat Cat: 36110 . COSPAR: 2009-069A. Apogee: 659 km (409 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Summary: Remote-Sensing Satellite, apparently a military optical surveillance satellite similar to YW-2 and YW-4..

2010 January 11 - . 11:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan.
  • Target - . Nation: China. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Target.

2010 March 5 - . 04:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-4C. LV Configuration: CZ-4C s/n CZ4-19.
  • Yaogan 9A - . Mass: 2,800 kg (6,100 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Yaogan. USAF Sat Cat: 36413 . COSPAR: 2010-009A. Apogee: 1,107 km (687 mi). Perigee: 1,075 km (667 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.10 min.
  • Yaogan 9B - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Yaogan. USAF Sat Cat: 36414 . COSPAR: 2010-009B. Apogee: 1,107 km (687 mi). Perigee: 1,075 km (667 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.10 min.
  • Yaogan 9C - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Yaogan. USAF Sat Cat: 36415 . COSPAR: 2010-009C. Apogee: 1,107 km (687 mi). Perigee: 1,074 km (667 mi). Inclination: 63.4000 deg. Period: 107.10 min.

2010 June 15 - . 01:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D. LV Configuration: CZ-2D s/n CZ2-35.
  • SJ-12 - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Military. Type: Anti-satellite system. Spacecraft: SJ-12. USAF Sat Cat: 36596 . COSPAR: 2010-027A. Apogee: 602 km (374 mi). Perigee: 578 km (359 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.50 min. Summary: Satellite inspector/interceptor. Carried out a close pass or even came in contact with the SJ-6/3A satellite on 19 August 2010. By 21 September was in a 580 km x 606 km x 97.8 deg orbit..

2010 August 24 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D.
  • Tianhui-1 Weixing - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 36985 . COSPAR: 2010-040A. Apogee: 507 km (315 mi). Perigee: 484 km (300 mi). Inclination: 97.4000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: Research, mapping and land resource survey satellite..

2010 September 22 - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2D.
  • Yaogan 11 - . Payload: Zheda Pixing 1A. Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yaogan. USAF Sat Cat: 37165 . COSPAR: 2010-047A. Apogee: 669 km (415 mi). Perigee: 626 km (388 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Summary: Carried earth imaging camera..
  • Zheda Pixing 1B - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Spacecraft: Zheda Pixing. USAF Sat Cat: 37166 . COSPAR: 2010-047B. Apogee: 657 km (408 mi). Perigee: 622 km (386 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.50 min.
  • Zheda Pixing 1C - . Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Spacecraft: Zheda Pixing. USAF Sat Cat: 37167 . COSPAR: 2010-047C. Apogee: 657 km (408 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.50 min.

2011 July 6 - . 04:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C.
  • SJ-11-3 - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: SJ-11. USAF Sat Cat: 37730 . COSPAR: 2011-030A. Apogee: 702 km (436 mi). Perigee: 691 km (429 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Summary: Military satellite, believed to be equipped with infrared sensors, perhaps for ballistic missile launch detection..

2011 July 29 - . 07:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C.
  • SJ-11-02 - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: SJ-11. USAF Sat Cat: 37765 . COSPAR: 2011-039A. Apogee: 705 km (438 mi). Perigee: 688 km (427 mi). Inclination: 98.1000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Summary: Believed to carry infrared surveillance system sensors..

2011 August 18 - . 09:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2C. FAILURE: Second stage vernier engine suffered a mechanical failure.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • SJ11-04 - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: SJ-11. COSPAR: 2011-0F02. Summary: Fourth satellite of the SJ-11 infrared surveillance system failed to reach orbit when the second stage vernier engine suffered a mechanical failure..

2011 September 29 - . 13:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Jiuquan. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2F. LV Configuration: CZ-2FT1.
  • Tiangong 1 - . Nation: China. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Spacecraft: Tiangong. USAF Sat Cat: 37820 . COSPAR: 2011-053A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 330 km (200 mi). Inclination: 42.8000 deg. Period: 91.20 min. Summary: First Chinese manned space laboratory. Placed initially into a 198 km x 332 km x 42.8 deg orbit. Maneuvered to a 336 km x 353 km operational orbit by 30 September in preparation for arrival of the Shenzhou 8 spacecraft that would dock with it..

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