Encyclopedia Astronautica
Kerguelen



kerguele.gif
Kerguelen
Credit: © Mark Wade
Sounding rocket launch location known to have been used for 186 launches from 1963 to 1981, reaching up to 416 kilometers altitude.

Location: Kerguelen Range, Port-Aux-Francais.
Longitude: 70.2191 deg.
Latitude: -49.3522 deg.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Arcas The Arcas (All-Purpose Rocket for Collecting Atmospheric Soundings) was developed by the Atlantic Research Corporation for the Office of Naval Research (ONR) with the support of the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics and the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories. Primarily a meteorological rocket, the Arcas was first fired in July 1959. The single-stage version was designed to lift 5.4 kg to 64 km. For more demanding missions, several versions of boosted Arcas were developed, as well as a stretched Super Arcas motor. More...
  • Belier Family of sounding rockets, developed by Sud Aviation, with the only or upper stage being variants of the Belier stage powered by a Jericho rocket motor. These were the most significant series of French civilian suborbital rockets. Manufacturing licenses were sold to India and Pakistan, becoming the basis of their rocket industries. More...
  • M-100 Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28. More...
  • Stromboli The second series of Sud Aviation sounding rockets were designed to carry large diameter payloads, and used Stromboli motors only. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • M-100 Two-stage, solid propellant, fin stabilized, unguided Russian sounding rocket, fired in greater numbers than any other. At least 6,640 of all models were fired to the edge of space before the vehicle was discontinued in 1990. 4,908 of the basic M-100 model were fired from 1957-07-11 to 1983-09-28. More...
  • Centaure French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket. The Belier I II, or III single stage sounding rocket was augmented by a Venus booster with 94 kg of solid propellant. The rocket was spin stabilised by small solid rocket engines on the four fins. More...
  • Dragon 2B French sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Stromboli + 1 x Belier II More...
  • Super Arcas American sounding rocket. Single stage vehicle, improved version of the original Arcas with a lengthened motor burning for 40 seconds. Payload 4 kg to 100 km or 8 kg to 40 km. More...
  • Eridan French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket consisting of two Stromboli motors in tandem. More...
  • M-100B Russian sounding rocket. Model calibrated with Western sounding rockets and part of the World Meteorological Network. 1,730 launched from 1976-01-07 to 1990-12-. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • CNES French agency overseeing development of spacecraft. Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Paris, France. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Kerguelen Chronology


1963 April 1 - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1968 March 15 - . 03:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 2B. LV Configuration: Dragon 2B D-251A.
  • FU-171 VLF / Ions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1968 March 27 - . 07:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 2B. LV Configuration: Dragon 2B D-252.
  • FU-171 VLF / Ions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1968 April 1 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 2B. LV Configuration: Dragon 2B D-253.
  • FU-171 VLF / Ions Ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi).

1973 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1973 March 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1973 March 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1973 March 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1973 March 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1973 March 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1973 March 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1973 April 4 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1973 April 5 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1973 April 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1973 April 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1973 April 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Atomic O - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1973 April 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1973 April 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Atomic O - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1973 April 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Atomic O - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1973 May 2 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1973 May 7 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1973 May 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1974 February 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1974 February 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1974 February 23 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1974 February 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1974 March 2 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1974 March 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1974 March 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1974 March 22 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1974 March 23 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1974 March 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1974 March 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1974 April 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1974 April 10 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1974 April 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1974 April 19 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1974 April 20 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1974 April 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 97 km (60 mi).

1974 April 24 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1974 April 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1975 January 22 - . 02:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas. LV Configuration: Super Arcas NASA 15.129UE.
  • ARAKS Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1975 January 22 - . 02:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas. LV Configuration: Super Arcas NASA 15.130UE.
  • ARAKS Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1975 January 26 - . 02:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Eridan. LV Configuration: Eridan E012A.
  • ARAKS Northward Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1975 February 3 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas. LV Configuration: Super Arcas NASA 15.138UE.
  • ARAKS Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1975 February 15 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas. LV Configuration: Super Arcas NASA 15.131UE.
  • ARAKS Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1975 February 15 - . 01:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Arcas. Launch Vehicle: Super Arcas. LV Configuration: Super Arcas NASA 15.132UE.
  • ARAKS Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1975 February 15 - . 01:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Eridan. LV Configuration: Eridan E012B.
  • ARAKS Eastward Ionosphere / plasma mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1975 March 19 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1975 March 26 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1975 April 2 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1975 April 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1975 April 12 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1975 April 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1975 April 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1975 April 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1975 April 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1975 April 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1975 May 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1975 May 5 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1975 May 7 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1975 May 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1975 May 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1975 May 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1975 May 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1975 June 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1975 June 6 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1975 June 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1976 February 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1976 February 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1976 March 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 March 10 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1976 March 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1976 March 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1976 March 26 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1976 March 29 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1976 March 31 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1976 April 7 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1976 April 10 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 April 12 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 April 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 April 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1976 April 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1976 April 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 May 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 May 12 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 May 19 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 May 19 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1977 February 9 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 79 km (49 mi).

1977 February 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1977 February 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1977 February 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1977 February 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1977 March 2 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1977 March 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 94 km (58 mi).

1977 March 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1977 March 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1977 March 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1977 March 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1977 March 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1977 March 25 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1977 March 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1977 April 6 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1977 April 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 April 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1977 April 18 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1977 April 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1978 June 7 - . 15:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 June 14 - . 15:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 June 21 - . 16:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1978 June 28 - . 17:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 July 5 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1978 July 10 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 July 12 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1978 July 15 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 July 19 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1978 July 26 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 August 2 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 August 9 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1978 August 16 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1978 August 19 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 August 23 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1978 August 28 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1978 August 29 - . 16:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 August 30 - . 13:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 92 km (57 mi).

1978 September 6 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1978 September 8 - . 15:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1979 May 30 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1979 June 2 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1979 June 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1979 June 6 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1979 June 8 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1979 June 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1979 June 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1979 June 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1979 June 18 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1979 June 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1979 June 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1979 June 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1979 June 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1979 June 27 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1979 June 29 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1979 June 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1979 July 4 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1979 July 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1979 July 7 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1979 July 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1980 April 26 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1980 April 29 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1980 April 30 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1980 May 2 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1980 May 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1980 May 5 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1980 May 6 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1980 May 7 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1980 May 9 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1980 May 10 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1980 May 12 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1980 May 13 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1980 May 14 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1980 May 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1980 May 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1980 May 19 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1980 May 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1980 May 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1980 May 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1981 May 20 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 May 22 - . 02:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1981 May 27 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1981 June 3 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 June 8 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 89 km (55 mi).

1981 June 9 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 June 10 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 June 11 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 June 12 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 June 17 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 June 24 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 July 1 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1981 July 8 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1981 July 15 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 July 20 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1981 July 21 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 82 km (50 mi).

1981 July 22 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1981 July 23 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1981 July 24 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1981 July 29 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

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