Encyclopedia Astronautica
Palmachim



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Palmachim
Credit: © Mark Wade
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Palmachim
Location of Palmachim
Credit: © Mark Wade
Israeli coastal missile test site from which the Shavit satellite launch vehicle is also launched. A due-west launch over the Mediterranean is required to avoid overflying Arab countries, resulting in unique orbital inclinations and directions.

The site was known to have been used for 40 launches from 1987 to 2007.

Minimum Inclination: 142.0 degrees. Maximum Inclination: 144.0 degrees.

Location: Israeli Air Force Test Range, Palmachim Beach.
Longitude: 34.6802 deg.
Latitude: 31.8848 deg.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Spacecraft
  • Ofeq 1-2 Israeli technology satellite. 2 launches, 1988.09.19 (Ofeq-1) to 1990.04.03 (Ofeq-2). Ofeq, meaning 'Horizon', was a technology demonstration satellite developed by IAI (Israel Aircraft Industries) for ISA (Israel Space Agency). More...
  • Ofeq 3 Israeli military surveillance satellite. 4 launches, 1995.04.05 (Ofeq-3) to 2006.04.25 (EROS-B). Ofeq 3 was Israel's second-generation imaging surveillance satellite. More...
  • Ofeq 5 Israeli military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 2002.05.28. Ofeq-5 was said to be about 33% heavier than its predecessors. More...

See also
  • Arrow The Arrow weapon system was a ground-based, ballistic missile defense system designed to protect Israel against ballistic missiles. More...
  • Jericho First Israeli ballistic missile. Developed by Dassualt in France as the MD-620. Test series included both one and two stage prototypes. Follow-on versions were said to have differed. More...
  • Shavit Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. NEXT was a variant with an improved upper stage for proposed launch from Wallops Island, USA (launch from Israel is only possible into retrograde orbits since due East launch would be over territory of adjacent countries). More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Jericho 2 Israeli intermediate range ballistic missile. Tactical ballistic missile. Probably corresponds to first two stages of Shavit launch vehicle. More...
  • Shavit Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Satellite launcher derived from Jericho II MRBM, essentially identical to South African RSA-3. More...
  • Arrow 1 Prototype and initial model Israeli Anti Tactical Ballistic Missile, originally an SDIO/BMDO project. More...
  • Shavit 1 Israeli all-solid orbital launch vehicle. Shavit 1 is an improved version of the original Shavit with a stretched first stage motor. More...
  • Arrow 2 Israeli theater missile defense weapon developed and manufactured using substantial American funding. More...

Associated Programs
  • Offeq Israeli indigenous satellite series. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function of first Offeqs: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field. Later models provided military optical and electronic reconnaissance services. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites
  • Palmdale Omni DZ Air-launched rocket drop zone known to have been used for 8 launches from 1960 to 1961, reaching up to 16 kilometers altitude. More...

Palmachim Chronology


1987 May 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 January 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1988 September 19 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1.
  • Ofeq-1 - . Mass: 155 kg (341 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1989-01-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 19519 . COSPAR: 1988-087A. Apogee: 1,149 km (713 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 142.9000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. First Israeli launch; possibly experimental surveillance mission. Experimental satellite 'Offeq-1'. Launch time 0934 GMT. Location: site on the coast south of Tel-Aviv. Launching organization: Israel Aircraft Industries, Ltd (IAI) and Israeli Space Agency (ISA). Function: 1) Experimentation in generation of solar power; 2) Experimentation in transmission reception from space; 3) Verification of system's ability to withstand vacuum and weightless conditions; 4) Data collection on space environment conditions and Earth's magnetic field.

1989 September 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1990 April 3 - . 12:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 2.
  • Ofeq-2 - . Mass: 160 kg (350 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 1-2. Decay Date: 1990-07-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 20540 . COSPAR: 1990-027A. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi). Perigee: 149 km (92 mi). Inclination: 143.2000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Communication experiments. .

1990 August 9 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1991 March 25 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1991 October 30 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1992 September 23 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 February 28 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 February 28 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 July 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 October 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1993 October 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1994 March 1 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1994 June 12 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1994 September 15 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2. LV Configuration: Jericho II 3?. FAILURE: Failure.
  • 'Ofeq? - . Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1995 April 5 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 3.
  • Ofeq-3 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. Decay Date: 2000-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 23549 . COSPAR: 1995-018A. Apogee: 694 km (431 mi). Perigee: 366 km (227 mi). Inclination: 143.4000 deg. Period: 94.50 min.

1995 July 30 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1996 February 20 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1996 August 20 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F3.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1996 August 20 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Target mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1997 March 11 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F4.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1997 August 19 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1.
  • Target mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1997 August 19 - . 08:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F5.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1998 January 22 - . 12:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 4. FAILURE: Launch vehicle failed during second stage burn.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Ofeq-4 - . Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 3. COSPAR: F980122A. Summary: Fell in Mediterranean Sea..

1998 September 14 - . 12:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F6.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1999 November 1 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Complex: Palmachim IAFTR. Launch Platform: SHIP-ISR. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 1. LV Configuration: Arrow 1 TM-91.
  • Target mission - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1999 November 1 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F7.
  • ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

2000 September 14 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F8.
  • AST-5 Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

2000 September 14 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2001 June 27 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Jericho. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2.
  • Operational test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2001 August 27 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2001 August 27 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • AST-6 Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2002 May 28 - . 15:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 5.
  • Ofeq-5 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 27434 . COSPAR: 2002-025A. Apogee: 757 km (470 mi). Perigee: 370 km (220 mi). Inclination: 143.5000 deg. Period: 95.90 min. Military Observation satellite. Return to flight of the Shavit booster following a lauanch failure. Launch delayed from third quarter 2001. The three-stage Shavit rocket took off from Palmachim Air Force Base on the Israeli coast and flew westward to put the satellite in a retrograde orbit. The AUS-51 third stage solid motor entered a 262 x 774 km x 143.5 deg orbit and separated from the Ofeq satellite. Both coasted up to apogee at around 1620 UTC when Ofeq made a burn to increase its velocity by 33 m/s, raising the orbit to 369 x 771 km x 143.5 deg.

2003 January 5 - . 14:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F10?.
  • AST-8 ATBM test - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

2003 December 16 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2003 December 16 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F11.
  • AST-9 Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

2004 September 6 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 6. FAILURE: Third stage orientation failure at 270 seconds into the flight. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Ofeq-6 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. Summary: Military observation satellite failed to reach orbit. Finanical loss estimated by Israeli press as $ 100 million..

2005 December 2 - . 08:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2005 December 2 - . 08:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 F14 BLK-3.
  • AST? Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2007 February 11 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2007 February 11 - . 18:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2. LV Configuration: Arrow 2 M4.
  • AST Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2007 March 26 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2007 June 10 - . 23:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1. LV Configuration: Shaviyt 1 7.
  • Ofeq-7 - . Mass: 300 kg (660 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: Tsahal. Manufacturer: IAI. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 31601 . COSPAR: 2007-025A. Apogee: 576 km (357 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 141.8000 deg. Period: 93.80 min. Summary: Israeli optical reconnaisance satellite, evidently using an improved version of the Shavit booster and probably heavier and more capable than its predecessors..

2008 January 17 - . 06:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Jericho 2. LV Configuration: Jericho III.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

2008 April 15 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. Launch Vehicle: Blk Sparrow. LV Configuration: Blue Sparrow 1.
  • - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IDF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2009 April 7 - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • AST Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

2010 June 22 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Shavit. Launch Vehicle: Shavit 1.
  • Ofeq 9 - . Mass: 189 kg (416 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: ISA. Program: Offeq. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Ofeq 5. USAF Sat Cat: 36608 . COSPAR: 2010-031A. Apogee: 586 km (364 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 141.8000 deg. Period: 94.50 min. Summary: Israeli optical surveillance satellite..

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