Encyclopedia Astronautica
Plesetsk LC16/2


R-7 launch complex. Complex 16 was the second R-7A ICBM launch complex to become operationall at Plesetsk, in 1960. In 1969, Pad 2 was cannibalized to upgrade the Area 1 facility in Baikonur. Pad 2 was not again brought into operation until 1979. It was then completely renovated as a space launch pad for Molniya 8K78M/Soyuz 11A511U class vehicles. The first launch was on 19 February 1981, and it continued in use in this role into the 21st Century.

The complex followed the design of the protoype facility built at Area 31 of Baikonur and included its own residential area for military personnel and assembly buildings for launchers and payloads. The launchers were assembled and integrated with their payload in a horizontal position and transported to the launch pad by the railway. As operational ICBM facilities, the complex consisted of: Launch pad 2; Assembly Hall 4; and Residential Area 16.

Longitude: 40.6834 deg.
Latitude: 62.9600 deg.
First Launch: 1981.02.19.
Last Launch: 2007.10.23.
Number: 71 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Spacecraft
  • Molniya-2 Russian communications satellite. 20 launches, 1971.11.24 (Molniya 2-01) to 2005.06.21 (Molniya 2-17). Molniya-2 was the elliptical orbit component of the Soviet YeSSS communications satellite system. More...
  • Oko Russian military early warning satellite. 86 launches, 1972.09.19 (Cosmos 520) to 2010.09.30. Work on the Soviet Union's first infrared ICBM launch detection satellite began in 1967 as the USK - space system to observe rocket launches. More...
  • Molniya-3 Russian communications satellite. 55 launches, 1974.11.21 (Molniya 3-01) to 2003.06.19 (Molniya 3-53). Development of the Molniya-2M communications satellite, later called Molniya-3, began in 1972. Flight trials began in November 1974. More...
  • Molniya-1T Russian military communications satellite. 63 launches, 1976.01.22 (Molniya) to 2004.02.18 (Molniya-1T). This was a modernized Molniya-1 communications satellite with the 'Beta' retransmitter which began flight tests in 1970. More...
  • Yantar-4K1 Russian film-return military surveillance satellite. Operational, first launch 1979.04.27. Flight trials of the Yantar-2K indicated the satellite was not capable of providing strategic warning of attack. The high resolution Yantar-4K provided that capability, while still capable of being launched by the existing Soyuz-U launch vehicle. Lifetime was 45 days. Two small capsules could return film an an interim basis before the main spacecraft with film returned to earth. More...
  • Zenit-8 Russian military surveillance satellite. 101 launches, 1984.06.11 (Cosmos 1571) to 1994.06.07 (Cosmos 2281). More...
  • Resurs F1-14F40 Russian earth land resources satellite. 7 launches, 1986.07.16 (Cosmos 1762) to 1988.02.18 (Cosmos 1920). The Resurs-F earth resource satellite was based on the recoverable Zenit-4 spy satellite. More...
  • Resurs F2 Russian earth land resources satellite. 11 launches, 1987.12.26 (Cosmos 1906) to 1995.09.26 (Resurs F2 N.10). Adaptation of recoverable Vostok spacecraft for remote sensing. More...
  • Resurs F1-14F43 Russian earth land resources satellite. 18 launches, 1988.05.31 (Cosmos 1951) to 1993.08.24 (Resurs F-19). A decree of 5 May 1977 authorized development of three earth resource satellites. More...
  • Pion Russian earth atmosphere satellite. 6 launches, 1989.05.25 (Pion) to 1992.08.19 (Pion 2). Deployed from Resurs F1, which carried two passive separable "Pion" probes to investigate upper atmospheric density. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Molniya 8K78M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya, in variants with Blocks ML, 2BL, or SO-L third stages according to payload. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U Russian standardised man-rated orbital launch vehicle derived from the original R-7 ICBM of 1957. It has been launched in greater numbers than any orbital launch vehicle in history. Not coincidentally, it has been the most reliable as well. After over 40 years service in Russia, ESA built a new launch pad at Kourou which will keep it in service from three launch sites in three countries well into the mid-21st Century. More...

Associated Launch Sites
  • Plesetsk Plesetsk was the Soviet Union's northern cosmodrome, used for polar orbit launches of mainly military satellites, and was at one time the busiest launch centre in the world. The collapse of the Soviet Union put the main launch site of Baikonur in Kazakh territory. It now seems that once the Proton rocket is retired, Baikonur will be abandoned and Plesetsk will be Russia's primary launch centre. Upgrades to existing launch facilities will allow advanced versions of the Soyuz rocket and the new Angara launch vehicle to be launched from Plesetsk. Plesetsk's major drawback was the lower net payload in geosynchronous orbit from a northern latitude launch site. However Russia is planning to remove the disadvantage by looping geosynchronous satellites around the moon, using lunar gravity to make the necessary orbital plane change. More...

Plesetsk LC16/2 Chronology


1981 February 19 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1247 - . Payload: Oko #19. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12303 . COSPAR: 1981-016A. Apogee: 35,529 km (22,076 mi). Perigee: 4,493 km (2,791 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 711.10 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 77 degree longitude of ascending node. First space launch from LC16/2, which had been cannabalised in the 1960's to reconstruct LC31 at Baikonur after the on-pad explosion of the second Soyuz in December 1966..

1981 August 4 - . 00:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1285 - . Payload: Oko #22. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12627 . COSPAR: 1981-071A. Apogee: 36,086 km (22,422 mi). Perigee: 4,721 km (2,933 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 727.00 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1261. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 116 degree longitude of ascending node..

1981 October 31 - . 22:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1317 - . Payload: Oko #23. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 12933 . COSPAR: 1981-108A. Apogee: 34,987 km (21,739 mi). Perigee: 5,425 km (3,370 mi). Inclination: 68.3000 deg. Period: 719.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 8 - 196 degree longitude of ascending node..

1982 March 3 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1341 - . Payload: Oko #24. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 13080 . COSPAR: 1982-016A. Apogee: 36,092 km (22,426 mi). Perigee: 4,229 km (2,627 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1247. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 79 degree longitude of ascending node..

1982 April 7 - . 13:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1348 - . Payload: Oko #25. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 13124 . COSPAR: 1982-029A. Apogee: 35,126 km (21,826 mi). Perigee: 5,269 km (3,273 mi). Inclination: 68.4000 deg. Period: 718.60 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1172. Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 236 degree longitude of ascending node..

1982 September 22 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 1409 - . Payload: Oko #28. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2009-06-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 13585 . COSPAR: 1982-095A. Apogee: 36,670 km (22,780 mi). Perigee: 3,715 km (2,308 mi). Inclination: 66.7000 deg. Period: 718.40 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1217. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 317 degree longitude of ascending node..

1983 April 25 - . 19:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1456 - . Payload: Oko #29. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1998-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14034 . COSPAR: 1983-038A. Apogee: 38,464 km (23,900 mi). Perigee: 1,871 km (1,162 mi). Inclination: 66.6000 deg. Period: 717.40 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1191. Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 37 degree longitude of ascending node..

1983 September 7 - . 13:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1496 - . Payload: Yantar-4K1 s/n 251. Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 42.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-10-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 14326 . COSPAR: 1983-093A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1983 December 28 - . 03:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1518 - . Payload: Oko #31. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 1998-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 14587 . COSPAR: 1983-126A. Apogee: 38,145 km (23,702 mi). Perigee: 2,019 km (1,254 mi). Inclination: 66.9000 deg. Period: 713.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1341. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 72 degree longitude of ascending node..

1984 March 6 - . 17:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1541 - . Payload: Oko #32. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 14790 . COSPAR: 1984-024A. Apogee: 35,015 km (21,757 mi). Perigee: 5,297 km (3,291 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 716.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1278. Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 355 degree longitude of ascending node..

1984 April 4 - . 01:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1547 - . Payload: Oko #33. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 14884 . COSPAR: 1984-033A. Apogee: 36,507 km (22,684 mi). Perigee: 3,819 km (2,373 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 717.20 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1382. Covered Oko constellation plane 7 - 154 degree longitude of ascending node..

1984 June 6 - . 15:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1569 - . Payload: Oko #34. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2001-05-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 15027 . COSPAR: 1984-055A. Apogee: 37,578 km (23,349 mi). Perigee: 2,729 km (1,695 mi). Inclination: 66.1000 deg. Period: 716.80 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1518. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 74 degree longitude of ascending node..

1984 August 2 - . 08:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1586 - . Payload: Oko #36. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 15147 . COSPAR: 1984-079A. Apogee: 36,751 km (22,835 mi). Perigee: 3,607 km (2,241 mi). Inclination: 66.4000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1456. Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 35 degree longitude of ascending node..

1984 September 7 - . 19:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1596 - . Payload: Oko #37. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 15267 . COSPAR: 1984-096A. Apogee: 35,908 km (22,312 mi). Perigee: 4,503 km (2,798 mi). Inclination: 67.8000 deg. Period: 718.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1348. Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 238 degree longitude of ascending node..

1984 October 4 - . 19:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1604 - . Payload: Oko #38. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 15350 . COSPAR: 1984-107A. Apogee: 36,050 km (22,400 mi). Perigee: 4,359 km (2,708 mi). Inclination: 67.9000 deg. Period: 718.90 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1367. Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 274 degree longitude of ascending node..

1985 June 18 - . 00:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1661 - . Payload: Oko #40. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 15827 . COSPAR: 1985-049A. Apogee: 36,253 km (22,526 mi). Perigee: 4,148 km (2,577 mi). Inclination: 67.4000 deg. Period: 718.70 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 275 degree longitude of ascending node..

1985 August 12 - . 15:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1675 - . Payload: Oko #41. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 15952 . COSPAR: 1985-071A. Apogee: 36,967 km (22,970 mi). Perigee: 3,363 km (2,089 mi). Inclination: 67.4000 deg. Period: 717.30 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1581. Covered Oko constellation plane 8 - 195 degree longitude of ascending node..

1985 September 30 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1687 - . Payload: Oko #43. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 16103 . COSPAR: 1985-088A. Apogee: 36,187 km (22,485 mi). Perigee: 4,160 km (2,580 mi). Inclination: 67.7000 deg. Period: 717.70 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1401. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 314 degree longitude of ascending node..

1986 February 1 - . 18:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1729 - . Payload: Oko #46. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 16527 . COSPAR: 1986-011A. Apogee: 33,130 km (20,580 mi). Perigee: 7,251 km (4,505 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 718.30 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1569. Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 75 degree longitude of ascending node..

1986 July 10 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1762 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F40. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 16855 . COSPAR: 1986-051A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1986 August 2 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1768 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F40. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 16890 . COSPAR: 1986-058A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1986 August 28 - . 08:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1774 - . Payload: Oko #48. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2010-10-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 16922 . COSPAR: 1986-065A. Apogee: 36,998 km (22,989 mi). Perigee: 3,405 km (2,115 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1547. Covered Oko constellation plane 7 - 156 degree longitude of ascending node..

1986 October 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1789 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F40. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-11-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 17054 . COSPAR: 1986-084A. Apogee: 272 km (169 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1986 November 20 - . 12:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1793 - . Payload: Oko #51. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2011-05-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 17134 . COSPAR: 1986-091A. Apogee: 36,922 km (22,942 mi). Perigee: 3,455 km (2,146 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 718.20 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1687. Covered Oko constellation plane 2 - 313 degree longitude of ascending node..

1987 June 4 - . 18:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1849 - . Payload: Oko #53. Mass: 1,800 kg (3,900 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2003-02-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 18083 . COSPAR: 1987-048A. Apogee: 37,311 km (23,183 mi). Perigee: 3,104 km (1,928 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 719.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 274 degree longitude of ascending node..

1987 December 26 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1906 - . Payload: Resurs F2 s/n 1. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F2. Duration: 65.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-02-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 18713 . COSPAR: 1987-108A. Apogee: 273 km (169 mi). Perigee: 253 km (157 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 February 18 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1920 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F40. Duration: 20.00 days. Decay Date: 1988-03-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 18860 . COSPAR: 1988-010A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 July 7 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1957 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 29. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Decay Date: 1988-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 19276 . COSPAR: 1988-057A. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi). Perigee: 179 km (111 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1988 August 30 - . 14:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 1966 - . Payload: Oko #57. Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2005-11-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 19445 . COSPAR: 1988-076A. Apogee: 37,970 km (23,590 mi). Perigee: 2,436 km (1,513 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 718.80 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 3 - 355 degree longitude of ascending node..

1989 January 12 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1990 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F2. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-02-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 19756 . COSPAR: 1989-002A. Apogee: 227 km (141 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation; survey of seismically active regions of the country, including the Armenian SSR, in the interests of industrial and non -industrial construction.

1989 June 27 - . 08:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-02 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 46. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-07-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 20095 . COSPAR: 1989-049A. Apogee: 269 km (167 mi). Perigee: 255 km (158 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. .

1989 July 18 - . 09:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-03 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 47. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 21.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-08-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 20134 . COSPAR: 1989-055A. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.40 min. Deployed Pion 3 & 4. Resurs-F: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. Satellite carries two passive separable 'Pion' probes to investigate upper atmospheric density.
  • Pion - . Payload: Pion-3. Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Spacecraft: Pion. Decay Date: 1989-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20160 . COSPAR: 1989-055C. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 89.76 min.
  • Pion - . Payload: Pion-4. Mass: 78 kg (171 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Pion. Decay Date: 1989-09-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 20161 . COSPAR: 1989-055D. Apogee: 271 km (168 mi). Perigee: 254 km (157 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 89.76 min. Deployed from Resurs F3 8/7/89; passive atmospheric research. Resurs-F: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the Soviet economy and international cooperation. Satellite carries two passive separable 'Pion' probes to investigate upper atmospheric density.

1989 November 23 - . 20:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2050 - . Payload: Oko #61. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20330 . COSPAR: 1989-091A. Apogee: 34,182 km (21,239 mi). Perigee: 6,185 km (3,843 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 233 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 April 28 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2076 - . Payload: Oko #63. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20596 . COSPAR: 1990-040A. Apogee: 34,572 km (21,482 mi). Perigee: 5,748 km (3,571 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 277 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 July 3 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: U.
  • Yantar-4K1 - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. COSPAR: F900703A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1990 July 25 - . 18:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2087 - . Payload: Oko #65. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20707 . COSPAR: 1990-064A. Apogee: 36,991 km (22,985 mi). Perigee: 3,357 km (2,085 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 717.60 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 2084. Covered Oko constellation plane 6 - 117 degree longitude of ascending node..

1990 September 7 - . 11:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-09 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 51. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1990-09-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20794 . COSPAR: 1990-082A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Summary: Carried German microgravity experiment. Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. .

1990 November 20 - . 02:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2105 - . Payload: Oko #67. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2008-01-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 20941 . COSPAR: 1990-099A. Apogee: 38,453 km (23,893 mi). Perigee: 1,936 km (1,202 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 718.50 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation planes 3/4 - 12 degree longitude of ascending node..

1991 January 17 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2121 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 24.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-02-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 21059 . COSPAR: 1991-004A. Apogee: 247 km (153 mi). Perigee: 165 km (102 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1991 February 7 - . 18:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2124 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-04-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 21092 . COSPAR: 1991-008A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 186 km (115 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1991 March 6 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2136 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-03-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 21143 . COSPAR: 1991-016A. Apogee: 314 km (195 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.20 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1991 March 26 - . 13:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2138 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21203 . COSPAR: 1991-023A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 161 km (100 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1992 April 1 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2182 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-05-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 21920 . COSPAR: 1992-016A. Apogee: 284 km (176 mi). Perigee: 166 km (103 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1992 May 28 - . 19:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2186 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 57.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-07-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 21973 . COSPAR: 1992-029A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1992 August 19 - . 10:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-16 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 54. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 16.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 22093 . COSPAR: 1992-056A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Carried US Dept. of Defense experiment. Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of the various branches of the national economy and solution of problems relating to the environment and to international cooperation (the satellite's equipment included two Pion passive satellites for the investigation of the upper atmosphere).
  • Pion 1 - . Payload: Pion-Germes-1. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Pion. Decay Date: 1992-09-25 . USAF Sat Cat: 22099 . COSPAR: 1992-056C. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 219 km (136 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Deployed from Resurs F16; examined how upper atmosphere affects spacecraft reentries. .
  • Pion 2 - . Payload: Pion-Germes-2. Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Atmosphere satellite. Spacecraft: Pion. Decay Date: 1992-09-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 22100 . COSPAR: 1992-056D. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Deployed from Resurs F16; examined how upper atmosphere affects spacecraft reentries. .

1992 September 22 - . 16:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2210 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 59.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-11-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 22133 . COSPAR: 1992-062A. Apogee: 353 km (219 mi). Perigee: 160 km (90 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1992 October 21 - . 10:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2217 - . Payload: Oko #70. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2010-11-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 22189 . COSPAR: 1992-069A. Apogee: 36,700 km (22,800 mi). Perigee: 3,642 km (2,263 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 717.50 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 8 - 201 degree longitude of ascending node..

1992 November 15 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs-500 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 6.00 days. Decay Date: 1992-11-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 22217 . COSPAR: 1992-075A. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi). Perigee: 177 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Carried descent module with greetings to American people. Delivery of a humanitarian cargo (messages to the American people, promotional materials of Russian and foreign firms, etc.) to the United States of America in connection with the 500th anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus.

1993 January 26 - . 15:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2232 - . Payload: Oko #72. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 22321 . COSPAR: 1993-006A. Apogee: 35,870 km (22,280 mi). Perigee: 4,502 km (2,797 mi). Inclination: 67.6000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 4 - 34 degree longitude of ascending node..

1993 April 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2240 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 66.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 22592 . COSPAR: 1993-021A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1993 May 21 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-17 - . Payload: Resurs-F2 17F42 s/n 9. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F2. Duration: 30.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-06-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 22663 . COSPAR: 1993-033A. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 176 km (109 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.80 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth for the various branches of the national economy, the solution of environmental problems, and international cooperation. .

1993 June 25 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-18 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 57. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 17.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-07-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 22696 . COSPAR: 1993-040A. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi). Perigee: 173 km (107 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. .

1993 August 10 - . 14:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2261 - . Payload: Oko #74. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 22741 . COSPAR: 1993-051A. Apogee: 35,967 km (22,348 mi). Perigee: 4,370 km (2,710 mi). Inclination: 66.6000 deg. Period: 717.40 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 9 - 235 degree longitude of ascending node..

1993 August 24 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Resurs F-19 - . Payload: Resurs-F1 14F43 s/n 56. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-14F43. Duration: 17.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 22777 . COSPAR: 1993-053A. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 174 km (108 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. .

1994 June 7 - . 07:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2281 - . Payload: Zenit-8 / Oblik no. 4. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 22.00 days. Decay Date: 1994-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 23119 . COSPAR: 1994-032A. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 236 km (146 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule. Also photography of the earth's surface for the purpose of the natural resource mapping and area monitoring on behalf of various branches of the Russian economy and in the interests of international cooperation. Landed July 29.

1994 August 5 - . 01:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2286 - . Payload: Oko #75. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 23194 . COSPAR: 1994-048A. Apogee: 36,384 km (22,607 mi). Perigee: 3,982 km (2,474 mi). Inclination: 67.5000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 5 - 78 degree longitude of ascending node..

1995 May 24 - . 20:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2312 - . Payload: Oko #76. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 23584 . COSPAR: 1995-026A. Apogee: 36,472 km (22,662 mi). Perigee: 3,890 km (2,410 mi). Inclination: 67.0000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation planes 2/3 - 332 degree longitude of ascending node..

1996 June 20 - . 18:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. FAILURE: Shroud broke up at T+50seconds.. Failed Stage: S.
  • Yantar-4K1 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. COSPAR: F960620A. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance mission..

1997 January 10 - . Launch Site: Plesetsk . Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M (Block-2BL).
  • Oko launch abort - . Nation: USA. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Summary: Oko launch aborted at moment of engine ignition. Spacecraft was intended to cover Oko constellation planes 8/9 - 209 degree longitude of ascending node..

1997 April 9 - . 08:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL PVB76032-647.
  • Cosmos 2340 - . Payload: Oko #77. Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 24761 . COSPAR: 1997-015A. Apogee: 37,201 km (23,115 mi). Perigee: 3,164 km (1,966 mi). Inclination: 65.2000 deg. Period: 718.00 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation planes 8/9 - 217 degree longitude of ascending node..

1998 May 7 - . 08:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2351 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 25327 . COSPAR: 1998-027A. Apogee: 37,513 km (23,309 mi). Perigee: 2,806 km (1,743 mi). Inclination: 63.7000 deg. Period: 717.10 min.

1999 December 27 - . 19:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2368 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 26042 . COSPAR: 1999-073A. Apogee: 38,751 km (24,078 mi). Perigee: 1,603 km (996 mi). Inclination: 63.2000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Early warning satellite, carrying a large telescope to monitor missile launches. The payload and fourth stage were placed in an initial 229 km x 523 km x 62.8 deg orbit; the fourth stage (Block-2BL) fired over South America on the first orbit and delivered the payload to its 12-hour final orbit.

2002 April 1 - . 22:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2388 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. Decay Date: 2011-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 27409 . COSPAR: 2002-017A. Apogee: 39,178 km (24,344 mi). Perigee: 519 km (322 mi). Inclination: 62.9300 deg. The Blok-I upper stage and Oko satellite were placed in a 231 x 490 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit. Following the stage burn the Lavochkin US-KS (Oko) elliptical orbit early warning satellite built by Lavochkin was not tracked immediately, but later was reported to be in the correct standard orbit.

2002 December 24 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL 77045-865.
  • Cosmos 2393 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 27613 . COSPAR: 2002-059A. Apogee: 39,722 km (24,682 mi). Perigee: 542 km (336 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 716.00 min. Summary: Launch delayed from September, then October 22..

2003 April 2 - . 01:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML 684.
  • Molniya 1-92 - . Payload: Molniya 1T-26 or 28. Mass: 1,660 kg (3,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 27707 . COSPAR: 2003-011A. Apogee: 39,693 km (24,664 mi). Perigee: 655 km (406 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.60 min.

2003 June 19 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML 689.
  • Molniya 3-53 - . Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 27834 . COSPAR: 2003-029A. Apogee: 39,703 km (24,670 mi). Perigee: 651 km (404 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. The satellite entered a 211 x 559 km x 62.8 deg parking orbit, and then the Blok ML upper stage fired to put it in a 604 x 40578 km x 62.7 deg drift orbit with a 734 minute period. The orbit was later adjusted to 717.8 minutes (semi-synchronous) with an onboard engine. The special orbital inclination of 63 degrees minimizes the rotation of the orbit in its plane due to the oblateness of the Earth, keeping the apogee in the same apparent position over the northern hemisphere.

2004 February 18 - . 07:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya-1T - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 28163 . COSPAR: 2004-005A. Apogee: 39,708 km (24,673 mi). Perigee: 650 km (400 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.90 min. Summary: Launched during a nationwide military exercise. Original name Cosmos 2405..

2004 September 24 - . 16:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2410 - . Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 107.00 days. Decay Date: 2005-01-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 28396 . COSPAR: 2004-038A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 90.10 min. Film-return reconnaisance satellite. Maneuvered on October 1 to a 213 x 330 km orbit. Believed to be an improved Yantar-4K1 with a longer lifetime - and given the code name 'Kobalt' previously applied to the defunct Yantar-4K2 system. When re-entry was commanded after only 107 days in orbit, there was speculation that problems had arisen with the satellite. Sources claimed the satellite had some kind of control problem, which was brought under control, and the two smaller film return capsules were successfully returned. But when the control problem reoccurred, it was decided to bring the main re-entry capsule down early. At retrofire, two objects were tracked as having separated from the spacecraft. Russian search teams were unable to locate the capsule after re-entry. Further launches of the satellite were put on hold until a State Commission could determine the causes of the failure.

2005 June 21 - . 00:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML 77046-694. FAILURE: Failure - Third stage propulsion. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Molniya 3K - . Payload: 11F637. Mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-2. Summary: Delayed from May 25.

2006 May 3 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2420 - . Payload: Yantar 4K-2M. Mass: 6,700 kg (14,700 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Kozlov. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Decay Date: 2006-07-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 29111 . COSPAR: 2006-017A. Apogee: 349 km (216 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 67.1000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Imaging reconnaissance satellite, probably the second Kobalt-M satellite, built by the Arsenal factory. The satellite carried small film recovery capsules and one large reentry vehicle, recovered at the end of the mission with the camera and more film..

2006 July 21 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2422 - . Mass: 1,750 kg (3,850 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 29260 . COSPAR: 2006-030A. Apogee: 39,741 km (24,693 mi). Perigee: 616 km (382 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Missile early warning satellite.

2007 October 23 - . 04:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2430 - . Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Lavochkin. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 32268 . COSPAR: 2007-049A. Apogee: 39,175 km (24,342 mi). Perigee: 520 km (320 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 704.50 min. Summary: Missile early warning satellite.

2008 November 14 - . 15:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2445 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Decay Date: 2009-02-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 33439 . COSPAR: 2008-058A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 181 km (112 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Recoverable reconnaisance satellite. Launched annually since 2005 with a typical 75 to 100 day mission, with recovery on an interim basis of two film capsules and final deorbiting of the camera and main film magazine..

2008 December 2 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 2446 - . Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 33447 . COSPAR: 2008-062A. Apogee: 39,772 km (24,713 mi). Perigee: 625 km (388 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 718.60 min. Summary: Molniya-orbit early warning satellite..

2011 June 27 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2472 - . Nation: Russia. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Decay Date: 2011-10-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 37726 . COSPAR: 2011-028A. Apogee: 338 km (210 mi). Perigee: 217 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.4000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Optical surveillance satellite. First launch into this inclination since 1994..

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