Encyclopedia Astronautica
Salto di Quirra



saltodiq.gif
Salto di Quirra
Credit: © Mark Wade
Salto di Quirra, in southeast Sardinia near the town of Perdas de Fogu, is an inter-service missile test center operated by the Italian Air Force. It also supports sounding rocket launches and test of larger rockets in support of Italy's abandoned ballistic missile and on-and-of satellite launcher programs.

Notable were three campaigns of sounding rocket launches by CRA and NASA using Nike Asps and Nike Cajuns in 1961 and 1963. The original ESRO (European Space Research Organization) conducted launches of a wide range of sounding rockets from 1964 to 1972 (Skylarks, Centaures, Beliers, Zenits, and Swiss and German programs). Alfa experimental SLBM's were launched in 1973-75. A test of a version of the Scout rocket in 1992 was unsuccessful. The site was used for 86 known major launches from 1961 to 1992.

Location: San Lorenzo, Perdas de Fogu, Sardinia.
Longitude: 9.6330 deg.
Latitude: 39.5273 deg.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Apache The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminised polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike. More...
  • Asp Sounding rocket (Atmospheric Sounding Projectile) originally designed against a US Navy Bureeau of Ships requirement to sample the mushroom clouds of nuclear explosions. Developed by Cooper Development Corporation for the Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory. Flight test in 1956. Designed to lift 13.6 kg to 40 km. More...
  • Belier Family of sounding rockets, developed by Sud Aviation, with the only or upper stage being variants of the Belier stage powered by a Jericho rocket motor. These were the most significant series of French civilian suborbital rockets. Manufacturing licenses were sold to India and Pakistan, becoming the basis of their rocket industries. More...
  • Cajun The Cajun research rocket was developed as a dimensionally-similar but higher performance successor to the Deacon. More...
  • Micon Swiss surface-to-air missile. The dual-thrust (45 kN then 22 kN) solid propellant motor providing a total impulse of 900 kN-sec. More...
  • Scout Solid-fuel, light payload, lower-cost launch vehicle developed by the Air Force and NASA in the late 1950's and used in a variety of configurations over thirty years. Launched from Cape Canaveral, Vandenberg, Wallops Island, and from Italy's equatorial San Marco platform off Kenya. Italy studied but did not develop subsequent upgraded versions. More...
  • Skylark The Skylark sounding rocket (originally named the Gassiot High Altitude Vehicle) was produced by the Royal Aircraft Establishment and first introduced in 1957, during the International Geophysical Year. It remained in European service until 2005. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nike Cajun American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle sounding rocket consisting of a Nike booster together with a Cajun upper stage. Aside from the Soviet MMR-06, the Nike-Cajun was the most often launched sounding rocket. The Cajun motor was developed for NASA in the 1950's by Thiokol, providing a more modern but still affordable replacement for the World War II-era Deacon. More...
  • Skylark 1 British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 8 + 1 x Raven 1/1A/2A More...
  • Nike Asp American sounding rocket. Rail-launched vehicle consisting of an Asp plus a Nike booster. This product of the Cooper Development Corporation was designed to lift 27 kg to 260 km. An improved version, the Aspan 300, was also developed.The Nike-Asp was sometimes ship-launched. More...
  • Nike Apache American sounding rocket. The most popular sounding rocket introduced during the early 1960's was this two-stage, solid-propellant vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Apache upper stage. More...
  • Skylark 2 British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 2 + 1 x Raven 8. The Cuckoo booster burned for 4 seconds and provided 364 kN-sec total impulse. The Raven 2 provided 1540 N-sec total impulse. More...
  • Belier I French sounding rocket. Basic Belier single stage vehicle, powered with a Jericho rocket motor loaded with 208 kg of 'Epictete' solid propellant with a specific impulse of 190 seconds. More...
  • Centaure French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket. The Belier I II, or III single stage sounding rocket was augmented by a Venus booster with 94 kg of solid propellant. The rocket was spin stabilised by small solid rocket engines on the four fins. More...
  • Skylark 7C British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 7 More...
  • Skylark 7 British sounding rocket. Three stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Raven 7 + 1 x Goldfinch II + 1 x Raven 11 More...
  • Dragon 1 French sounding rocket. Two stage sounding rocket. The Belier upper stage was augmented by a Stromboli booster with 686 kg of solid propellant. The rocket was spin stabilised by small solid rocket engines on the four fins. More...
  • Skylark 3 British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 6 More...
  • Belier III French sounding rocket. Improved Belier single stage vehicle, using a Vega motor loaded with 230.5 kg of 'Isolane' propellant with a specific impulse of 240 seconds. More...
  • Skylark 2 AC British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Cuckoo IA + 1 x Raven 8 More...
  • Skylark 4 British sounding rocket. Two stage Skylark version consisting of 1 x Goldfinch + 1 x Raven 8 More...
  • Alfa Italy briefly flirted with the creation of an independent nuclear deterrent in the late 1960's. The Alfa project for an indigenous Italian submarine- and ship-launched ballistic missile was begun in 1971. Three Alfa test missiles with inert second stages were successfully launched in 1975-1976 from Salto di Quirra in Sardinia. The programme was abandoned at this stage, when Italy and its neighbours ratified the nuclear proliferation treaty. More...
  • Zenit Zenit was to be a modular new generation medium Soviet launch vehicle, replacing the various ICBM-derived launch vehicles in use since the 1960's (Tsiklon and Soyuz). A version of the first stage was used as strap-ons for the cancelled Energia heavy booster. But it was built by Yuzhnoye in the Ukraine; when the Soviet Union broke up planned large-scale production for the Soviet military was abandoned (Angara development was begun as an indigenous alternative). Launch pads were completed only at Baikonur; those at Plesetsk were never finished and are planned to be completed as Angara pads. However the vehicle found new life as a commercial launch vehicle, launched from a sea platform by an American/Ukrainian consortium. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Serra, Jean-Jacques, Rockets in Europe, Web Address when accessed: here.

Associated Launch Sites

Salto di Quirra Chronology


1961 January 12 - . 16:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun ISRC-RS-01.
  • Aeronomy sodium release mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRA; NASA. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi).

1961 April 19 - . 18:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-02.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1961 April 20 - . 03:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-03.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1961 April 20 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-04.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1961 April 20 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-05.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1961 September 7 - . 18:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1961 September 8 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun ISRC-RS-07.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 September 8 - . 04:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun ISRC-RS-08.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1962 December 11 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun ISRC-RS-?.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1963 May 20 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.137IA.
  • Sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1963 May 21 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.138IA.
  • Sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1963 May 21 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.139IA.
  • Sodium release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1964 April 20 - . 15:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 20 - . 16:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 21 - . 09:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 21 - . 14:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 21 - . 16:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 22 - . 10:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 22 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 22 - . 16:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 23 - . 10:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 23 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 23 - . 14:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 23 - . 16:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 24 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 24 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 27 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 27 - . 14:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 27 - . 16:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 28 - . 10:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 28 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 28 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 28 - . 15:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 28 - . 16:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 29 - . 10:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 29 - . 14:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 29 - . 16:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 30 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 30 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 April 30 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 4 - . 10:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 4 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 4 - . 14:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 4 - . 16:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 4 - . 21:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 5 - . 11:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 5 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 5 - . 16:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 5 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 6 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 6 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 6 - . 16:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 8 - . 10:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 8 - . 11:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 8 - . 14:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 8 - . 14:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 May 8 - . 16:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Arcas.
  • ROBIN - . Nation: Italy. Agency: DLR. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1964 July 6 - . 19:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S01/1.
  • MPE Ba-7 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1964 July 8 - . 19:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S01/2.
  • MPE Ba-8 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1965 March 31 - . 14:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark-7 S03/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S03 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 45 km (27 mi).

1965 April 3 - . 12:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark-7 S03/2.
  • ESRO S03 / 2 (SE5) Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1965 August 10 - . 23:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S05/1.
  • Ultraviolet photometer Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1965 September 30 - . 04:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S04/1 (SEO8).
  • MPE Ba-12 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1965 October 2 - . 04:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S04/2 (SEO9).
  • MPE Ba-13 / Grenades Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1965 December 7 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C07 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1965 December 11 - . 04:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure.
  • ESRO C07 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1965 December 14 - . 12:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-6.
  • ESRO C06 / 1 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1966 June 16 - . 19:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S17/1.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1966 June 18 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C ESRO S17/2.
  • MPE Barium release Aeronomy / barium release mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 20 - . 19:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S08/1.
  • ESRO S08 / 1 (SK7) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 220 km (130 mi).

1966 June 28 - . 02:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S08/2.
  • ESRO S08 / 2 (SK8) Aeronomy / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1966 July 8 - . 19:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S18/1.
  • ESRO S18 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1966 July 13 - . 19:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S18/2.
  • ESRO S18 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 240 km (140 mi).

1966 July 20 - . 17:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier I.
  • ESRO B12 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1966 July 25 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier I.
  • ESRO B12 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1966 November 26 - . 19:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S11/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S11 / 2 (SK16) Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1967 May 22 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S11/1.
  • ESRO S11 / 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 230 km (140 mi).

1967 May 25 - . 23:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S05/2.
  • ESRO S05 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 215 km (133 mi).

1967 September 27 - . 13:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S26/1.
  • ESRO S26 / 1 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 183 km (113 mi).

1967 October 4 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S19/1.
  • ESRO S19 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 206 km (128 mi).

1967 October 7 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S26/2.
  • ESRO S26 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 164 km (101 mi).

1967 October 10 - . 14:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S19/2.
  • ESRO S19 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 204 km (126 mi).

1967 October 27 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Micon. Launch Vehicle: Zenit.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Switzerland. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1968 May 8 - . 11:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-46.
  • ESRO C33 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi).

1968 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Belier III. LV Configuration: Belier III 306.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO; CNES. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1968 May 15 - . 11:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure CE-47.
  • ESRO C33 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1968 May 22 - . 16:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 1. LV Configuration: Dragon D-31. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO D30 / 2 Ionosphere / solar x-rays mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 225 km (139 mi).

1968 October 7 - . 21:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 ESRO S47/1.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 208 km (129 mi).

1968 November 22 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC ESRO S41/1.
  • Solar BCS Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1968 December 3 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 ESRO S27/1.
  • Ultraviolet telescope Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1969 July 5 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S38/1.
  • ESRO S38 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1969 July 6 - . 19:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S64/1.
  • ESRO S64 / 1 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 275 km (170 mi).

1969 July 11 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S38/2.
  • ESRO S38 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi).

1969 July 13 - . 19:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S64/2.
  • ESRO S64 / 2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1969 October 24 - . 05:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S68/1.
  • ESRO S68 / 1 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 184 km (114 mi).

1970 January 24 - . 14:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56A/1.
  • ESRO S56A / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 February 6 - . 19:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 AC S44/1.
  • ESRO S44 / 1 Stellar ultraviolet Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 211 km (131 mi).

1970 March 22 - . 02:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 SN5/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • DLR S-CR-21 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1970 June 22 - . 14:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S68/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S68 / 2 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 3.00 km (1.80 mi).

1970 July 3 - . 19:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S63/2.
  • ESRO S63 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1970 July 8 - . 19:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S63/1.
  • ESRO S63 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 149 km (92 mi).

1970 July 23 - . 13:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56A/2.
  • ESRO S56A / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi).

1970 July 24 - . 03:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S65/1.
  • ESRO S65 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 125 km (77 mi).

1970 July 27 - . 04:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S65/2.
  • ESRO S65 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1970 October 13 - . 00:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 SN5/2.
  • DLR S-CR-22 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 288 km (178 mi).

1970 December 6 - . 11:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S69.
  • ESRO S69 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 187 km (116 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/1.
  • ESRO S80 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 222 km (137 mi).

1971 February 6 - . 23:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/2.
  • ESRO S80 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi).

1971 February 7 - . 03:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S80/3.
  • ESRO S80 / 3 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 214 km (132 mi).

1971 February 26 - . 10:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S54. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S54 Solar x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

1971 March 11 - . 08:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S55.
  • ESRO S55 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1971 March 25 - . 13:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7C. LV Configuration: Skylark-7C S56B/1. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S56B / 1 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

1971 May 14 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 1. LV Configuration: Skylark 1 S56B/2.
  • ESRO S56B / 2 Ionosphere / solar ultraviolet / x-ray mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1971 July 2 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S73.
  • ESRO S73 Solar X-ray/Zodiacal mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 224 km (139 mi).

1971 July 30 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Zenit. LV Configuration: Zenit Zenit-Cuckoo.
  • ESRO Z82/1 - . Nation: Italy. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 26 km (16 mi).

1971 July 30 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Micon. Launch Vehicle: Zenit. LV Configuration: Zenit-C Zenit-Cuckoo. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO Z82 / 1 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1971 October 20 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S89.
  • ESRO S89 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1971 November 16 - . 00:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 AC S44/2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • ESRO S44 / 2 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1971 December 14 - . 12:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S82.
  • ESRO S82/2 Meteorites mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 151 km (93 mi).

1972 February 28 - . 05:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S84.
  • ESRO S84 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 242 km (150 mi).

1972 February 28 - . 09:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S90.
  • ESRO S90 Solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 251 km (155 mi).

1972 March 24 - . 23:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S75/1.
  • ESRO S75 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1972 March 30 - . 01:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 4. LV Configuration: Skylark 4 S75/2.
  • ESRO S75 / 2 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 133 km (82 mi).

1972 June 25 - . 14:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 AC S91.
  • ESRO S91 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 213 km (132 mi).

1972 November 20 - . 04:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 S94.
  • ESRO S94 X-ray Astronomy mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1973 February 1 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Alfa. LV Configuration: Alfa 001.
  • Spurious? - . Nation: Italy. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi). Summary: First test flight of Italian submarine- and ship-launched ballistic missile. Dummy second stage. Successful 57 second flight..

1974 Q4 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Alfa. LV Configuration: Alfa 002.
  • Spurious? - . Nation: Italy. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi). Summary: Second test flight of Italian submarine- and ship-launched ballistic missile. Dummy second stage..

1975 April 4 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Alfa. LV Configuration: Alfa 003.
  • Spurious? - . Nation: Italy. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi). Summary: Final test flight of Italian submarine- and ship-launched ballistic missile. Dummy second stage. Project cancelled after Italy ratified Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and decided to give up pursuit of an independent nuclear deterrent..

1975 September 8 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Alfa. LV Configuration: Alfa 1?.
  • - . Nation: Italy. Apogee: 110 km (60 mi).

1975 October 23 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Alfa. LV Configuration: Alfa 2?.
  • - . Nation: Italy. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1976 April 6 - . 14:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Vehicle: Alfa. LV Configuration: Alfa 3?.
  • - . Nation: Italy. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1992 March 18 - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. Launch Complex: Salto di Quirra SL. Launch Pad: SL?. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout II TV. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

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