Encyclopedia Astronautica
Sonde Stromfjord



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Sonde Stromfjord
Credit: © Mark Wade
The Danish Meteorological Institute established this sounding rocket range in 1971. The site was located next to an airport at the end of the fjord and was only occupied during launch campaigns. The location was well-suited for observation of the Arctic aurora and ionosphere. Known to have been used for 31 launches from 1971 to 1987, reaching up to 816 kilometers altitude.

Location: Kangerlussuaq.
Longitude: -50.6005 deg.
Latitude: 67.0236 deg.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
  • Apache The Apache upper stage was an improved version of the Cajun. The Thiokol engine used aluminised polyurethane propellant with a higher specific impulse and phenolic lining in the steel nozzle. Cost to NASA was $ 6,000 per rocket. The Apache could be used in a single stage version, but was normally used with a booster stage, usually the Nike. More...
  • Black Brant The Black Brant originated in a 1957 Canadian government requirement for a sounding rocket to characterize the ionosphere in order to improve military communications. Bristol Aerospace of Winnipeg, Manitoba was selected to design the rocket, while the Canadian Armament Research and Development Establishment (CARDE) was responsible for the propellant and filling. The lighter production version of the vehicle was renamed Black Brant. Later versions of Black Brant used a variety of booster and upper stages to supplement the original single-stage vehicle. More...
  • Honest John Unguided single-stage solid-propellant US Army missile developed by Douglas Aircraft. It was later used as the booster stage for a range of sounding rockets, test vehicles, and targets. More...
  • Petrel Petrel was a larger sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerojet using the same tube-launch technique as Skua. A total of 240 Petrels were launched from 1967-1982 from many sites around the world. More...
  • Terrier Standard US Navy surface-to-air missile developed during the 1950's. Modified single stage Navy Terrier missiles were used as sounding rockets, sometimes supplemented with upper stages. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nike Apache American sounding rocket. The most popular sounding rocket introduced during the early 1960's was this two-stage, solid-propellant vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Apache upper stage. More...
  • Nike Tomahawk American sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of a Nike booster and Tomahawk upper stage. Payload 45 kg to 370 km or 115 kg to 215 km. More...
  • Petrel 1 British sounding rocket. Petrel was a larger sounding rocket built by Bristol Aerojet using the same launch technique as Skua. Three Chick rockets blasted the upper stage and payload out of a 10-m long launch tube. The 4.5 kN Lapwing second stage burned for 30 seconds. A unique aspect was that the Chick boosters could be recovered and reloaded with propellant. More...
  • Terrier Malemute American sounding rocket. The Terrier-Malemute launch vehicle was a high performance two-stage vehicle used for payloads weighing less than 180 kg, generally used for relatively lightweight plasma physics payloads. Payload 90 kg to 650 km or 180 kg to 420 km. More...
  • Taurus Orion American sounding rocket. 2 stage vehicle composed of 1 x Taurus (Honest John motor) + 1 x Orion. Payload 68 kg to 260 km or 227 kg to 140 km. More...
  • Taurus Tomahawk American sounding rocket. NASA two stage sounding rocket. Payload 27 kg to 590 km or 59 kg to 490 km. More...
  • Black Brant 10 Canadian sounding rocket. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier + 1 x Black Brant VB or VC + 1 x Nihka. Payload 90 kg to 1,200 km or 317 kg to 550 km. More...
  • Black Brant 9 Canadian sounding rocket. Two stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Terrier Mk 70 + 1 x Black Brant VB. More...
  • Taurus Tomahawk Nike Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Taurus (Honest John motor) + 1 x Nike + 1 x Tomahawk. Payload 32 kg to 700 km or 125 kg to 400 km. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • USAF American agency overseeing development of rockets and spacecraft. United States Air Force, USA. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.
  • Official Site of the Topic, Information obtained from the manufacturer or operator's official web site.

Associated Launch Sites

Sonde Stromfjord Chronology


1971 August 22 - . 02:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Denmark. Agency: DMI. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1971 August 24 - . 02:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Denmark. Agency: DMI. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi).

1974 July 2 - . 12:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.156IE-UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi).

1974 July 8 - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.157IE-UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1974 December 17 - . 10:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B. LV Configuration: Black Brant IVB (ESRO) D-102A?.
  • DLR G-BB4-64 PolCusp Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1974 December 17 - . 11:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P86G.
  • Polar Cusp Li Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1974 December 17 - . 12:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P87G.
  • Polar Cusp Li Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1974 December 18 - . 11:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B. FAILURE: Failure.
  • DLR G-BB4-65 PolCusp Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1974 December 18 - . 11:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P166G.
  • Polar Cusp Li Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1974 December 18 - . 12:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P167G.
  • Polar Cusp Li Atmospheric mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 165 km (102 mi).

1975 January 11 - . 10:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 4B.
  • DLR G-BB4-66 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 280 km (170 mi).

1976 August 22 - . 17:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.209IE.
  • CUSP II Plasma / aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1976 August 27 - . 11:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.210IE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1985 January 23 - . 09:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute. LV Configuration: Terrier Malemute NASA 29.23UE.
  • COPE Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1985 January 23 - . 09:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.009UE.
  • COPE Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 769 km (477 mi).

1985 February 10 - . 02:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute. LV Configuration: Terrier Malemute NASA 29.15UE.
  • ARCS 3 Plasma / active mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 406 km (252 mi).

1985 February 10 - . 02:13 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.012UE.
  • TOPAZ I Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 816 km (507 mi).

1985 March 5 - . 20:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion. LV Configuration: Taurus Orion NASA 33.44UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1985 March 15 - . 02:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX GL A21.426.
  • PIIE Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 429 km (266 mi).

1985 March 20 - . 22:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Taurus Tomahawk NASA 34.06UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1985 March 20 - . 22:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.219UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1987 February 26 - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX GL A21.628.
  • POLAR ARC / COPE II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 387 km (240 mi).

1987 February 26 - . 23:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute. LV Configuration: Terrier Malemute NASA 29.25UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1987 March 5 - . 06:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Malemute. LV Configuration: Terrier Malemute NASA 29.26UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1987 March 5 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk Nike. LV Configuration: Taurus Nike Tomahawk NASA 38.12UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1987 March 21 - . 06:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C GL A19.427.
  • COPE II (POLAR ARC) Plasma / barium release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 354 km (219 mi).

1987 March 21 - . 07:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Taurus Tomahawk NASA 34.14UE.
  • COPE II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1987 March 21 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.220UE.
  • COPE II Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1987 March 31 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.14UE.
  • COPE II Main Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 436 km (270 mi).

1987 March 31 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk Nike. LV Configuration: Taurus Nike Tomahawk NASA 38.10UE.
  • COPE II Super 1 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 467 km (290 mi).

1987 March 31 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk Nike. LV Configuration: Taurus Nike Tomahawk NASA 38.11UE.
  • COPE II Super 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 441 km (274 mi).

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