Encyclopedia Astronautica
Tawiwa



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Seba Oasis
Credit: © Mark Wade
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OTRAG Libya Launch S
Launch site was located in the Seba Oasis 800 km south of Tripoli.
Libyan rocket test range, 600 km south of Tripoli. Site of tests of Otrag's low cost launch vehicle from 1981 to 1982, reaching up to 150 kilometers altitude.

AKA: OTRAG Libya; Seba Oasis.
Longitude: 14.4642 deg.
Latitude: 26.9939 deg.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
See also
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Otrag $200 million was spent from 1975-1987 by Lutz Kayer in a serious attempt to develop a low-cost satellite launcher using clusters of mass-produced pressure-fed liquid propellant modules. The project was finally squelched by the German government under pressure from the Soviet and French. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Otrag German manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Orbital Transport-und-Raketen Aktiengesellschaft, Germany. More...

Bibliography
  • McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Web Address when accessed: here.

Tawiwa Chronology


1981 March 1 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 3 4x15m.
  • Otrag Flight 4 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi). Summary: Maximum range single stage test, reached 300 km..

1981 June 7 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 4 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 5 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: High acceleration test, 20 % propellant loading.

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 9 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 13 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 16 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 12 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 14 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 11 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 4 4x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 6 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 10 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 8 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 7 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 15 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).

1981 Q3? - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: OTRAG 5 1x15m.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi).
  • Otrag Flight 6 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Engine induced roll moment test.

1981 October 1 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 7 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Burn to depletion test.

1981 October 24 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 8 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Oxidizer depletion first (rough).

1981 November 19 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 9 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Fuel depletion first test (smooth).

1981 December 12 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 10 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: TV onboard camera test.

1982 June 2 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 11 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Deep throttling test (1 ton thrust).

1982 June 24 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 12 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Early cut-off and destruct.

1982 September 2 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 13 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Roll control test (<1 N m).

1982 September 11 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 14 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Stage separation simulation.

1982 November 10 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 15 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: 60 degree inclination launch.

1982 November 16 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 16 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Alternative oxidizer (RFNA).

1982 December 9 - . Launch Site: Tawiwa. Launch Vehicle: Otrag. LV Configuration: 1 x 2.5 tonne thrust.
  • Otrag Flight 17 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: OTRAG. Summary: Alternative fuel (JP-4).

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