Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 302,183/32,558 kg. Thrust 8,820.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds. Engines 1 x M-1 plus 2 x J-2

Status: Study.
Gross mass: 302,183 kg (666,199 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 32,558 kg (71,778 lb).
Height: 29.00 m (95.00 ft).
Span: 18.60 m (61.00 ft).
Thrust: 8,820.00 kN (1,982,810 lbf).
Specific impulse: 410 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 345 s.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • M-1 Aerojet lox/lh2 rocket engine. 5335.9 kN. Study 1961. Isp=428s. Engine developed 1962-1966 for Uprated Saturn and Nova million-pound payload boosters to support manned Mars missions. Reached component test stage before cancellation. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

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