Encyclopedia Astronautica
Buran M-41


Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 755.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 254 seconds. Booster for Buran missile. Four used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass. Specific impulse estimated.

Status: Development ended 1957.
Gross mass: 18,000 kg (39,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb).
Height: 19.10 m (62.60 ft).
Diameter: 1.20 m (3.90 ft).
Span: 3.00 m (9.80 ft).
Thrust: 755.00 kN (169,730 lbf).
Specific impulse: 254 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 231 s.
Burn time: 50 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-213 Glushko Nitric acid/Kerosene rocket engine. 755 kN. Winged rocket M-40 (2). Development ended 1957. Two thrust levels. Ignition with propellant TG-02. Chamber pressure 233,8 / 46,6 bar. Specific impulse 223 / 231 sea level. Isp=254s. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Buran Russian intercontinental cruise missile. A government decree on 20 May 1954 authorised the Myasishchev aircraft design bureau to proceed with full-scale development of the Buran trisonic intercontinental cruise missile. The competing Burya design of Lavochkin was launched in July 1957, but the development of unstoppable ICBM's had made intercontinntal cruise missiles oboslete. The equivalent American Navaho project was cancelled ten days later. Korolev's R-7 ICBM completed its first successful test flight in August. Buran was being prepared for its first flight when Myasishchev's project was cancelled on November 1957. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Kerosene Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...

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