Encyclopedia Astronautica

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,000/2,700 kg. Thrust 306.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Masses, engine performance estimated based on successor improved stage and YF-2 engines in first stage.

Cost $ : 1.000 million.

Status: Retired 1971.
Gross mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,700 kg (5,900 lb).
Height: 5.35 m (17.55 ft).
Diameter: 2.25 m (7.38 ft).
Span: 2.25 m (7.38 ft).
Thrust: 306.14 kN (68,824 lbf).
Specific impulse: 275 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 200 s.
Burn time: 110 s.
Number: 3 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • YF-2A Beijing Wan Yuan Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 306.1 kN. Out of production. Isp=268s. Used on CZ-1, CZ-1C, CZ-1D, CZ-1M. First flight 1969. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • CZ-1 Chinese orbital launch vehicle. China began development of the CZ-1 (Changzheng-1 = Long March-1) launch vehicle in the second half of 1965. The project was undertaken with the specific objective of launching China's first satellite, the DFH-1. The CZ-l's first and second stages were adapted from those of the DF-3 intermediate range ballistic missile. The third stage used a new-design solid rocket motor. More...
  • DF-4 Chinese intermediate range ballistic missile. Development of the DF-4 began in 1964 with the objective of fielding a ballistic missile capable of hitting Guam. The technical solution was to add a second stage to the DF-3 IRBM. More...
  • CZ-1M Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from CZ-1, with an Italian Mage upper stage. Never flown. More...
  • CZ-1C Chinese orbital launch vehicle. Proposed launch vehicle derived from the CZ-1, with a new upper stage. Never flown. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/UDMH Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

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