Encyclopedia Astronautica

Nitric acid/kerosene rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb).

Status: Retired 1979.
Gross mass: 30,000 kg (66,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
Height: 20.00 m (65.00 ft).
Diameter: 1.65 m (5.41 ft).
Thrust: 300.00 kN (67,440 lbf).
Number: 4 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • YF-1 CALT Nitric acid/kerosene rocket engine. 300 kN. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • DF-2 First Chinese IRBM, a single stage missile with the objective of carrying a 1500 kg warhead to Japan. The starting point for the design were R-12 construction drawings and a single exemplar of the missile provided by the Soviet Union prior to the break with Moscow in 1960. Following protracted development the design was accepted by the Chinese military for service in 1970. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • CALT Chinese manufacturer of rockets, spacecraft, and rocket engines. China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing, China. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/Kerosene Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Rocket propellant RP-1, or its foreign equivalents, is a straight-run kerosene fraction, which is subjected to further treatment, i.e., acid washing, sulphur dioxide extraction. Thus, unsaturated substances which polymerise in storage are removed, as are sulphur-containing hydrocarbons. More...

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