Encyclopedia Astronautica

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,685/1,946 kg. Thrust 301.55 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds.

Cost $ : 2.000 million. No Engines: 4.

AKA: Emeraude.
Status: Out of production.
Gross mass: 14,685 kg (32,374 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,946 kg (4,290 lb).
Height: 9.76 m (32.02 ft).
Diameter: 1.34 m (4.39 ft).
Span: 2.30 m (7.50 ft).
Thrust: 301.55 kN (67,791 lbf).
Specific impulse: 251 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 221 s.
Burn time: 93 s.
Number: 24 .

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Vexin B SEP N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 75.4 kN. Out of production. Isp=251s. Used on Diamant launch vehicle. First flight 1965. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Emeraude VE121 French orbital launch vehicle. Emeraude was a step toward larger liquid propellant launch vehicles, building on the Veronique and Vesta experience. It burned 12.8 tonnes nitric acid/turpentine pressure-fed propellants in 91 seconds. Tthe engine was gimbaled for pitch and yaw control, with aerodynamic fins controlling roll. In anticipation of the next step, Saphir, a dummy Topaze stage topped the vehicle to confirm aerodynamic characteristics. The first three launches were failures due to propellant sloshing. This was remedied in the later tests. More...
  • Saphir French orbital launch vehicle. Saphir was the penultimate step in the 'precious stones' series. The variants of the two-stage vehicle were designed to allow testing of radio-controlled guidance (VE231P), inertial guidance (VE231G), and warhead separation and re-entry of an ablative RV (VE231R). Addition of a third stage would transform Saphir into the Diamant satellite launcher. More...
  • Diamant A French orbital launch vehicle. Diamant development could be done relatively quickly using stages and systems being developed for strategic missiles. In May 1962 CNES selected DMA as program manager, with SEREB as the prime contractor. The Diamant orbital launch vehicle was created by replacing the payload of the existing Saphir test vehicle with a new third stage. Prior to any all-up satellite launch attempt the P064 third stage was flight tested on the smaller suborbital Rubis test vehicle. This evolutionary approach paid off. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

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