Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 84.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Energia payload orbital insertion.
Cost $ : 4.000 million.
AKA: Retro and Correction Stage.
More... - Chronology...
Status: Design 1987.
Gross mass: 17,000 kg (37,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb).
Height: 5.70 m (18.70 ft).
Diameter: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Span: 3.70 m (12.10 ft).
Thrust: 84.94 kN (19,094 lbf).
Specific impulse: 352 s.
Burn time: 680 s.
Number: 2 .
RD-58 Korolev Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 83.4 kN. Isp=349s. High-performance upper-stage engine developed for N1 lunar crasher stage, but saw general use as restartable Block D upper stage of Proton launch vehicle. First flight 1967. More...
Associated Launch Vehicles
Groza Variant of the Energia launch vehicle with two strap-on boosters instead of four. This would have fullfilled the 50 tonne payload requirement had the third generation booster plan been fully implemented. More...
Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...
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