Encyclopedia Astronautica
GR-1 Stage 1


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 80,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,676.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Payload 4,000 kg (2.2 MT nuclear warhead). Range 13,000 km or orbital. Accuracy (90%) 5 km in range and 3 km in dispersion. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes.

No Engines: 4.

AKA: 8K513 Blok A.
Gross mass: 80,000 kg (176,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb).
Height: 18.50 m (60.60 ft).
Diameter: 2.68 m (8.79 ft).
Span: 3.30 m (10.80 ft).
Thrust: 1,676.00 kN (376,779 lbf).
Specific impulse: 325 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 280 s.
Burn time: 140 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • NK-9 Kuznetsov Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 441.3 kN. R-9, GR-1 stage 1. Isp=327s. Reached phase of stand testing in 1965, but then RD-111 selected. Later planned for 1st Stage of GR-1, but that rocket also cancelled. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • 8K513 Russian anti-satellite missile. ASAT version. Little has emerged about Korolev's ASAT project, designed in competition with Chelomei's in 1961-1964. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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