Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/2,200 kg. Thrust 75.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. The stage finally reached hardware status as a joint Russian-Indian development for India's GSLV booster.

AKA: Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 14,600 kg (32,100 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,200 kg (4,800 lb).
Height: 8.72 m (28.60 ft).
Diameter: 2.80 m (9.10 ft).
Span: 2.80 m (9.10 ft).
Thrust: 75.05 kN (16,872 lbf).
Specific impulse: 460 s.
Burn time: 675 s.
Number: 4 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-56M Isayev lox/lh2 rocket engine. 73.580 kN. Proton and Angara upper stage KVRB, 12KRB upper stage for GSLV (India). In development. Isp=461s. First flight 2001. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • GSLV Indian mixed-propulsion orbital launch vehicle for geosynchronous satellites using a Lox/LH2 upper stage developed from Russian technology. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

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