Index

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 115,350/12,000 kg. Thrust 3,330.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Three-segment solid motor proposed for the Solid Titan II in the SLV-4 competition. Aerojet test fired motors with up to five segments, producing an average thrust of 268,000 kgf for 120 seconds.

**11S510**.

Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511-2 rocket stage.

**11S59 Block D**.

Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511-1 rocket stage.

**11S59 Blocks A,B,V,G**.

Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511-0 rocket stage.

**11S681**.

Alternate designation for Tsyklon 2-1 rocket stage.

**11S682**.

Alternate designation for Tsyklon 2-2 rocket stage.

**11S691**.

Alternate designation for Tsyklon 3-1 rocket stage.

**11S692**.

Alternate designation for Tsyklon 3-2 rocket stage.

**11S693; S5M**.

Alternate designation for Tsyklon 3-3 rocket stage.

**11S824**.

Article number of Proton 11S824 rocket stage.

**11S824F**.

Article number of Proton 11S824F rocket stage.

**11S824M**.

Article number of Proton 11S824M rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,150/2,450 kg. Thrust 647.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Four nozzles. Length with interstage 9.8 m. Sea level thrust 60,000 kgf. Specific impulse estimated.

Solid rocket stage. 893.00 kN (200,754 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,600 kg (76,280 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 980.00 kN (220,313 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,550 kg (76,170 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 432.00 kN (97,117 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,600 kg (21,164 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 215.00 kN (48,334 lbf) thrust. Mass 3,500 kg (7,716 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 432.00 kN (97,117 lbf) thrust. Mass 11,300 kg (24,912 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 25,000 kg. Thrust 1,050.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 180.40 kN (40,556 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,640 kg (10,229 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 111.00 kN (24,954 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 907,000/91,000 kg. Thrust 13,788.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Notional 160 inch solid motor considered in cluster of 7 as alternative to Nova 8 F-1 stage. Led to 156 inch motors tested in late 1960's.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 399/70 kg. Thrust 50.50 kN. The Nihka rocket motor was developed specifically for the Black Brant X rocket system by Bristol Aerospace.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/150 kg. Thrust 89.00 kN. Two-finned version.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,633,000/163,000 kg. Thrust 24,457.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Notional 240 inch solid motor considered in cluster of 4 as alternative to Nova 8 F-1 stage. Led to 260 inch motor tested in late 1960's.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,648,355/156,126 kg. Thrust 35,391.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 260 inch solid booster - full length. These would have been the flight configuration motors, replacing the Saturn V first stage or being used as booster motors in various Uprated Saturn and Nova configurations.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 831,345/85,321 kg. Thrust 17,695.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 260 inch solid rocket booster half length.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 561,000/60,600 kg. Thrust 10,105.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Study NASA 1969

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,264/268 kg. Thrust 75.70 kN. Four-finned version.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 751,212/100,350 kg. Thrust 15,480.36 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Five-segment version of Shuttle RSRM studied in 1999-2003 to increase shuttle payload to ISS. Test fired in 2003 but not proceeded with. Another version proposed in 2005 for use as lateral boosters for the Constellation Cargo Vehicle.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 12,000 kg.

**8A62**.

Alternate designation for R-5 rocket stage.

**8K14, SS-1C Scud B, 9K72 Elbrus**.

Alternate designation for R-17 rocket stage.

**8K513 Blok A**.

Alternate designation for GR-1 Stage 1 rocket stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,000/2,100 kg. Thrust 441.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage.

**8K513 Blok V**.

Alternate designation for GR-1 Stage 3 rocket stage.

**8K77 Blok A**.

Alternate designation for R-9A Stage 1 rocket stage.

**8K77 Blok B**.

Alternate designation for R-9A Stage 2 rocket stage.

**8K81 Stage 1**.

Alternate designation for UR-200-1 rocket stage.

**8K81 Stage 2**.

Alternate designation for UR-200-2 rocket stage.

**8K84 Stage 1**.

Alternate designation for 8S816 rocket stage.

**8K84 Stage 2**.

Alternate designation for 8S817 rocket stage.

**8K94. **

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,800/900 kg. Thrust 147.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Empty mass estimated.

**8S810K**.

Alternate designation for Proton K-1 rocket stage.

**8S811K**.

Alternate designation for Proton K-2 rocket stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 32,799/3,000 kg. Thrust 868.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, sea level thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,611/900 kg. Thrust 131.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Total mass, thrust accurate; Isp, empty mass and burn time estimated. Source: Placard, Orevo.

Solid rocket stage. 49.00 kN (11,016 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 7.40 kN (1,664 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

**A-10. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,043/16,993 kg. Thrust 2,306.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds.

**A-11. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 13,841.38 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. Masses estimated; dimensions scaled from drawing.

**A-12. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,500,000/350,000 kg. Thrust 98,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds. All values estimated.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 8,300 kg (18,298 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 10,100 kg (22,267 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 11,100 kg (24,471 lb).

**A-4. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,805/4,008 kg. Thrust 311.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 239 seconds. V-2 production version.

**A-9. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,259/3,000 kg. Thrust 288.68 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. Winged version.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 15,000 kg (33,069 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage.

**Able**.

Alternate designation for Delta A rocket stage.

**Able. **

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,884/429 kg. Thrust 34.69 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds. Engine for Vanguard was AJ10-37; for later Able models AJ10-41 and AJ10-42. Total of 21 stages built and delivered by Aerojet.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,497/599 kg. Thrust 36.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. The Air Force requested increases in the propulsion system capabilities of the original Able upper stage design in an effort to meet their ever-expanding mission requirements. As a result, the stainless steel version of the basic Able engine was selected, and it was uprated to increase thrust 34.7 kN to 37.0 kN and to increase the duration 2-1/2 times (easily done with the stainless steel thrust chamber) - and this configuration was called Ablestar.

**Advanced Launch System Core**.

Alternate designation for ALS rocket stage.

**Advanced Solid Rocket Motor**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle ASRM rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 118 kg.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/119 kg. Thrust 11.50 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700/133 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 611/133 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 209 seconds. Nitric acid/Aniline propellants. Typical ideal dV=3839 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 1012 m/s.

**Aerobee 200 St2**.

Alternate designation for AJ60-92 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 272/153 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 167 seconds. Typical ideal dV=259 m/s; gravity and drag losses = 25 m/s.

**Aerobee 350 St2**.

Alternate designation for Aerobee 350-2 rocket stage.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,000/1,050 kg. Thrust 72.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/142 kg. Thrust 13.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500/184 kg. Thrust 17.80 kN.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700/184 kg. Thrust 11.60 kN.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,790/885 kg. Thrust 68.95 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds. The Agena space vehicle was used in large numbers during the 1960s and 1970s as upper stage with SLV-2 Thor, SLV-3 Atlas and SLV-5 Titan boosters to launch a variety of military and civilian payloads into orbit. The Agena itself was actually the first general-purpose satellite, and formed the core for many operational satellites and experimental space vehicles.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,167/867 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,821/673 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. One of the real workhorses of US space exploration, Agena was a restartable upper stage which was also employed as a spacecraft, the whole vehicle going into orbit. A mainstay of the US Air Force reconnaisance satellite program, it also boosted early NASA probes to the moon and planets. Agena played a key role in manned space flight as the target vehicle for rendezvous and docking manoeuvres in NASA's Gemini project. It

Solid rocket stage. 700.00 kN (157,366 lbf) thrust. Mass 11,500 kg (25,353 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,200 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 1040.00 kN (233,801 lbf) thrust. Mass 33,000 kg (72,753 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 314.00 kN (70,590 lbf) thrust. Mass 14,000 kg (30,865 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,500 kg.

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700/131 kg. Thrust 22.60 kN.

Rocket stage used on Al Kahir missile.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,250,000/210,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers and canards. Engine type and performance, empty weight estimated.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000,000/1,800,000 kg. Unique hydrofoil launch stage for Albatros. Contains 200,000 kg propellants for acceleration by Albatros stage 1 motors to 50 m/s / 180 km/hr launch conditions. Designed by Alexeyev Hydrofoil/Ekranoplan OKB.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 320,000/82,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Configuration: delta wing with wingtip vertical stabilizers.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 520/50 kg. Thrust 35.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. Masses, specific impulse estimated.

Solid rocket stage. 49.00 kN (11,016 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 42.00 kN (9,442 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 250.00 kN (56,202 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,500 kg (14,330 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,705/1,900 kg. Thrust 470.93 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 236 seconds. This rocket started as a Polaris test motor with a 40 inch diameter, which at the time was the largest solid motor ever tested. It had a nominal performance rating of 45 seconds duration and 45,000 kgf thrust. Variations included Algol I, I-D, II, II-A, II-B and possibly others. Another popular rating was 40KS-115,000 (52,000 kgf for 40 seconds), also known as Senior.

Solid rocket stage. 440.00 kN (98,916 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,700 kg (23,589 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600/1,650 kg. Thrust 564.25 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 400.00 kN (89,924 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,700 kg (23,589 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 436.00 kN (98,017 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,800 kg (23,810 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,320/1,600 kg. Thrust 471.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 284 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,732/2,030 kg. Thrust 464.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 259 seconds.

**ALS. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 780,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,477.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 435 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 238/30 kg. Thrust 12.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 256 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 390/181 kg. Thrust 13.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 275/37 kg. Thrust 22.24 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 301/25 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds.

Lox/Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 31,000/5,900 kg. Thrust 931.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 284 seconds.

Lox/Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 12,200 kg. Thrust 315.00 kN.

Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded mass 430,000 kg. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, 900 kph at 8 to 9 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

Subsonic rocket carrier. Loaded/empty mass 600,000/216,000 kg. Thrust 1,387.07 kN. Specific impulse 9000 seconds. Antonov cargo aircraft swept wing. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 275,000 kg, 38.0 m length x 24.0 m wingspan, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds. Two thrust levels. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 162 bar.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,565/1,600 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325.5 seconds. Version proposed as Angara upper stage. 8 restarts. Propellant ration 2.0:1.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,300/3,500 kg. Thrust 73.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 461 seconds. Planned version for Angara. 5 restarts.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Product of Khrunichev. Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 75,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Unique configuration with oxidizer in core and fuel in two tanks strapped on in parallel - all of rail-transportable 3.9 m diameter. Buildt by NPO Energia to Khrunichev design (their own design for Angara and Energia-M were rejected in favor of Khrunichev version). Masses estimated based on engine selected and vehicle performance. Assumed that engine is throttled back to maintain constant 3-G acceleration.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 140,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,094.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337.5 seconds. Can be throttled to 95%. Propellant ration 2.6:1, chamber pressure 257 bar.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,225/294 kg. Thrust 60.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 256 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,400/300 kg. Thrust 93.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,637/352 kg. Thrust 80.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,500 kg. Thrust 690.00 kN.

**Aquila**.

Alternate designation for AMROC rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 158,500/20,500 kg. Thrust 1,304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 448 seconds. Second stage figures as of summer 2008. Dry mass includes 2500 kg for avionics bay.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 787,700/64,200 kg. Thrust 8,705.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 453 seconds. Core vehicle proposed by NASA for Project Constellation exploration of moon and Mars. It would use shuttle external tank tooling. All masses estimated.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 172,000/13,200 kg. Thrust 1,113.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 465 seconds. Second stage proposed later in design stage by NASA for launch of CEV into low earth orbit. All masses estimated.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 160,030/13,750 kg. Thrust 2,771.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 37,130/3,625 kg. Thrust 720.97 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 160,030/13,750 kg. Thrust 2,880.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 37,130/3,625 kg. Thrust 805.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,663/2,313 kg. Thrust 689.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 245,900/17,900 kg. Thrust 3,034.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,772/4,493 kg. Thrust 752.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 278,330/38,200 kg. Thrust 6,470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Increased propellant loading (+2.43 tonnes), lighter welded case (-1.6 tonnes) compared to earlier versions.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 186,000/12,700 kg. Thrust 1,114.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 434 seconds. 15.2 tonnes increased propellant by moving liquid oxygen bulkhead.

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,750/2,750 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 324 seconds. 250 kg additional propellant compared to Ariane 5G version.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,500/2,100 kg. Thrust 64.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds. Uses engine and oxygen tank from Ariane 4 + new liquid hydrogen tank.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,500/3,400 kg. Thrust 153.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 467 seconds. New upper stage for Ariane 5.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 277,500/39,800 kg. Thrust 6,470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Solid rocket booster for Ariane 5. Nozzle expansion ratio increased from 9.7 to 11.0 after 1997. Chamber pressure 61.3 bar. HTPB propellant.

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,500/2,700 kg. Thrust 27.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 324 seconds. Storable propellant, restartable upper stage for use with Ariane 5. Chamber pressure 10 bar; expansion ratio 83.0; propellant mix ratio 2.05. Empty mass without VEB payload fairing support ring and avionics is 1200 kg.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,000/1,600 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,310/1,570 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,800/1,740 kg. Thrust 62.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 170,800/12,700 kg. Thrust 1,114.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 430 seconds. Chamber pressure 108 bar; expansion ratio 45.0; propellant mix ratio 5.3.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,687/1,457 kg. Thrust 61.67 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 443 seconds. High energy upper stage for Ariane booster series.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 244.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg.

**Arrow St2**.

Alternate designation for IAI-Arrow-2 rocket stage.

Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. In 1994-1995 KB Arsenal collaborated with NII PME MAI, NPO Lavochkin, and others in international group to study interplanetary flight using nuclear-electric and solar-electric engines. The final selected design was a nuclear-electric interplanetary tug.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600/2,963 kg. Thrust 502.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 253 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,800/2,900 kg. Thrust 702.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 259 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,400/800 kg. Thrust 304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,710/650 kg. Thrust 90.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 512/195 kg. Thrust 35.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds.

**Asp. **

Solid rocket stage. 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 15.00 kN (3,372 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 12.70 kN (2,855 lbf) thrust. Mass 94 kg (207 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 0.40 kN (90 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb).

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,370/610 kg. Thrust 23.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 302,183/32,558 kg. Thrust 8,820.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds. Engines 1 x M-1 plus 2 x J-2

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 89,290/14,000 kg. Thrust 1,170.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. Engines 2 x RL-10 plus 1 x J-2

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 8.90 kN (2,001 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 36.40 kN (8,183 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 981,859/132,000 kg. Thrust 14,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. Delta wing configuration. LR87-derivative engines.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 151,927/23,500 kg. Thrust 2,150.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 345 seconds. X-20 Dynasoar configuration. LR87-derivative engines.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 81,647/7,230 kg. Thrust 1,517.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 114,495/4,200 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,150/2,390 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,026/2,326 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,000/3,700 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 107,610/3,980 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 306,914/22,461 kg. Thrust 4,152.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 338 seconds. Common Core Booster uses Glushko RD-180 engine and new isogrid tanks. Used in Atlas IV/USAF EELV, Atlas V. Includes 272 kg booster interstage adapter and 1297 kg Centaur interstage adapter.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,350/3,700 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 128,500/4,000 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 113,050/2,347 kg. Thrust 363.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 309 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,826/4,926 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,536/4,236 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,995/6,095 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 162,495/6,595 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,950/6,050 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 195,628/13,725 kg. Thrust 4,148.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. The American Atlas booster and sustainer engine arrangement was replaced by derivatives of Glushko engines developed for the Ukrainian Zenit launch vehicle. Not capable of single stage to single stage to orbit capability (an Internet spaceflight urban myth).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,050/3,050 kg. Thrust 1,517.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,174/3,174 kg. Thrust 1,644.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,646/3,646 kg. Thrust 1,896.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,187/4,187 kg. Thrust 2,093.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,632/5,632 kg. Thrust 2,093.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,824/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,270.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. New SRB boosters in development for Atlas V. Empty mass, vacuum thrust, sea level Isp estimated.

Solid rocket stage. 10.50 kN (2,360 lbf) thrust. Mass 50 kg (110 lb).

**AVUM. **

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 650/150 kg. Thrust 2.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315.2 seconds. The AVUM propulsion module was composed of a UDMH/NTO bipropellant main engine with a re-ignition capability and a cold gas attitude control system, based on two clusters of three thrusters, each having a 50 N thrust.

**B-1A. **

Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 159,637/81,587 kg. Thrust 302.40 kN. Specific impulse 1980 seconds. N. American Bomber-variable geometry. Maximum release conditions: Bomb bay mounted, 16,364 kg (9.4 m length x 2.5 m diameter x 2.5 m span) at 2,096 kph at 11,900 m altitude.

**B-47. **

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

**B-58. **

Mach 2 rocket carrier. Loaded/empty mass 72,563/25,197 kg. Thrust 183.23 kN. Specific impulse 2020 seconds. Convair Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Belly mounted, 21,818 kg (22.5 m length x 1.9 m diameter x 7.1 m wingspan) at 2,130 kph at 12,195 m altitude (Kingfisher).

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 400,000/25,000 kg. Thrust 6,080.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds. All values roughly estimated based on number of engines and diameter given.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 80,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,214.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds. All values roughly estimated based on number of engines and diameter given.

H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 744,000/45,195 kg. Thrust 14,120.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 259 seconds. Thrust declines to 70% of initial value at shut down.

H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 189,000/14,560 kg. Thrust 3,599.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value at shut down.

H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 36,700/2,855 kg. Thrust 196.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds. Thrust declines to 50% of initial value at shut down.

Solid rocket stage. 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 80 kg (176 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 170.00 kN (38,218 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,900 kg (4,189 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 91.70 kN (20,615 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,050 kg (2,315 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 50.00 kN (11,240 lbf) thrust. Mass 280 kg (617 lb).

**Beta. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 5,736.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds.

H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,104/1,070 kg. Thrust 234.82 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds.

H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,537/535 kg. Thrust 68.23 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 397/87 kg. Thrust 29.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

**Black Brant 2B**.

Alternate designation for 23KS20000 rocket stage.

**Black Brant 5C**.

Alternate designation for 26KS20000 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 1.00 kN (225 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 257.50 kN (57,888 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,482/8,283 kg. Thrust 402.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. Winged, first stage of a launch vehicle using aerial refueling and existing engines. Takes off from runway; rendezvous with tanker to load oxidizer; then flies to Mach 12/150 nm to release Star 48V second stage and 450 kg payload. 2 x F125 turbofans for flight to tanker, subsonic ferry, and go-around capability on return.

H2O2/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 83,560/6,883 kg. Thrust 443.19 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 335 seconds. Winged, single stage to orbit launch vehicle using aerial refueling and lower performance, non-cryogenic propellants. Takes off from runway at 48,452 lbs gross weight; rendezvous with tanker to load 146,870 lbs oxidizer; then flies to orbit.

Solid rocket stage. 80.90 kN (18,187 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 36.50 kN (8,206 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

H2O2/Kerosene rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb).

H2O2/Kerosene rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb).

Lox/Kerosene rocket stage. 66.70 kN (14,995 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,200 kg (13,669 lb).

**Blue Streak, ELDO-1**.

Alternate designation for Europa-1 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 12.20 kN (2,743 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 1.50 kN (337 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 12.00 kN (2,698 lbf) thrust. Mass 16 kg (35 lb).

**Briz K**.

Alternate designation for Rokot-3 Briz rocket stage.

**Briz M**.

Alternate designation for Proton KM-4 Briz M rocket stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,700/1,700 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Briz KM differs from Briz K in having 'compact' components, special payload truss for Globalstar dispenser. The truss is 1.8 m in diameter and has a volume of 8.8 m3.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 600 kg.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 111.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 755.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 254 seconds. Booster for Buran missile. Four used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass. Specific impulse estimated.

Ramjet missile stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 103.90 kN. Specific impulse 1500 seconds. Boosted by 4 x Glushko-engined boosters. 8,500 km cruise at Mach 3.1 at 18-20 km altitude with 3,500 kg warhead. Wing area 98 square meters; diameter of ramjet 2.0 m. Never reached flight test. Masses estimated based on missile known total mass.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,000/1,800 kg. Thrust 357.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Masses, thrust, specific impulse estimated based on total vehicle mass of 28.5 tonnes and first stage burn time of 140 seconds. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,400/900 kg. Thrust 98.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Masses, thrust, specific impulse estimated based on total vehicle mass of 28.5 tonnes and first stage burn time of 140 seconds. Air launched from Tu-160 at 13,500 m, Mach 1.7 release conditions.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 774/116 kg. Thrust 43.55 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Burner II was a launch vehicle upper stage developed by Boeing for the Air Force Space Systems Division. It was the first solid-fuel upper stage with full control and guidance capability developed for general space applications.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 353/115 kg. Thrust 39.15 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Burner II was a launch vehicle upper stage developed by Boeing for the Air Force Space Systems Division. It was the first solid-fuel upper stage with full control and guidance capability developed for general space applications.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,243/168 kg. Thrust 51.15 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds.

Ramjet missile stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,865/13,000 kg. Thrust 76.00 kN. Specific impulse 1500 seconds. Boosted by 2 x R-11 derivative boosters. 6,500 km tested, 8,000 km specified, cruise at Mach 3.2 at 18-20 km altitude with 2,350 kg warhead. Flight tested 1957 - 1960. Wing area 60 square meters; diameter of ramjet inlet 1.7 m. Total missile mass 97,215 kg; gross masses prorated, empty masses estimated.

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/4,000 kg. Thrust 771.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. Booster for Burya missile. Two used to boost ramjet second stage to ignition conditions. Engines developed by Isayev from R-11 S2.253 engine. Early Buryas had S2.1100 engine. Masses estimated based on known total vehicle mass.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

**C-17. **

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 267/23 kg. Thrust 13.78 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 254 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 35/6 kg. Thrust 2.27 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5/1 kg. Thrust 0.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,093,330/88,449 kg. Thrust 10,441.06 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 452 seconds. Core vehicle proposed by NASA for Project Constellation exploration of moon and Mars. Originally it would use shuttle external tank tooling. This version was proposed by Thiokol prior to Constellation decision. Modification of shuttle external tank. Includes 28.6 tonne SSME engine pod.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 227,036/19,343 kg. Thrust 2,442.07 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Trans-lunar injection stage proposed by NASA for Project Constellation exploration of moon and Mars. It would use shuttle external tank tooling. All masses estimated.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,852/535 kg. Thrust 286.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 247 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,424/695 kg. Thrust 258.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage developed for use on space launch vehicles.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,534/1,269 kg. Thrust 407.21 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 261 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,743/1,529 kg. Thrust 478.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,400/1,400 kg. Thrust 430.61 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds. Optimized for high altitude (Conestoga)

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,400/2,500 kg. Thrust 745.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 283 seconds. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A.

Solid rocket stage. 227.00 kN (51,032 lbf) thrust. Mass 800 kg (1,764 lb).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,138/2,358 kg. Thrust 186.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Conceptual design. Not put into production.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,600/1,996 kg. Thrust 133.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. The first high-energy liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellant stage in history. Despite initial development problems, the Centaur is entering its sixth decade of development and production.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,138/2,358 kg. Thrust 110.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 450 seconds. Conceptual design. Not put into production.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,258/2,631 kg. Thrust 131.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 444 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,880/2,775 kg. Thrust 146.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 444 seconds. Centaur for Titan 4

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,501/3,000 kg. Thrust 146.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 444 seconds. Centaur for Shuttle payload bay. Cancelled after Challenger disaster on safety grounds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,327/2,600 kg. Thrust 146.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 444 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,600/1,700 kg. Thrust 146.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 444 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,833/2,053 kg. Thrust 146.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 444 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,073/2,293 kg. Thrust 185.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 449 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,710/1,905 kg. Thrust 99.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Single-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIA.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 22,960/2,130 kg. Thrust 198.32 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Dual-engine Centaur for Atlas IIIB. The Lockheed Martin manufactured Centaur IIIB upper stage is powered by two Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The changes to Centaur for Atlas IIIB are a stretched tank (1.68 m) and the addition of the second engine.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 22,825/2,026 kg. Thrust 99.19 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Single-engine Centaur for Atlas V. Centaur is powered by either one or two Pratt & Whitney RL10A-4-2 turbopump-fed engines burning liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. For typical, high-energy mission applications, Centaur will be configured with one RL10 engine. Guidance, tank pressurization, and propellant usage controls for both Atlas and Centaur phases are provided by the inertial navigation unit (INU) located on the Centaur forward equipment module.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,050/2,250 kg. Thrust 198.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Dual-engine Centaur for Atlas V. For heavy payload, low earth orbit missions, Centaur will use two RL10 engines to maximize boost phase mission performance.

Solid rocket stage. 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 44.00 kN (9,892 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50/10 kg. Thrust 4.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. Masses, specific impulse estimated.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 57,000/30,000 kg. Thrust 490.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. All characteristics except dimensions estimated, on assumption that stage used same propulsion systems as Shanghai upper stage.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 5.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 18.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 160,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 2,333.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 465 seconds. Second stage originally proposed by Thiokol for launch of the CEV into low earth orbit. Also could be used as trans-Mars injection stage on the Cargo LV. Nominal single engine; alternatively 7 RL10-derived engines. All masses estimated.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 152.00 kN.

**Coralie**.

Alternate designation for Europa-2 rocket stage.

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,500 kg. Thrust 89.00 kN. Nitric acid/Aniline-Furfuyrl alcohol propellants.

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,200 kg. Thrust 89.00 kN. Nitric acid/Aniline-Furfuyrl alcohol propellants.

**CPRU**.

Alternate designation for Otrag rocket stage.

**Cryogenic Upper Stage**.

Alternate designation for Energia EUS rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

**Cuckoo 4**.

Alternate designation for Skylark 12-3 rocket stage.

**Cuckoo IA**.

Alternate designation for Zenit C-0 rocket stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,000/2,800 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,000/2,700 kg. Thrust 306.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Masses, engine performance estimated based on successor improved stage and YF-2 engines in first stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,400/1,000 kg. Thrust 107.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 287 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,850/2,650 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 287 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,830/256 kg. Thrust 29.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 55,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 761.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. Stretched version of CZ-2C second stage. Empty mass estimated.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 153,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 3,295.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,000/4,000 kg. Thrust 761.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 80,000/8,000 kg. Thrust 1,632.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 196,500/9,500 kg. Thrust 3,265.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 91,500/5,500 kg. Thrust 831.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 151,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 3,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,000/4,000 kg. Thrust 761.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 179,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 3,265.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 33,600/4,000 kg. Thrust 831.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,700/9,500 kg. Thrust 3,265.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,550/4,000 kg. Thrust 831.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,150/1,000 kg. Thrust 100.81 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 303 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 742.00 kN (166,808 lbf) thrust. Mass 39,600 kg (87,303 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 98.10 kN (22,054 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,200 kg (33,510 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,340.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336.3 seconds. From top to bottom the 2.25-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 42.3 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 22.0 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with one gimballed LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust. The oxygen tank is pressurised using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurise the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 147,000/12,000 kg. Thrust 2,680.35 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. From top to bottom the 3.35-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 90.7 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 47.7 cubic meter kerosene tank, and an engine section with two gimballed LOX /Kerosene engines of 1200 kN vacuum thrust each. The oxygen tank is pressurised using oxygen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurise the kerosene tank. The engines can be throttled to 65% of rated thrust. Burn time shown assumes full thrust during engine burn.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 175,000/17,000 kg. Thrust 1,399.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 432 seconds. From top to bottom the 5-m Chinese new generation launch vehicle consists of a 117.3 cubic meter liquid oxygen tank, an intertank section, a 350.7 cubic meter liquid hydrogen tank, and an engine section with two gimballed LOX /LH2 engines of 660 kN vacuum thrust each. The hydrogen tank is pressurised using hydrogen bled from the engine and helium is used to pressurise the oxygen tank.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,000/3,100 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 448 seconds. The upper stage for the Chinese Next Generation Launch Vehicle is a modification of the CZ-3B upper stage. The stage uses a version of the Lox/LH2 YF-75 engine, simplified for improved reliability. The stage is of hammerhead form, with the upper LH2 tank with a diameter of 5 m, and the lower liquid oxygen tank with a diameter of 3.35 m. The total propellant is 22,900 kg with a burn time of over 600 seconds. Empty mass has not yet been released and is estimated.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 60,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 588.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Upper stage for the 3.35 m diameter core vehicle. Only information available are the types of propellants, total thrust, and number of engines. Therefore all values shown here except thrust are estimated. This launcher has a low priority since its payload capability overlaps existing Chinese launch vehicles, and it would not be developed until after 2010.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 64,100/4,100 kg. Thrust 1,224.58 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 268 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,500/2,000 kg. Thrust 44.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,333,000/120,000 kg. Thrust 49,807.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,070,000/214,000 kg. Thrust 17,926.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 850 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,660,000/149,000 kg. Thrust 52,926.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,070,000/214,000 kg. Thrust 17,926.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 850 seconds.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 400 kg.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg.

**DC-I. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 470,000/36,000 kg. Thrust 6,860.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds.

**DC-X. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,320/7,200 kg. Thrust 262.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 373 seconds.

**DC-Y. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,051.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 373 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 10.00 kN.

Rocket stage used on Deacon Rockoon sounding rocket.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,472/590 kg. Thrust 35.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 104,377/6,822 kg. Thrust 1,085.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds. The first stage of the Delta III is powered by a Rocketdyne RS-27A main engine which has a 12:1 expansion ratio and employs a turbine/turbopump, a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber and nozzle, and a hydraulically gimbaled thrust chamber and nozzle that provides pitch and yaw control.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,300/2,476 kg. Thrust 110.03 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 462 seconds. The upgraded cryogenic second-stage Pratt & Whitney RL10B-2 engine is based on the 30-year heritage of the reliable RL10 engine. It incorporates an extendable exit cone for increased specific impulse (Isp) and payload capability.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,170/2,850 kg. Thrust 110.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 462 seconds. Delta 3 second stage with hydrogen tank stretch.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 30,710/3,490 kg. Thrust 110.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 462 seconds. Delta 4 second stage with hydrogen tank increased to 5.1 m diameter.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,164/694 kg. Thrust 33.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 271 seconds. Able was only the first of many engine and application programs that flowed from the Vanguard experience base. These included Able, Ablestar, Delta, Fat Delta, the Japanese N II, and applications or offshoots such as Hydra, Saint (Satellite Intercept), and other classified programs.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,693/545 kg. Thrust 33.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,009/785 kg. Thrust 35.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,629/784 kg. Thrust 41.36 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,954/950 kg. Thrust 43.63 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 319 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,434/820 kg. Thrust 41.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 226,400/26,760 kg. Thrust 3,312.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Low cost expendable stage using lower performance engine. Used in Delta 4, Boeing EELV. Engine can be throttled to 60%.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,067/4,059 kg. Thrust 1,030.21 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,354/3,715 kg. Thrust 866.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,368/4,360 kg. Thrust 1,030.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,442/3,175 kg. Thrust 866.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,700/5,690 kg. Thrust 1,032.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,900/5,900 kg. Thrust 1,054.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds.

Lox/Alcohol rocket stage. 270.00 kN (60,698 lbf) thrust. Mass 14,000 kg (30,865 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 93.20 kN (20,952 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 93.20 kN (20,952 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,400 kg (11,905 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 6,200 kg.

Nitric acid/kerosene rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,000 kg.

Nitric acid/kerosene rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb).

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,500/3,500 kg. Thrust 396.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800/120 kg. Thrust 50.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 211 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/1,000 kg. Thrust 176.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 273 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,685/1,946 kg. Thrust 301.55 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,815/540 kg. Thrust 120.08 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 703/68 kg. Thrust 29.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 211 seconds.

Lox/Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 7,500 kg. Thrust 155.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 168.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 13.30 kN (2,990 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 9.80 kN (2,203 lbf) thrust. Mass 10 kg (22 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 26.00 kN (5,845 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 8,000 kg. Boost stage for Tu-123/DP nuclear propulsion upper stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,500 kg. Thrust 213.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 44.50 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

**EAP - Experimental Aerospace Plane.**.

Alternate designation for Tu-2000 rocket stage.

**EHTV**.

Alternate designation for Sanger II-1 rocket stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,390/1,564 kg. Thrust 107.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Boosted second stage to ramjet ignition conditions.

Ramjet test vehicle stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,484/1,167 kg. Thrust 6.13 kN. Specific impulse 1580 seconds. Second stage for Eksperimentalnaya krilataya raketa (experimental winged rocket), Mach 3 ramjet. Range 730 km with flight time of 927 seconds. Lift to drag 2.51, wing area 3.31 square meters. Not developed but formed basis for Burya and Buran missiles.

**Emeraude**.

Alternate designation for Diamant-1 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 14.80 kN (3,327 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 1.40 kN (315 lbf) thrust. Mass 50 kg (110 lb).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 905,000/85,000 kg. Thrust 7,848.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 453 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 77,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 1,962.03 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 272,000/28,000 kg. Thrust 1,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 84.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Energia payload orbital insertion.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,906.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Essentially identical to Zenit stage 1.

**EPKM. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,985/541 kg. Thrust 117.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. Perigee kick motor for putting CZ-2E payloads into geosynchronous transfer orbit. Thrust, burn time estimated. Specific impulse calculated based on motor payload/delta v performance and masses.

Solid rocket stage. 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

**ERTA. **

Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,000/12,000 kg. Thrust 0.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 3000 seconds. At the beginning of the 1990's a new type of nuclear generator was studied, that would have a capacity of 150 kW in the transport role and provide 10-40 kW to power spacecraft systems while coasting. This was designated ERTA (ElecktroRaketnovo Transportnovo Apparat).

**ESBM. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,810/1,030 kg. Thrust 189.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 89,406/6,997 kg. Thrust 1,672.67 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,894/2,099 kg. Thrust 274.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 40 kg.

**Extended Length Tank Thor**.

Alternate designation for Delta Thor ELT rocket stage.

**Extended Length Tank Thor MB-3**.

Alternate designation for H-1-1 rocket stage.

**Extended Length Thor RS-27**.

Alternate designation for Delta Thor RS27 rocket stage.

**External Tank**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle Tank rocket stage.

**Extra ELT Thor**.

Alternate designation for Delta Thor XLT rocket stage.

**Extra ELT Thor+**.

Alternate designation for Delta Thor XLT-C rocket stage.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 15,173/10,901 kg. Thrust 71.60 kN. Specific impulse 1800 seconds. Convair Interceptor-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Weapons bay mounted, 1,957 kg at 2,141 kph at 16,067 m altitude

**F-15. **

Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 16,921/11,833 kg. Thrust 127.72 kN. Specific impulse 1552 seconds. McDonnell Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: 545 kg (2.0 m length x 0.5 m wingspan) at 2,580 kph at 11,582 m altitude (ASAT).

**F2H2. **

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

**F3H. **

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

**F-4. **

Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 22,517/13,394 kg. Thrust 105.58 kN. Specific impulse 2020 seconds. McDonnell Fighter-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: 5,442 kg at 2,353 kph at 17,820 m altitude

**F4D-1**.

Alternate designation for F-6A rocket stage.

**F-6. **

Turbojet powered rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 8,163/6,870 kg. Thrust 45.36 kN. Specific impulse 1414 seconds. Douglas (Heinemann) designed fighter-delta wing. Used as zero stage for Caleb miniature satellite launcher. Maximum release conditions: 3,628 kg at 1,166 kph at 16,768 m altitude

**F-6A. **

Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 10,474/6,869 kg. Thrust 71.14 kN. Specific impulse 2770 seconds. Navy fighter used to launch Caleb air-launched rocket. Launch conditions 3,000 lbs at 40,000 feet at 480 mph at 56 degree angle.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 22,993/1,505 kg. Thrust 369.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene rocket stage. 33.00 kN (7,419 lbf) thrust.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,168/2,712 kg. Thrust 615.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 242.00 kN (54,404 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,100 kg (11,244 lb).

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,400/10,000 kg. Thrust 3,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 38,300/3,500 kg. Thrust 761.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,535/1,100 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. Upper stage developed from propulsion bus for Lavochkin lunar and planetary probes (Luna Ye-8, Mars M1, Fobos 1F). 20 restarts.

Solid rocket stage. 16.00 kN (3,597 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 300/25 kg. Thrust 25.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 287 seconds.

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,403/11,337 kg. Thrust 1,204.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 273 seconds. Burns out at altitude 13,000 m, Mach 3

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 76,870/16,780 kg. Thrust 2,048.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Burns out at altitude 21,600 m, Mach 3. Empty Mass estimated.

**G-4. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 66,600/2,760 kg. Thrust 1,059.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 249 seconds. Residuals 940 kg. Burnout mass with 3400 kg warhead 7100 kg. Cutoff velocity 4500 m/s, maximum altitude 120 km over 3000 km range. With 10 G limiter thrust would be throttled back and burn time would be 156 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 16 kg (35 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 6 kg (13 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,064/1,361 kg. Thrust 492.93 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 274 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,327/2,282 kg. Thrust 628.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 278 seconds. Nine 1168-mm (46 in.) diameter Alliant graphite epoxy motors (GEM LDXLs) (strap-on solid rocket motors - SSRMs) augment the first-stage performance of the Delta III and were a direct evolution from the GEMs used on Delta II.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 33,798/3,849 kg. Thrust 826.55 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. 90.5 bar chamber pressure, 11.0 nozzle expansion ratio. Figures for TVC version. Fixed nozzle version is 599 kg lighter.

Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded mass 900,000 kg. NPO Molniya-1000 cargo aircraft, catamaran layout, twin-fuselage triplane. Release conditions: Suspended load, 450,000 kg, 900 kph at 9,500 m altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 270 m/s.

**Gerkules**.

Alternate designation for Interorbital Tug rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 875/150 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,050/246 kg. Thrust 180.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 254 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 16,000 kg (35,274 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 80,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 1,676.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Payload 4,000 kg (2.2 MT nuclear warhead). Range 13,000 km or orbital. Accuracy (90%) 5 km in range and 3 km in dispersion. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,500/1,000 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle mass of 117 tonnes. This stage was a close cousin of that developed for the Molniya launch vehicle.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 80 kg (176 lb).

Solid rocket stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 25,000 kg.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 45,600/5,600 kg. Thrust 735.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 281 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 157,300/28,300 kg. Thrust 4,860.07 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 266 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,900/5,400 kg. Thrust 725.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/2,200 kg. Thrust 75.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. The stage finally reached hardware status as a joint Russian-Indian development for India's GSLV booster.

**H- 8**.

Alternate designation for Ariane H8 rocket stage.

**H-10**.

Alternate designation for Ariane H10 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,480/750 kg. Thrust 258.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Version for Japanese H-1 booster.

**H-10+**.

Alternate designation for Ariane H10+ rocket stage.

**H-10-3**.

Alternate designation for Ariane H10-3 rocket stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 85,800/4,400 kg. Thrust 866.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. License built MB-3 ELT Thor

**H155**.

Alternate designation for Ariane H155 rocket stage.

**H173**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 5 EPC rocket stage.

**H-18**.

Alternate designation for CZ H-18 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,400/11,250 kg. Thrust 1,540.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 273 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 98,100/11,900 kg. Thrust 1,078.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 446 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,000/17,800 kg. Thrust 2,196.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. Two-engine version of H-2A-1 used as strap-on booster.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 76,400/10,400 kg. Thrust 2,250.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,200/2,100 kg. Thrust 626.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 283 seconds. Provides supplemental thrust for H-2 or H-2A.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 113,600/13,600 kg. Thrust 1,098.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. Lower cost version of H-2 first stage. Can be throttled to 72% thrust.

**H-8**.

Alternate designation for CZ-YF-73 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 52 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,800 kg.

Guncotton propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450/1 kg. Thrust 127,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 365 seconds. The HARP gun, a converted 16 inch naval gun, was used during the 1960's to launch the Martlet series of rocket-launched space probes.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Solid rocket stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 200,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 6,660.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 400 seconds. Booster stage with Lox tanks only to take nuclear second stage to stratosphere.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 153,000/26,000 kg. Thrust 2,892.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 830 seconds. Nuclear second stage

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 236,000/14,000 kg. Thrust 7,786.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 400 seconds. Booster stage with Lox tanks only to take nuclear second stage to stratosphere.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 177,000/29,000 kg. Thrust 3,330.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 830 seconds. Nuclear second stage

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 395,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 12,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 400 seconds. Booster stage with Lox tanks only to take nuclear second stage to stratosphere.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 309,000/54,000 kg. Thrust 5,780.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 830 seconds. Nuclear second stage

Solid rocket stage. 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,900 kg (4,189 lb).

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 71.00 kN. Nitric acid/Tonka propellants.

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,800 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN. Nitric acid/Tonka propellants.

Nitric acid/Tonka propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 100.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 6,000 kg.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,600/3,100 kg. Thrust 274.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 452 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 93.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 30.00 kN (6,744 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 21.00 kN (4,721 lbf) thrust.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 599/256 kg. Thrust 195.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 195 seconds. The average sea level thrust of the Nike rocket motor was 190.3 kN. The interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Nike and consisted of a conical shaped adapter which slip-fit into the second stage nozzle, thus providing for drag separation at Nike burnout. Each Nike fin was 0.45 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide a two revolutions per second spin rate at Nike burnout.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,900/954 kg. Thrust 365.00 kN. Rocket motor originally developed for the Army Honest John tactical missile. In sounding rocket applications the interstage adapter was bolted to the front of the Taurus and consisted of a conical shaped adapter which slip-fit into the second stage nozzle, thus providing for drag separation at Taurus burnout. Each Taurus fin was 0.46 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide a two revolutions per second spin rate at Taurus burnout. The weight of the booster system is 3005 pounds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 28.00 kN (6,295 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

**Horizontal Takeoff and Landing**.

Alternate designation for HOTOL rocket stage.

**Horus**.

Alternate designation for Sanger II-2 rocket stage.

Liquid Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 250,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 1,103.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 700 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf) thrust. Mass 40 kg (88 lb).

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 93.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 93.00 kN.

Lox/Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg. Thrust 30.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 17.00 kN (3,822 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 394,625/18,144 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 457 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,000/44,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. All values estimated based on drawing, statement that 5 x mass of SASSTO, payload performance, and 300 m/s sled velocity augmentation.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 453,592/110,000 kg. Thrust 5,782.68 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 800 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 6.00 kN (1,349 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Lox/Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 270.00 kN.

**IABS. **

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,578/275 kg. Thrust 0.98 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 16.00 kN (3,597 lbf) thrust. Mass 40 kg (88 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 4.10 kN (922 lbf) thrust. Mass 10 kg (22 lb).

**IHLLV; Interim Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle C rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 115 kg (254 lb).

**Ikar. **

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,164/820 kg. Thrust 2.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. Derived from propulsion module of Yantar spysat, over 30 flights to 1998. 50 restarts.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 400 kg. Thrust 13.00 kN. The Improved Orion motor was a bi-phase propellant system that results in thrust levels of approximately 84.5 kN during the first four seconds of motor burn then trailing off to approximately 13.3 kN until burnout around 25 seconds. The fins were generally configured to provide a burn out spin rate of four cycles per second.

Solid rocket stage. 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 22.00 kN (4,946 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 137.00 kN (30,799 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

**Integrated Apogee Boost Subsystem**.

Alternate designation for IABS rocket stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 250,000/33,100 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

Electric/Xenon propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 65,700/15,700 kg. Thrust 0.03 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 3000 seconds. Beginning in 1978 the 11B97 nuclear electric engine was studied for use in a reusable interorbital space tug for launch by Energia-Buran. In 1982, according to the decree of 5 February 1981, NPO Energia developed for the Ministry of Defence the interorbital tug Gerkules with 550 kWt maximum output and continuous operation in the 50-150 kWt range for 3 to 5 years. In 1986 a civilian interorbital tug was studied to solve the specific application of transporting heavy satellites of 100 tonnes to geostationary orbit, launched by Energia.

**Ion. **

Electric/Mercury propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,627/5,498 kg. Thrust 0.27 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 5300 seconds. 1970's conceptual design of ion upper stage sized for use in the shuttle. It was nuclear-electric and intended for trans-Jovian planetary missions

Solid rocket stage. 84.00 kN (18,884 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

**IRR**.

Alternate designation for AMROC IRR rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,841/1,134 kg. Thrust 181.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,919/1,170 kg. Thrust 78.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Rocket stage used on RNII Sounding Rocket.

Rocket stage used on RNII Sounding Rocket.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 71,100/11,900 kg. Thrust 1,556.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 273 seconds. Shorter monolithic motor using filament-wound case technology from Thiokol. Version for J-1 has 1,000 kg less propellant and 1,200 kg less empty mass than later H-2 SRB.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,800/2,400 kg. Thrust 524.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Version for J-1 F2 has 300 kg heavier empty mass.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 140.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 140.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 8.60 kN (1,933 lbf) thrust. Mass 25 kg (55 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 950,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,481.26 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 145,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 1,031.98 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds.

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,400/2,000 kg. Thrust 3.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 700 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 20.00 kN.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 9.00 kN (2,023 lbf) thrust. Mass 10 kg (22 lb).

**Juno 1 (retrospectively)**.

Alternate designation for Jupiter C rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 22.00 kN (4,946 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 54,431/5,443 kg. Thrust 758.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Lox/Hydyne propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,430/3,890 kg. Thrust 416.18 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Redstone missile, stretched, modified with different propellants to serve as first stage of IRBM nose cone/orbital test vehicle.

Solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 226,716/27,205 kg. Thrust 3,034.29 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Masses estimated (cluster of four Jupiter IRBM stages)

Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 45.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf) thrust.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 105.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 19.00 kN (4,271 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 43.00 kN (9,667 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/29,500 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Boosted to launch speed of 500 m/s by rocket sled. Boost phase assisted with two ramjets which increases effective specific impulse to over 500 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,000/25,000 kg. Thrust 5,880.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Boosts Keldysh bomber to launch speed of 500 m/s. Mass estimated based on fuel consumed in 11 second boost phase.

Turbo-ramjet powered rocket launch aircraft. Loaded mass 550,000 kg. Mikoyan supersonic cargo aircraft, designed from Sprial 50-50 design. Combined-cycle turbo-ramjet engine. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 200,000 kg, Mach 5 at 25 to 30 km altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 1130 m/s.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 21.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 9.00 kN (2,023 lbf) thrust.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 250,000/20,500 kg. Thrust 5,049.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Stage burns for 35 seconds to place itself on return-to-launch-site trajectory for recovery. Therefore to calculate performance 12,400 kg propellants for flight back to launch site should be added to empty mass. Empty mass also includes six parachutes, landing bags, and is calculated, based by apportioning total vehicle empty mass.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 131,000/13,100 kg. Thrust 1,769.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 348 seconds. Empty mass includes payload bay, heat shield, parachutes, and landing bag for recovery at base. Empty mass calculated based by apportioning total vehicle empty mass.

Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 18.00 kN (4,047 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

**KM-H. **

Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 10.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,515/3,150 kg. Thrust 730.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 264 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 87,200/5,300 kg. Thrust 1,740.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/100 kg. Thrust 86.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. All values except thrust estimated.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/700 kg. Thrust 122.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All values except thrust estimated.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 3,216.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. 4 11D121 verniers. Empty mass estimated.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 74,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 1,102.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 335 seconds. 4 RD-0124-14D23 verniers. Empty mass estimated.

Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 156,000/109,629 kg. Thrust 561.90 kN. Specific impulse 9900 seconds. Lockheed airliner swept wing. Release conditions: Belly-mounted, 36,800 kg, 17.1 m length x 7.9 m span at 925 kph at 11,890 m altitude

**L-14**.

Alternate designation for CZ-4A-3 rocket stage.

**L-140**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 1-1 rocket stage.

**L-140B**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 2-1 rocket stage.

**L-17**.

Alternate designation for Diamant B-1 rocket stage.

**L-220**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 4-1 rocket stage.

**L-33**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 1-2 rocket stage.

**L-33B**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 2-2 rocket stage.

**L-40**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 4L rocket stage.

**L735(1-3)**.

Alternate designation for Lambda 4SC-2 rocket stage.

**L-9**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 5-2 rocket stage.

**L-90**.

Alternate designation for CZ-2E-2 rocket stage.

**LACE. **

Liquid Air/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 147.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 1200 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,400 kg (3,086 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 410.00 kN (92,172 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,000 kg (11,023 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,800 kg (3,968 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 110.00 kN (24,729 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 800 kg. Thrust 69.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,500 kg. Thrust 118.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 7.80 kN (1,754 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg. Thrust 2.80 kN.

**La-X, Objekt 350**.

Alternate designation for Burya rocket stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 41,000/3,200 kg. Thrust 816.29 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,253,246/396,013 kg. Thrust 56,368.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 798,389/95,092 kg. Thrust 9,793.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,304/19,518 kg. Thrust 2,028.04 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 306 seconds.

**LE-5. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,600/1,800 kg. Thrust 102.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 450 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,600/3,000 kg. Thrust 137.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 447 seconds. Lower cost version of H-2 second stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,700/2,700 kg. Thrust 121.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 452 seconds.

**LE-7**.

Alternate designation for H-2-1 rocket stage.

**LES**.

Alternate designation for Apollo LES-1 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,000/2,240 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds.

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,180/180 kg. Thrust 17.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

**License built Castor II**.

Alternate designation for H-1-0 rocket stage.

**Liquid Air Cycle Engine**.

Alternate designation for LACE rocket stage.

**Liquid Rocket Booster**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle LRB rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,200 kg.

**LK-1. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,990/1,240 kg. Thrust 774.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 268 seconds. Lengthened version of Shavit/RSA-3 rocket motor. For lower stage use with 17.1:1 nozzle. Fitted with 23.6:1 nozzle for upper stage use specific impulse increases to 279 seconds, length to 8.4 m, and empty and gross mass are increased by 135 kg.

**LK-4. **

Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 237/71 kg. Thrust 0.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds. Upper stage for orbital insertion of Shavit or Leolink payloads.

Solid rocket stage. 15.00 kN (3,372 lbf) thrust.

**Long Tank Thor**.

Alternate designation for Delta Thor LT rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 600 kg. Thrust 190.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 62.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 267.70 kN (60,181 lbf) thrust. Mass 7,032 kg (15,503 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 400 kg. Thrust 60.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 10.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 990.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,300/6,900 kg. Thrust 936.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,100/1,120 kg. Thrust 49.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

**M-13**.

Alternate designation for Mu-3S-1 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 1020.00 kN (229,305 lbf) thrust. Mass 34,200 kg (75,398 lb).

**M-2**.

Alternate designation for Scout X-3M-4 rocket stage.

**M-20. **

Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,900 kg (21,826 lb).

**M-22. **

Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 9,800 kg (21,605 lb).

**M-23**.

**M-24**.

Alternate designation for M-V-2 rocket stage.

**M-34**.

Alternate designation for M-V-3 rocket stage.

**M-3A. **

Solid rocket stage. 61.00 kN (13,713 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

**M-3B. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,590/310 kg. Thrust 132.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds.

**M56. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,170/466 kg. Thrust 228.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. Second stage of Minuteman I. Used as first stage of Aries sounding rocket and various SDI targets in 1980's.

**M6 Honest John**.

Alternate designation for HJ Nike-1 rocket stage.

**M-9**.

Alternate designation for DF-15-1 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 369/34 kg. Thrust 19.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 530/40 kg. Thrust 45.48 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 830,000/70,000 kg. Thrust 9,112.38 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 453 seconds. Alternative configurations used 2 to 3 RS-68 engines

Lox/Kerosene/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,600/18,600 kg. Thrust 3,618.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 437 seconds. Empty mass without 9300 kg payload.

Lox/Kerosene/LH2 rocket stage. Mass 248,100 kg (546,967 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 130 kg (287 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 41 kg (90 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 61 kg (134 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 890/155 kg. Thrust 67.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 230/45 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90/20 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 655/114 kg. Thrust 67.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 183/35 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53/10 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 243/46 kg. Thrust 20.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 58/9 kg. Thrust 5.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 300 seconds.

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

**MB-1**.

Alternate designation for Astrobee 500-1 rocket stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 215,000/95,254 kg. Thrust 16,242.82 kN. High-pressure Lox/Lh2 engine.

**McDonnell-Douglas ILRV Drop Tanks. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank for ILRV design.

Solid rocket stage. 38.00 kN (8,543 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 1.30 kN (292 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb).

Rocket stage used on MERA test vehicle.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 14.00 kN (3,147 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

Ramjet missile stage. Loaded mass 1,800 kg.

Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 32,136/19,995 kg. Thrust 182.34 kN. Specific impulse 2073 seconds. Mikoyan Interceptor-cropped delta. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 750 kg (6.3 m length x 2.2 m wingspan) at 3,161 kph at 24,000 m altitude

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 245.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,000/300 kg. Thrust 9.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. All estimated

Solid rocket stage. 792.00 kN (178,049 lbf) thrust. Mass 22,900 kg (50,486 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,032/795 kg. Thrust 267.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 287.5 seconds. Second stage of Minuteman 2. Used as second stage of Minotaur launch vehicle and various SDI targets in 1980's.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,077/2,292 kg. Thrust 791.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds. First stage of Minuteman I. Proposed as zero stage for various Saturn variants in 1960's. Surplus motors used in ABM SDI tests in 1980's and 1990's.

Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 26,213/14,494 kg. Thrust 96.05 kN. Specific impulse 2020 seconds. Dassault Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Belly mounted, 7,256 kg at 2,345 kph at 20,000 m altitude

**Mk 6 Mod 3**.

Alternate designation for Sparoair II-1 rocket stage.

**MLLV. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,352,400/317,400 kg. Thrust 71,171.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Boeing study, 1969.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,920,200/192,000 kg. Thrust 44,238.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Boeing study, 1969.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,100/1,080 kg. Thrust 65.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Stage designed as fourth stage to take R-7 launched payloads into deep space. Adapted from the Luna / Vostok third stage, but with restart capability. The 700 kg BOZ ullage motors and stabilisation platform jettisoned prior to main stage burn. Original version.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,770 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,600/6,798 kg. Thrust 976.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,800/1,976 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,660/1,160 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Standardized improved version for Molniya-type communications satellite payloads.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/1,050 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 1236.00 kN (277,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 59,000 kg (130,073 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 142.00 kN (31,923 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 440.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 450.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 6,000 kg. Thrust 320.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 900.00 kN (202,328 lbf) thrust. Mass 22,500 kg (49,604 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,800 kg (19,401 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 100.00 kN (22,481 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,500 kg (3,307 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 900.00 kN (202,328 lbf) thrust. Mass 30,000 kg (66,139 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 100.00 kN (22,481 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,000 kg (11,023 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 12.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 95.00 kN (21,357 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 128.00 kN (28,776 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,800 kg (6,173 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,100/1,080 kg. Thrust 327.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,800/7,640 kg. Thrust 1,262.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,100/2,800 kg. Thrust 524.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 737.00 kN (165,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 26,600 kg (58,643 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 26.50 kN (5,957 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 141,043/24,036 kg. Thrust 2,150.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 405 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,184/24,943 kg. Thrust 2,150.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 405 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 83,560/12,070 kg. Thrust 3,780.35 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,470/3,410 kg. Thrust 1,245.29 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 288 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,430/118 kg. Thrust 51.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds.

Lox/Alcohol rocket stage. 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

Air/Kerosene rocket stage.

**N Block V**.

Alternate designation for N-111-Ab rocket stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,384,000/117,000 kg. Thrust 39,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Earlier design for the Block A. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,778.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,942,000/192,000 kg. Thrust 49,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. First stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Block A modified with six additional engines and propellant increased by 550 tonnes by using chilled propellants.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Second stage of the N1 superbooster. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Specific impulse estimate down one second from 1962 draft project. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/16,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per draft project for N1-L3, 1964. Thrust said to be increased 2% but not reflected in figures given.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,880,000/130,000 kg. Thrust 50,300.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage and payload fairing. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 15,000 kg propellant expended in thrust build-up and boil-off prior to liftoff. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 560,700/55,700 kg. Thrust 14,039.98 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage. Compared to total fuelled mass excludes 1,000 kg in propellants lost to boil-off prior to stage ignition. Values as in draft project as defended on 2-16 July 1962.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,200/3,500 kg. Thrust 83.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. Block D as originally designed as a lunar crasher stage

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,800/6,000 kg. Thrust 446.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. Empty mass estimated.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,000/4,300 kg. Thrust 73.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. Designed 1965-1971 as replacement for N-1 Blok D. Cancelled 1971 in favor of Blok Sr; revived and developed in 1974-1976. First static test Oct 12 1976. Two stages tested 1976-1977. Strangely never replaced Blok D on Proton.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 58,000/8,000 kg. Thrust 392.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. Designed 1965-1971 as replacement for N-1 Blok G. Cancelled in 1971 in favor of development of single stage, Block Sr.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 77,900/11,500 kg. Thrust 147.88 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 441 seconds. Upper stage developed 1971-1974 to support manned lunar expedition. Replaced Blok R/Blok S previously under development. Capable of five restarts and 11 days of flight. Could insert 24 tonnes into lunar orbit or 20 tonnes into geosynch orbit.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 188,700/13,700 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds. As flown.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 805,000/115,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. N1 improvement study, 1965. Lox/LH2 replacement for Block B second stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 325,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 2,350.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. N1 improvement study, 1965. Lox/LH2 replacement for Block V third stage. Pursued into 1966 and later, but later efforts concentrated on Block S, R, and SR cryogenic stages.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700,000/250,000 kg. Thrust 6,860.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 900 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800,000/150,000 kg. Thrust 7,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 810 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,500,000/500,000 kg. Thrust 14,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 900 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000,000/650,000 kg. Thrust 19,600.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 900 seconds. N1 nuclear upper stage study, 1963. Figures calculated based on given total stage thrust, specific impulse, engine mass.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 70,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Conjectural stage derived from GR-1 stage 1 to match total mass given of launch vehicle.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 485,000/47,000 kg. Thrust 11,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Derived from N1 Block B, with large number of engines and expansion ratio adjusted for sea level operation. Includes 3500 kg Stage 2-Stage 3 interstage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. Derived from N1 Block V.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 192,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,540.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Variant of N1 Block V for first stage use. Number of engines would have to be increased and reduced expansion ratio nozzles fitted for sea level use. Least attractive of N1 variants and seems not to have been pursued after draft project.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,694.37 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Alternate weight breakdown.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,200/1,700 kg. Thrust 88.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Orbital MIRV stage. Six of these stages clustered around Block B; each stage would have had a 1500 kg nuclear warhead.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,940,000/200,000 kg. Thrust 57,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Block A engine thrust increased but little additional propellant.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 15,600.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased from 150 t each to 200 t and stretched propellant tanks.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 300,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Engine thrust increased and stretched propellant tanks with almost 50% increase.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,070,000/126,230 kg. Thrust 49,675.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Includes 14,000 kg for Stage 1-2 interstage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 620,000/55,700 kg. Thrust 14,040.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Includes 3,500 kg for Stage 2-3 interstage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210,000/13,700 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 353 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,800,000/375,000 kg. Thrust 85,300.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Huge modification of Block A, almost double propellant capacity, engines increased from 175 tonnes thrust to 250 tonnes.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 620,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 21,960.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block B and thrust increased again to 280 tonnes per engine.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Further stretch of Block V.

Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,200,000/300,000 kg. Thrust 15,600.00 kN. Specific impulse 430 seconds. Ultimate derivative of N1 Block A: Propellants changed to LH2/LOX, 16 x modified NK-33 engines + 4 Liquid Air Cycle Engine Liquid Air/LH2 boosters. All figures estimated based on tank volume of Block A and delivery of 90,000 kg payload to 400 kg MKBS orb

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,934,000/195,000 kg. Thrust 49,420.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 506,000/50,000 kg. Thrust 13,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 193,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 1,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 347 seconds. As per N1 improvement study, 1965. Primarily improved reliability and produceability compared to first model.

Solid rocket stage. 10.00 kN (2,248 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,700 kg. Thrust 250.00 kN.

Turbofan-powered rocket stage carrier aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 276,364/177,000 kg. Thrust 835.23 kN. Specific impulse 10939 seconds. Boeing swept wing airliner, modified to carry shuttle on its back. Also considered as launch aircraft for Manned Sortie Vehicle and air-launched Minuteman and Peacekeeper. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 109,000 kg payload, 37.2 m length x 24.0 m span at 538 kph at 5183 m.

**NASP (National Aerospace Plane); Orient Express**.

Alternate designation for X-30 rocket stage.

Rocket stage used on Nativ test vehicle.

Mach 3 ramjet test vehicle. Loaded/empty mass 29,478/9,977 kg. Thrust 66.70 kN. Specific impulse 1200 seconds. Separates from booster at 14,600 m, Mach 3. Mach 2.75 cruise, 5,600 km range, payload 2500 kg in 2.59 m x 1.50 m compartment.

Ramjet-powered missile stage. Loaded/empty mass 54,648/14,512 kg. Thrust 89.26 kN. Specific impulse 1200 seconds. Separates from booster at 21,600 m, Mach 3. Mach 3.25 cruise, 10,200 km range, payload 4545 kg in 3.76 m x 1.78 m weapons bay. Empty mass estimated.

Air/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,183/11,700 kg. Thrust 96.95 kN. Specific impulse 1800 seconds. Aerodynamic test vehicle for Navaho missile; Max speed Mach 2.08; range 1320 km.

Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 177,273/70,545 kg. Thrust 430.47 kN. Specific impulse 5142 seconds. Boeing Bomber-swept wing. Maximum release conditions: Wing mounted, 25,000 kg (19.1 m length x 6.7 m span) at 880 kph at 11,448 m altitude

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 178,321/34,019 kg. Thrust 867.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 825 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 158,400/27,000 kg. Thrust 333.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 925 seconds. Design as revised in detail in 2005.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,783/4,969 kg. Thrust 71.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 860 seconds. Nuclear stage designed to fit into the space shuttle payload bay. Additional propellant modules could be added in orbit. Such propellant modules would have a mass of 23,181 kg, including 21,265 kg of usable propellant. Given goahead in 1972, it would have been flight tested by 1982.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,643/5,829 kg. Thrust 81.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 975 seconds. Improved version of the Alpha nuclear stage designed to fit into the space shuttle payload bay. Additional propellant modules could be added in orbit. Such propellant modules would have a mass of 23,181 kg, including 21,265 kg of usable propellant. Given an Alpha engine development program, it would have been flight tested by 1984. In addition to propulsion, it would provide 10 to 25 MWe power for missions of two to five years duration.

Solid rocket stage. 11.60 kN (2,608 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 600 kg. Thrust 13.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,400 kg. Thrust 772.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 24.40 kN (5,485 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 12.50 kN (2,810 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 24.00 kN (5,395 lbf) thrust. Mass 90 kg (198 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 2,000.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 815,732/44,757 kg. Thrust 7,150.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 430 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 833,732/62,757 kg. Thrust 14,310.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 36,000/36,000 kg. Thrust 14,310.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,100 kg (33,290 lb).

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,033/194 kg. Thrust 53.36 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 204 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,134,000/77,000 kg. Thrust 15,121.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Short Nova building block. Four used in stage 1, one in stage 2.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 771,000/63,000 kg. Thrust 3,559.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Nova third stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,177,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 38,697.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 295 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/45,000 kg. Thrust 7,560.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 168,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 1,421.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 68,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 353.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Empty Mass Estimated

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,628,000/227,000 kg. Thrust 61,928.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Mass estimated based on total LV weight.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 680,000/54,000 kg. Thrust 10,669.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Mass estimated based on total LV weight. J-2-powered version of this stage also proposed.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 227,000/23,000 kg. Thrust 892.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. Mass estimated based on total LV weight.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,721,000/181,000 kg. Thrust 68,048.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,814,000/125,000 kg. Thrust 30,243.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 363,000/36,000 kg. Thrust 5,334.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 118,000/14,000 kg. Thrust 1,775.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,342,000/73,000 kg. Thrust 30,616.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 403,000/29,000 kg. Thrust 5,334.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,000/4,000 kg. Thrust 313.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 427 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,995,000/100,000 kg. Thrust 45,914.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 614,000/38,000 kg. Thrust 10,228.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 63,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 451.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 427 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,000/9,000 kg. Thrust 264.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 830 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 96,000/12,000 kg. Thrust 264.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 830 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,943,000/311,000 kg. Thrust 102,293.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,633,000/113,000 kg. Thrust 13,346.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 426 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,084,000/142,000 kg. Thrust 70,146.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,696,000/107,000 kg. Thrust 33,754.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,213,000/194,000 kg. Thrust 97,840.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 299 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,268,000/143,000 kg. Thrust 26,683.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 426 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,070,000/635,000 kg. Thrust 142,451.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable engine package; separation at 3,398 m/s at 76,200 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 30 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 998,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 10,669.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,535,000/363,000 kg. Thrust 26,683.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,977,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 148,031.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 335 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage; separation at 3,365 m/s at 89,300 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 8 46 m diameter parachutes 1300 km downrange.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,497,000/91,000 kg. Thrust 13,346.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 295,000/295,000 kg. Thrust 109,402.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable booster engine package 'half stage' of a 1 1/2 stage arrangement. Separation at 2,980 m/s at 87,800 m altitude; splashdown under 4 46 m diameter parachutes 1,000 km downrange.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,526,000/172,000 kg. Thrust 30,685.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,617,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 124,044.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage of ballistic shape; separation at 3,420 m/s at 93,900 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 7 parachutes 1340 km downrange.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,270,000/91,000 kg. Thrust 13,346.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,628,000/454,000 kg. Thrust 69,048.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Massed estimated based on tank volumes, total thrust, and first stage burnout conditions. Recoverable stage; separation at 1,972 m/s at 53,000 m altitude; splashdown using retrorockets under 3 61 m diameter parachutes 610 km downrange.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,847,000/170,000 kg. Thrust 63,596.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Operational date would have been April 1973

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,401,000/295,000 kg. Thrust 33,352.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Operational date would have been April 1973

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,271,000/141,000 kg. Thrust 46,208.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Operational date would have been February 1973

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,721,000/245,000 kg. Thrust 26,683.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Operational date would have been February 1973

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,430,000/454,000 kg. Thrust 125,770.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1972

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,361,000/122,000 kg. Thrust 13,346.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Operational date would have been February 1973

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,943,000/590,000 kg. Thrust 161,710.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Operational date would have been February 1973

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,041,000/163,000 kg. Thrust 20,015.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Operational date would have been February 1973

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,043,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 10,228.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1974.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,489,000/626,000 kg. Thrust 156,876.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 443 seconds. Operational date would have been April 1975. SSTO - payload 1,042,000 lbs.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 227,000/227,000 kg. Thrust 122,749.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 439 seconds. Operational date would have been June 1976. Booster stage (engines only).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,126,000/544,000 kg. Thrust 30,685.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 439 seconds. Operational date would have been June 1976. Sustainer stage (required 4-engine booster stage).

Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,474,000/1,188,000 kg. Thrust 140,539.00 kN. Specific impulse 620 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1980. Expendable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle.

Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,647,000/1,361,000 kg. Thrust 140,539.00 kN. Specific impulse 620 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1980. Recoverable stage. Air-augmented plug nozzle.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,317,000/635,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been October 1977. SSTO; expendable.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,302,000/639,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been November 1977. SSTO; expendable; payload 1,283,000 lbs.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,470,000/816,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been June 1978. SSTO; recoverable.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,502,000/839,000 kg. Thrust 160,672.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1978. SSTO; recoverable; payload 842,000 lbs.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,944,000/317,000 kg. Thrust 96,379.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been November 1976. Expendable stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,125,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 11,032.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been November 1976. Expendable stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,979,000/454,000 kg. Thrust 96,379.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been January 1977. Recoverable stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,089,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 176,686.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1976. Recoverable stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,041,000/181,000 kg. Thrust 20,015.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1976. Recoverable stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,517,000/680,000 kg. Thrust 109,000.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage. 10% plug nozzle.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,229,000/136,000 kg. Thrust 12,052.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 454 seconds. Operational date would have been July 1977. Recoverable stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,040,000/317,000 kg. Thrust 95,261.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1974.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,268,000/113,000 kg. Thrust 45,914.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 499,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 227,000/21,000 kg. Thrust 2,667.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 816,000/102,000 kg. Thrust 11,120.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Conceptual motor to be used as first stage of a solid Nova design. 4 used as first stage of solid Nova design. Extended high-expansion nozzles. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,224,000/153,000 kg. Thrust 28,017.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 5 used as first stage of solid Nova design. Masses estimated based on total vehicle thrust, performance, and stage volumes.

**OAM. **

Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 714/360 kg. Thrust 0.88 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 222 seconds. Monopropellant final stage providing precise orbital injection. Pressure-fed, indefinite number of restarts.

**OIS. **

Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 361 kg (796 lb).

**OOST. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,982,000/431,000 kg. Thrust 123,191.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,125,000/292,000 kg. Thrust 85,386.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 20.00 kN (4,496 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 33.00 kN (7,419 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

**Orbital Block**.

Alternate designation for R-56 Block O rocket stage.

**Orbital Maneuvering System Pods**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle Orbiter OMS rocket stage.

**Orbus 21D**.

Alternate designation for IUS-1 rocket stage.

**Orion**.

Alternate designation for Improved Orion-1 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,370/345 kg. Thrust 118.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,020/1,868 kg. Thrust 484.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 15,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,934/2,886 kg. Thrust 589.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

N2O4/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,500/150 kg. Thrust 26.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds. Clustered to form Otrag launch vehicles. Pressure-fed, using cheapest possible propellants. Injection pressure: 40 - 15 bar; Thrust control: 100% - 40 %; Pressurization: Compressed air 66% tank filling in blow-down mode; Injector: Radial like on like; Chamber cooling: Ablative phenolic; Material of injector, valves, bulkheads: AlMg5; Material of cylindrical tank sections: cold rolled low carbon stainless steel.

**P-10**.

Alternate designation for SSBS S01-2, MSBS M2-1, and MSBS M112-1 rocket stage.

**P-16**.

Alternate designation for SSBS S3-1 rocket stage.

**P241**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 5 EAP rocket stage.

**P-4**.

Alternate designation for Diamant BP-2 rocket stage.

**P-6**.

Alternate designation for Diamant-3 and Diamant B-3 rocket stage.

**P80. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 3,040.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 279.5 seconds. Vega's first stage, the P80 solid rocket motor, introduced advanced low-cost technologies that could be reused for future evolutions of Ariane-5 boosters.

**P9.5. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,560/3,060 kg. Thrust 689.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 186.00 kN (41,814 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 21.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,141/232 kg. Thrust 67.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,697/431 kg. Thrust 107.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,182/220 kg. Thrust 66.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 288 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/30,000 kg. Thrust 833.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Masses estimated based on performance, propellant load.

**PBS. **

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg. Thrust 1.40 kN.

N2O4/MMH rocket stage. 11.80 kN (2,653 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 1711.00 kN (384,648 lbf) thrust. Mass 53,400 kg (117,727 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 1365.00 kN (306,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 27,800 kg (61,289 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 329.00 kN (73,962 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,200 kg (18,078 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 244.00 kN.

xLox/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank. Loaded/empty mass 20,000/3,700 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds.Four tanks jettisoned at 130 seconds after liftoff; two at 250 seconds, last two at orbital insertion, 360 seconds after liftoff.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,250,000/148,000 kg. Thrust 23,947.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Empty mass includes 29,600 kg of propellants used for re-entry cooling of plug nozzle and rocket soft landing at landing field.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,331/416 kg. Thrust 153.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 985/203 kg. Thrust 34.57 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90/17 kg. Thrust 0.67 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 236 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 142.00 kN (31,923 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 1236.00 kN (277,864 lbf) thrust. Mass 59,000 kg (130,073 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 117.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 85.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 172.00 kN (38,667 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,100 kg (9,039 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 134.00 kN (30,124 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,600 kg (5,732 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 60.00 kN (13,489 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 4.50 kN (1,012 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 8,700 kg.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 4,200 kg (9,259 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 4,200 kg (9,259 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 4,300 kg (9,480 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 285.00 kN (64,071 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,300 kg (18,298 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 7,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,400/3,300 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Zero-length launch stage for Tu-121. Thrust varied from 75 to 80 tonnes and duration from 3.75 to 5.0 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 306,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 5,406.14 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Engine chamber pressure 13 to 15 Mpa.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 57,000/7,000 kg. Thrust 490.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 440 seconds. Additionally 4 vernier Lox/LH2 engines with a total thrust of 4600 kgf and a storable engine package for stage propellant ullage and restart.

Solid rocket stage. 12.10 kN (2,720 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 5.10 kN (1,147 lbf) thrust. Mass 10 kg (22 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 0.70 kN (157 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 63.20 kN (14,208 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,360/1,800 kg. Thrust 83.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Originally designed as N1-L3 lunar expedition launch vehicle lunar orbit insertion/lunar crasher stage. Before it could fly on the N1, it was adapted for use with Proton UR-500K as a fourth stage for manned circumlunar flight. It was then further used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary spacecraft. In the 1970's it was adopted by the Soviet military and standardized for launch of geostationary satellites.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,900/1,800 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-2; article number 11S824F. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824M. Used for launch of Lavochkin Mars-bound spacecraft in 1988 and 1996.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,000/1,830 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block D-1; article number 11S824M. Without guidance unit (navigation commands come from payload). Successor to 11S824. Used to launch large Lavochkin bureau unmanned lunar/planetary/high earth orbit spacecraft from 1976 to 1989.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,550/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM; article number 11S86. With guidance unit, designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous/ medium earth orbit. Used from 1974 to 1990. Succeeded by 11S861.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2 (different from commercial Block DM2 (no hyphen!)), article number 11S861. Commercial version designated Block DM1 and is equipped with Saab payload adapter for insertion of AS 4000 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. With improved guidance system as compared to 11S86, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Used from 1982 to present.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 18,650/2,650 kg. Thrust 83.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 361 seconds. Also known as Block DM-2M, article number 11S861-01. Commercial versions are Block DM3, with Saab payload dispenser, for insertion of Hughes HS 601 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit; and Block DM4, for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit.. With guidance unit, originally designed for insertion of military spacecraft into geosynchonous orbit. Capable of boosting heavier payloads than 11S861 through use of higher-performance 'sintin' synthetic kerosene fuel.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,600/3,300 kg. Thrust 85.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Also known as Block DM-5. Commercial version is Block DM2, with Iridium dispenser, designed for insertion of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. With guidance unit, modification of 11S861 stage for heavier payloads and with different payload adapter.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,510/31,100 kg. Thrust 10,470.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 167,828/11,715 kg. Thrust 2,399.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,747/4,185 kg. Thrust 630.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds.

LF2/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,700/3,000 kg. Thrust 98.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 401 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 450,400/31,000 kg. Thrust 10,532.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 613.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326.5 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,500/3,000 kg. Thrust 73.58 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 461 seconds. Planned version for Proton. Never developed.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 22,170/2,370 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. New upper stage for Proton, replacing Energia Corporation's Block DM, making Proton an all-Khrunichev launch vehicle. The Khrunichev-built Briz-M upper stage is a derivative of the flight-proven Briz -K stage (as used on the Rokot booster).

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 134,900/13,180 kg. Thrust 2,399.19 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds. Proton UR-500 second stage. Flew only on two-stage version of Proton. Empty mass is correct; all other values estimated based on UR-500 Stage 2 original design and UR-500K stage 2 figures.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,930/2,010 kg. Thrust 502.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 262 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 168,200/30,200 kg. Thrust 4,860.07 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 269 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 45,800/5,300 kg. Thrust 725.02 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,400/1,100 kg. Thrust 328.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds.

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,920/920 kg. Thrust 14.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds.

**R-1. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,630/4,066 kg. Thrust 307.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 233 seconds. Payload 815 / 483 kg. Range 270 km. Maximum altitude 77 km. Time of flight 5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1465 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally.

**R-11. **

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,660/955 kg. Thrust 93.28 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. First Russian ballistic missile using storable propellants. Enlargement/elaboration of German Wasserfall SAM. Developed by Korolev OKB, then Makeyev OKB spun off to develop Army and SLBM derivatives. Range 270 km with 690 kg, accuracy 1.5 km/0.75 km. Maximum altitude 78 km. Time of flight 5.4 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1430 m/s. Source: Wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow.

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,473/1,080 kg. Thrust 92.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. First Russian submarine-launched ballistic missile. Range 150 km with 967 kg warhead. Accuracy 1.5 km in range, 0.75 km lateral.

**R-12. **

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,610/4,810 kg. Thrust 625.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds. Payload 390 kg. Range 1500 km. Maximum altitude 398 km. Time of flight 11.8 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 3530 m/s. Accuracy 6 km in range, 5 km laterally. Source: wall chart, Russian Space Agency HQ, Moscow.

**R-13. **

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 13,700 kg.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,609.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 882.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 293 seconds. Range 12,000 km. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Two stage ICBM with nitric acid oxidizer. Developed 1956-1961. Entered service 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH.

**R-17. **

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,385/1,645 kg. Thrust 93.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 251 seconds. Developed from Russian storable fuel tactical missile. Original R-11 designed by Korolev OKB, subsequent developments by Makeyev OKB. Using calculations of Gerald Bull, stretched and clustered as basis of Iraqi ICBM/satellite launch vehicle.

**R-2. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,632/4,592 kg. Thrust 404.11 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 237 seconds. Payload 1350 / 508 kg. Range 550 km. Maximum altitude 171 km. Time of flight 7.5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 2175 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 16,600 kg.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 60,300/3,000 kg. Thrust 1,451.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH, Orevo.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,500 kg. Thrust 428.06 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. Orevo has sectioned hardware. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. All figures accurate except empty mass estimated. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH, Orevo.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg. Thrust 682.00 kN.

**R-3. **

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 69,000/5,480 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. 3000 km range IRBM design to study problems of long-range rockets. Developed April 1947 to 1949 before cancellation.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,300 kg. Thrust 3.92 kN. Bus powered by four solid propellant motors mounted 90 degrees to each other, each 60 kg mass, 0.77 m long, 0.28 m diameter.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 17,500 kg. Thrust 578.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 6,900 kg. Thrust 233.30 kN.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 125,000/8,500 kg. Thrust 2,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 48,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 955.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 122,300/6,400 kg. Thrust 2,651.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. Verniers 4 x RD-68M, 285 kN, maximum 42 degree gimbal angle.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Verniers 4 x RD-69M, 54.3 kN, maximum 50 degree gimbal angle.

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 4522.00 kN (1,016,586 lbf) thrust. Mass 210,000 kg (462,971 lb).

N2O4/UDMH rocket stage. 760.00 kN (170,855 lbf) thrust. Mass 49,000 kg (108,027 lb).

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,520/13,620 kg. Thrust 4,523.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 318 seconds. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 41,114/4,374 kg. Thrust 760.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 340 seconds. Surplus ICBMs; failures based on ICBM tests through 1994.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,266/2,356 kg. Thrust 18.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Main engine could be throttled to 800 kgf.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 53,700 kg. Thrust 2,060.00 kN.

**R-3A. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,900/3,500 kg. Thrust 434.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds. Further incremental upgrade of R-2. Payload 500 kg. Range 935 km. Developed from 1949 to October 1951. Cancelled, work combined with 8K14 development.

**R-5. **

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,250/3,250 kg. Thrust 479.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 244 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,162,000/162,000 kg. Thrust 1,608.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 213,000/13,000 kg. Thrust 1,980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 325 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 9,400/700 kg. Thrust 117.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 350 seconds. Empty mass estimated (rounded figures given in source material indicates impossible 9 tonnes gross with 8.7 tonnes propellant).

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 32,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 544.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds. Empty mass estimated (rounded figures given in source material indicates impossible 31 tonnes gross with 30 tonnes propellant).

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 222,000/18,000 kg. Thrust 4,410.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Range 16,000 km. Payload 35,000 kg. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Three stage carrier rocket with consecutiveively divided first and paraell divided second stages. Work began in 1961. Chief designer Yangel. Source: Placard, TsNIIMASH.

Nitric acid/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 55,500/5,000 kg. Thrust 784.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,100/3,500 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 306 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,300/7,500 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,800/3,200 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,700/7,300 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,600/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,595.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311.4 seconds. Payload 3,500 kg. Range 13,000 km. Accuracy (90%) 8 km in range and 5 km in dispersion with radio guidance; 20 km / 10 km with inertial guidance. Empty mass estimated.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,900/2,500 kg. Thrust 304.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Developed into Molniya/Soyuz second stage.

**Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle RSRM rocket stage.

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,440/3,125 kg. Thrust 414.34 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds.

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,440/3,125 kg. Thrust 414.34 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Used for Jupiter-C satellite missions, and greatly modified, for Mercury manned positions. For Jupiter-C missions, used Hydyne fuel, which was toxic but increased specific impulse.

**Retro and Correction Stage**.

Alternate designation for Energia RCS rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 16.90 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 8.40 kN (1,888 lbf) thrust. Mass 20 kg (44 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg. Thrust 39.10 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 33.30 kN (7,486 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 76.00 kN (17,085 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10 kg.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg.

**Rita 2**.

Alternate designation for MSBS M2-2 rocket stage.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,399,000/880,000 kg. Thrust 96,507.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 810 seconds. Same engine chamber used to burn liquid oxygen and hydrogen for boost phase, switching to pure nuclear thermal engine for high-performance final acceleration.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800,000/45,000 kg. Thrust 11,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Empty mass, specific impulses, length estimated by comparison to smaller Zenit successor design.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds. Empty mass, specific impulses, length estimated by comparison to smaller Zenit successor design.

**RM-81**.

Alternate designation for Agena A rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 3.60 kN (809 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,565/1,600 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. High performance storable liquid engine. The basic stage can be adapted with 'wrap-around' propellant tanks for Proton booster applications.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,102,041/306,175 kg. Thrust 101,900.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. 36 x plug-nozzle engines (20 atm chamber pressure, 7:1 mixture ratio)

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank. Loaded/empty mass 107,501/18,143 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Eight of these liquid hydrogen tanks would be mounted around the core of Rombus and stage in pairs at 130 seconds, 196 seconds, and 300 seconds after launch.

**Rook. **

Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 300.00 kN (67,443 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,057 kg (2,330 lb).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,898,000/608,000 kg. Thrust 165,447.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,218,000/435,000 kg. Thrust 101,842.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

**Rover**.

Alternate designation for Nerva rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,215/1,100 kg. Thrust 456.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,971/1,771 kg. Thrust 476.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. Empty mass includes 583 kg for payload shroud, guidance, orientation and spin-up platform that positions stage 3 and payload for final orbital insertion burn.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,048/170 kg. Thrust 58.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds. Data accurate. Source: Missile exhibit and placards, AF Museum, South Africa. ARC/Rafael AUS 51 is identical.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 66,000/8,000 kg. Thrust 1,520.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds. Vacuum specific impulse / thrust estimated. Sea leval 139,000 kNs delivered over 73 seconds. Includes 3400 kg mass of fins, interstage and upper-stage constant-diameter fairing ('sleeve') which is jettisoned after first stage burnout.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 470.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds. Essentially identical to RSA-3 second stage. Includes 1000 kg upper stage avionic section / spin table, which is jettisoned prior to stage three ignition.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000/100 kg. Thrust 59.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 292 seconds. Essentially identical to RSA-3 third stage. Oriented and spun up by 1000 kg avionic section/spin platform, which separates prior to ignition.

Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 300/100 kg. Thrust 0.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds. Specific impulse estimated. Maximum propellant load indicated (hydrazine monopropellnat contained in 4 x 50 l tanks). Upper stage used for orbit circularization at apogee, dispensing of dual payloads, third station nutation damping. Equipped with 2 x 200 N engines for maneuver, 4 x 200 N for roll control, and 4 x 25 N for yaw and pitch.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 900.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 500.00 kN (112,404 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,000 kg (22,046 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg. Thrust 240.00 kN.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 15,000 kg. Thrust 206.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 190.00 kN (42,714 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,000 kg (4,409 lb).

Rocket stage used on Hermes A-2 test vehicle.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 52.00 kN.

**S. **

Rocket stage used on S launch vehicle.

**S1. **

Lox/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,595/840 kg. Thrust 105.51 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 4.20 kN (944 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

**S160**.

Alternate designation for S-160-1 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

**S-20. **

Solid rocket stage. 36.00 kN (8,093 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

**S210**.

Alternate designation for S-210-1 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg.

**S-23. **

Solid rocket stage. 18.00 kN (4,047 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg.

**S3. **

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 20,135/1,435 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 303 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit.

**S-30. **

Solid rocket stage. 102.00 kN (22,931 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb).

**S300**.

Alternate designation for S-300-1 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg.

**S-31. **

Solid rocket stage. 240.00 kN (53,954 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

**S310**.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 600 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,664/1,212 kg. Thrust 208.39 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds.

**S-43. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,550/1,328 kg. Thrust 303.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,720/1,536 kg. Thrust 320.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds.

**S-44. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,025/190 kg. Thrust 33.24 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid rocket stage.

**Sandal; SS-4; 8K63; R-12; 63; 11K63**.

Alternate designation for Kosmos A-1 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 90.00 kN (20,233 lbf) thrust. Mass 700 kg (1,543 lb).

Steam propellant rocket sled. Propelled the first and second stages on a 3-km track to a release velocity of 900 kph

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 79,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 885.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 430 seconds. The first stage took the second stage to 50 km altitude and 4000 m/s separation conditions. The first stage would then land 500 km from the launch point. Takeoff speed was 300 m/s; and landing speed 80 m/s. A two-man crew piloted the booster.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 295.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 430 seconds. The second stage would reach a 300 km earth orbit and a top speed of 8000 m/s. The glider had a landing speed of 90 m/s. Aside from the two-man crew, a five tonne payload could be delivered into orbit.

Mach 6.6 rocket launch aircraft. Winged scramjet using LH2 propellant. Loaded/empty mass 254,000/156,000 kg. Thrust 1,500.00 kN. Specific impulse 1200 seconds. Releases Horus @M 6.6 @ 37 km altitude @ 3100 km range

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 112,000/32,600 kg. Thrust 1,280.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 490 seconds. 6000 kg to LEO

Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 34,000/6,800 kg. Thrust 6,860.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 245 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 99,773/19,955 kg. Thrust 1,428.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 306 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 97,976/6,668 kg. Thrust 1,558.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 464 seconds. Recoverable S-IVB with plug nozzle engine. 36 x plug-nozzle engines (102 atm chamber pressure, 6:1 mixture ratio)

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 561,100/57,600 kg. Thrust 11,143.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 260 inch solid booster - full length.

**Saturn Applications Single Stage to Orbit**.

Alternate designation for SASSTO rocket stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 432,681/45,267 kg. Thrust 7,582.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. Configuration as flown, Saturn I.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 448,648/41,594 kg. Thrust 8,241.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. Configuration as flown, Saturn IB.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 505,953/48,545 kg. Thrust 8,241.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. 20 foot stretch of Saturn IB for use with UA1207 7 segment solid rocket strap-on units.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 478,103/45,873 kg. Thrust 8,241.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. 10 foot stretch of Saturn IB. Not found useful in any configuration except with Minuteman first-stage strap-ons to augment thrust.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,286,217/135,218 kg. Thrust 38,703.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Configuration as flown.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,160,787/72,549 kg. Thrust 22,954.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,450,984/90,686 kg. Thrust 30,606.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-3 (November 1961). Unique S-IC design in that fuel and propellant tank shared common bulkhead; stage was actually shorter than C-3B S-IC.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,217,285/131,495 kg. Thrust 38,257.99 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Final first stage design of Saturn C-5 (November 1961) before selection as Apollo launch vehicle and development in Saturn V.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,278,800/127,000 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Standard S-IC but with reduced length and structural weight through use of 'flat' bulkheads consisting of multiple conical sections.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 490,778/39,048 kg. Thrust 5,165.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Configuration as flown.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 384,057/31,740 kg. Thrust 4,446.65 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Final common second stage design for Saturn C-3, C-4 and C-5 (November 1961). Developed into Saturn V second stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 495,000/48,000 kg. Thrust 9,713.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 450 seconds. Saturn II modifed with reduced expansion ratio HG-3 high pressure engines for use a first stage (sea level launch).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 490,952/44,240 kg. Thrust 5,500.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 390 seconds. Saturn II modifed with reduced expansion ratio J-2 engines for use a first stage (sea level launch). Requires solid rocket motor augmentation to get off the ground.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,576/5,217 kg. Thrust 400.35 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 410 seconds. Configuration as flown.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 119,920/13,311 kg. Thrust 1,031.98 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. Configuration as flown on Saturn V.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 118,800/12,900 kg. Thrust 1,031.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Saturn IB version of S-IVB stage. Due to lower payload payload, 300 kg saving in structure compared to Saturn V version. Due to deletion of restart requirement, 700 kg saving in propulsion system (primarily reduction in helium for restart).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 119,900/13,300 kg. Thrust 1,031.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Saturn V version of S-IVB stage for use with upper stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 52,144/6,801 kg. Thrust 889.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Final common third stage design for Saturn C-3B (November 1961).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 102,249/11,563 kg. Thrust 889.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Final common third stage design for Saturn C-4 and C-5 (November 1961). Developed into Saturn V second stage. After development started, decision taken to boost performance by increasing diameter to 6.61 m and increasing propellant load.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 118,800/12,900 kg. Thrust 956.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IVB with 215k lbf J-1 (actual final model had 230k J-1)

N2O4/Alumizine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,542,200/154,200 kg. Thrust 22,563.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, HY-140 Hull

N2O4/Alumizine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,270,100/95,300 kg. Thrust 18,873.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/Alumizine Propellant engine, Ni-250 Hull

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,360,800/108,900 kg. Thrust 20,306.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed Lox/RFP-1 engine

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,678,300/136,100 kg. Thrust 27,034.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Solid Propellant

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,995,800/199,600 kg. Thrust 28,553.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, HY-140 Hull

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,451,500/108,900 kg. Thrust 21,232.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): Low Cost Booster, Single Pressure-fed N2O4/UDMH Propellant engine, Ni-250 Hull

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,180,000/80,000 kg. Thrust 15,484.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Liquid strap-on booster studied for improved Saturn V.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,721,600/181,400 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Standard length S-IC but with feed of propellant from fuel and propellant tanks housed above strap-on solid rocket motors

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,703/169,719 kg. Thrust 45,948.75 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with F-1A engines uprated 20% in thrust and 6 second improvement in specific impulse.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,700/160,600 kg. Thrust 46,443.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with 6 F-1 engines.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,694,000/169,000 kg. Thrust 38,703.16 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Basic Saturn IC stretched 240 inches with standard F-1 engines.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,223,800/211,900 kg. Thrust 45,925.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. S-IC with 41.5 foot stretch, 6,640,0000 lbs propellant, uprated F-1 engines.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,718,800/178,700 kg. Thrust 45,925.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. S-IC with 20 foot stretch, 1.8 million lb thrust F-1's, 5.6 million pounds propellant capacity (fuel offloaded to 4.99 million for LEO or 4.80 million lbs for LOR mission).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,875,500/154,000 kg. Thrust 38,717.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. S-IC with 336 inch stretch, 6,000,0000 lbs propellant, structural strength increased from 56% to 65% depending on station, resulting in 13.9% increase in empty weight.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 521,447/49,877 kg. Thrust 5,165.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. Basic Saturn II with 41 inch stretch of hydrogen tank.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 600,800/60,000 kg. Thrust 6,380.94 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Basic Saturn II with 187 inch stretch of propellant tanks, 1.2 million pound propellant capacity, and 7 J-2 engines.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 521,447/49,877 kg. Thrust 4,446.65 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 435 seconds. Basic Saturn II with 41 inch stretch of hydrogen tank, uprated J-2T 200k engines with 10 second increase in specific impulse.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 521,447/49,877 kg. Thrust 5,558.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 441 seconds. Basic Saturn II with 41 inch stretch of hydrogen tank, uprated J-2T 250k engines with 25% improvement in thrust and 16 second increase in specific impulse.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 600,788/59,844 kg. Thrust 7,003.48 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 451 seconds. Basic Saturn II with 187 inch stretch of propellant tanks and high chamber pressure SSME-type engines with 65% increase in thrust and 26 second improvement in specific impulse.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 643,200/53,500 kg. Thrust 12,455.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 447 seconds. S-II with 15.5 foot stretch, 1.29 million pounds propellant, 7 x 400,000 lb thrust toroidal engines.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 494,100/42,300 kg. Thrust 5,169.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Standard S-II but with structural strength increased from 86% to 502% depending on station, resulting in 8.6% increase in empty weight.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 120,500/13,900 kg. Thrust 1,031.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Marshall studies, 1965: S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 179,200/20,400 kg. Thrust 1,031.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, standard J-2 engine.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 176,600/17,800 kg. Thrust 1,401.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 447 seconds. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-IVB with 315 k high pressure 3000 psia engine, 350,000 pounds propellant

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 179,200/20,400 kg. Thrust 1,778.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 447 seconds. S-IVB with 16.5 foot stretch, 350,000 pounds propellant, 1 400,000 pound thrust toroidal engine.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 118,400/14,100 kg. Thrust 1,031.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Standard S-IVB but with structural strength increased from 78% to 217% depending on station, resulting in 11.8% increase in empty weight.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 195,000/36,300 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 421 seconds. Marshall studies, 1965: S-IVB structurally strengthened to handle larger payloads, otherwise unchanged

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 874,100/18,100 kg. Thrust 15,486.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Liquid rocket booster strap-ons using 2 F-1's.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,057,400/205,400 kg. Thrust 28,553.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds. NASA, Saturn Alternative Booster Studies, 1969 (trade study of 120, 156, 260 inch solid, and Storable liquid boosters for S-IVB. Reached opposite conclusion from Boeing study, that Pressure Fed Liquid Booster would be 6.5% more expensive than solid). Pre

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 444,700/37,600 kg. Thrust 4,120.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. Chrysler Studies, 1966: S-1B with 4 H-1's for use with Titan UA1205 strap-ons

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 725,491/68,014 kg. Thrust 13,339.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,813,729/108,823 kg. Thrust 30,962.53 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 448,600/41,600 kg. Thrust 9,045.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. Douglas Studies, 1965: S-1B with 225 k lbf H-1's

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,627,500/181,400 kg. Thrust 61,925.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 952,500/68,000 kg. Thrust 15,532.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing Low-Cost Saturn Derivative Study, 1967 (trade study of 260 inch first stages for S-IVB, all delivering 86,000 lb pyld to LEO): S-IC Technology Liquid Booster: 260 inch liquid booster with 2 x F-1 engines, recoverable/reusable

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 67,100/67,100 kg. Thrust 30,962.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage recoverable. Mass estimated based on double mass of four F-1's (based on Atlas example).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,219,100/68,100 kg. Thrust 7,740.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas. Booster half stage burns 124 seconds in this configuration.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,627,600/84,400 kg. Thrust 7,740.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Boeing studies, 1967:'Stage and a half' S-1C with four outboard F-1's jettisoned and inboard F-1 functioning as sustainer as in Atlas; 20 foot stretch of sustainer stage. Booster stage burn 154 seconds in this configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/14,000 kg. Thrust 3,557.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Early design version for use with Saturn I first stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 294,731/24,938 kg. Thrust 3,557.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Version for Saturn C-4.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 770,835/63,480 kg. Thrust 8,265.26 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. Version for Saturn C-8.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 204,044/24,938 kg. Thrust 3,557.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 420 seconds. Version for Saturn C-3.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 204,044/22,671 kg. Thrust 1,031.98 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 32,470/7,708 kg. Thrust 266.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 800 seconds. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-3B study in November 1961.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,694/10,429 kg. Thrust 266.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 800 seconds. Nuclear upper stage considered in lieu of S-IVB in final Saturn C-5 study in November 1961.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 245,760/71,190 kg. Thrust 889.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 825 seconds. Version of Nerva studied by Boeing for manned Mars expedition.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

**SB-735**.

Alternate designation for Mu-3S-0 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Rocket stage used on Astrobee 1500 sounding rocket.

Solid rocket stage. 590.00 kN (132,637 lbf) thrust. Mass 17,300 kg (38,140 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg. Thrust 200.00 kN.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,600,000/1,300,000 kg. Thrust 356,900.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. Sea level thrust shown. Thrust, chamber pressure varies during ascent. Vacuum thrust at cut-off 40 million kgf. Total mass, specific impulse estimated from booster performance figures.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,900,000/530,000 kg. Thrust 62,270.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Length with extendible nozzle deployed 87 m. Diameter of extended nozzle 30 m. Total mass, specific impulse estimated from booster performance figures.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 40,000/5,000 kg. Thrust 755.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,000/2,000 kg. Thrust 147.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 49.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage.

**Senior**.

Alternate designation for Algol 1 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42/21 kg. Thrust 6.66 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 235 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 255.00 kN (57,326 lbf) thrust. Mass 15,100 kg (33,290 lb).

Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 625,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 15,566.12 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 286 seconds.

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 36,360/34,380 kg. Thrust 6,834.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 799,537/131,519 kg. Thrust 10,290.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Faget Configuration

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 199,238/54,422 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Faget Configuration - Cross Range 323 km

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,169,691/234,467 kg. Thrust 30,088.43 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Trapezoidal lifting body configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 388,189/130,159 kg. Thrust 4,549.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Trapezoidal lifting body configuration. Cross range 2419 km.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,489,717/224,431 kg. Thrust 24,973.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Swept wing configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 474,199/100,153 kg. Thrust 7,079.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Delta wing configuration with drop tanks - Cross Range 1,774 km

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,634,467/304,535 kg. Thrust 29,135.63 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Swept wing configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 342,948/129,329 kg. Thrust 4,719.64 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Delta winged configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,512,381/286,621 kg. Thrust 27,054.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Swept wingd configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 322,449/120,816 kg. Thrust 4,719.64 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Faget Straight Wing Configuration

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 350,000/52,000 kg. Thrust 10,318.11 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 435 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,225,668/162,494 kg. Thrust 26,076.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Delta winged configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 406,344/104,891 kg. Thrust 6,823.56 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. High-fineness lifting-body configuration. Cross Range 2,419 km

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,730,803/133,514 kg. Thrust 27,422.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. High-fineness lifting-body configuration. Cross Range 2,419 km

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,242,630/220,254 kg. Thrust 18,956.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Delta winged configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 335,601/73,442 kg. Thrust 3,070.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. HL-10 lifting body configuration

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,641,723/273,469 kg. Thrust 28,130.19 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Faget Straight Wing Configuration

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 395,011/121,542 kg. Thrust 5,256.89 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Faget Straight Wing Configuration - Cross Range 2,000 km

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 99,318/99,117 kg. Thrust 6,834.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

N2O4/MMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/3,600 kg. Thrust 53.38 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. Two pods, mounted each side of vertical stabilizer, provide propulsion for orbit insertion, maneuver, and de-orbit.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,764,039/351,538 kg. Thrust 28,824.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Delta winged configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 424,449/138,910 kg. Thrust 4,804.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Delta winged configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,600,000 kg. Thrust 28,824.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds.Delta winged configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 380,000 kg. Thrust 4,804.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds.Straight winged configuration.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 590,000/88,000 kg. Thrust 11,520.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds. After the Challenger disaster the redesigned solid rocket motors had a slight reduction in performance due to reliability improvements.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,040,816/226,757 kg. Thrust 31,980.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Single stage to orbit, ballistic reentry.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 589,670/86,183 kg. Thrust 11,520.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 269 seconds. Original configuration.

**Shuttle Super Lightweight Tank. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 748,000/27,000 kg. Thrust 6,834.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 452.5 seconds. The Super Lightweight Tank used 2195 Aluminium-Lithium alloy as the main structural material in place of the 2219 aluminium alloy of the original design. This saved 3,500 kg in empty mass, increasing shuttle payload by the same amount. This change was made in anticipation of Shuttle-Mir and Shuttle-ISS flights to high inclination 51.6 degree orbits. The tank was first used on STS-91 in June 1998.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket drop tank. Loaded/empty mass 750,975/29,930 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Original version.

**Shuttle; STS (Space Transportation System)**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle Orbiter rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 11,600 kg. Thrust 979.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 267.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 88.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 17.70 kN (3,979 lbf) thrust. Mass 40 kg (88 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 40 kg (88 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 7.70 kN (1,731 lbf) thrust. Mass 40 kg (88 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

**Skean; SS-5; R-14; 8K65; 65; 11K65**.

Alternate designation for Kosmos-1 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 40 kg (88 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 80.00 kN (17,985 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 80 kg (176 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 40 kg (88 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 111.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 800 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 137.00 kN (30,799 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 105.00 kN (23,605 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 52.50 kN (11,802 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,200 kg (2,646 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 175.00 kN (39,342 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 50.10 kN (11,263 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 44.50 kN (10,004 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

Air/Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 263,000/42,319 kg. Thrust 1,300.00 kN. Specific impulse 425 seconds. Engine thrust, burn time estimated.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 366,716/56,000 kg. Thrust 8,130.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Four such 180 inch segmented solid rocket motors provided first stage thrust for Project Lunex. A liquid propellant first stage was considered as an alternative, but the solid stage was the baseline. Empty mass, specific impulse estimated.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 88,000/13,000 kg. Thrust 2,083.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 260 seconds. Booster for SLS A series launch vehicles.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 59,000/6,000 kg. Thrust 889.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 424 seconds. Smallest Lox/LH2 stage planned for SLS series. Empty mass estimated. Sized for rail transport within USA.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 160,000/11,200 kg. Thrust 1,778.65 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 424 seconds. Tranlunar injection stage for Project Lunex. Masses estimated based on optimum apportioning of B+C stage total masses.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 825,000/58,000 kg. Thrust 10,673.32 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 428 seconds. Launch vehicle core stage for Project Lunex. Masses estimated based on optimum apportioning of B+C stage total masses. Thrust, engines estimated based on requirements.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,800/2,140 kg. Thrust 502.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 253 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,900/1,750 kg. Thrust 267.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 267 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,500/440 kg. Thrust 90.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 277 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 360/98 kg. Thrust 26.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 283 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 257.50 kN (57,888 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 400 kg.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 700 kg (1,543 lb).

**SM-3 TSRM**.

Alternate designation for SM-3-3 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 7.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage.

**Solid Rocket Booster**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle SRB rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,000/3,550 kg. Thrust 994.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,500 kg. Thrust 977.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,700 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 44,500/3,784 kg. Thrust 994.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 997.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Current version. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,810/3,550 kg. Thrust 996.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,160/6,500 kg. Thrust 1,011.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 319 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,400/2,400 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,200/3,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,000 kg. Thrust 872.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Proposed improved version. Not developed.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,000/1,000 kg. Thrust 20.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 360 seconds. Empty mass estimated. Multiple restart engine.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 44,400/3,810 kg. Thrust 1,021.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Gross mass includes 1190 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 280 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,400/6,875 kg. Thrust 999.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Gross mass includes 2600 kg of hydrogen peroxide and 520 kg of liquid nitrogen expended during ascent but not contributing to propulsion.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 359 seconds.

**Space Block**.

Alternate designation for R-56 Block K rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 45.00 kN.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,224,490/203,342 kg. Thrust 28,082.54 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 442 seconds. Unique Catamaran configuration.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 362,812/80,000 kg. Thrust 4,549.05 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 459 seconds. Delta Winged, Cross Range 2,742 km

N2O/Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,600/1,200 kg. Thrust 73.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds. Wing area 15 sq m.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 35.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 5.50 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 1.50 kN (337 lbf) thrust.

Solid rocket stage. 34.00 kN (7,644 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg. Thrust 2,000.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 5,000 kg.

**Spartan TX-500**.

Alternate designation for Spartan ABM-1 rocket stage.

**SPB 7.35**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 3-0 rocket stage.

**SPB235**.

Alternate designation for Ariane 5-0 rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,000 kg.

Solid rocket stage.

**Sprint X265**.

Alternate designation for Sprint ABM-1 rocket stage.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 95,000/7,100 kg. Thrust 804.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 94,000/7,495 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,020/4,211 kg. Thrust 1,606.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 286 seconds. Modification of Peackeeper ICBM first stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Jet-powered rocket carrier vehicle. Loaded/empty mass 66,122/27,210 kg. Specific impulse 2084 seconds. Lockheed Reconaissance-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Piggy-back, 9,091 kg (12.1 m length x 5.2 m span) at 3,300 kph at 24,390 m (D-21).

**SR73. **

Solid rocket stage. 152.00 kN (34,171 lbf) thrust. Mass 3,600 kg (7,937 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 143.10 kN (32,170 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,300 kg (5,071 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg. Thrust 440.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 16,000 kg. Thrust 540.00 kN.

**ST-1. **

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 7,400 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 4,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 124/14 kg. Thrust 19.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 27.14 kN (6,100 lbf) thrust. Mass 301 kg (664 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 34.63 kN (7,784 lbf) thrust. Mass 261 kg (575 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 35.00 kN (7,868 lbf) thrust. Mass 264 kg (582 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 27.00 kN (6,070 lbf) thrust. Mass 361 kg (796 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 718 kg (1,583 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,048 kg (2,310 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 718 kg (1,583 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 68.00 kN (15,287 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,123 kg (2,476 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 55.50 kN (12,477 lbf) thrust. Mass 934 kg (2,059 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 47.90 kN (10,768 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,147 kg (2,529 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 623 kg (1,373 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 711 kg (1,567 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 953 kg (2,101 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 31.50 kN (7,081 lbf) thrust. Mass 955 kg (2,105 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 68.70 kN (15,444 lbf) thrust. Mass 2,200 kg (4,850 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 88.00 kN (19,783 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

**Starlifter**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle LS200-1 rocket stage.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 42,630/19,955 kg. Thrust 5,217.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

Lox/LH2 rocket stage. Mass 257,778 kg (568,303 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 4,900 kg (10,803 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. All estimated

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,000/1,500 kg. Thrust 490.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 280 seconds. All estimated except stage gross mass

Solid rocket stage. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 232.00 kN (52,156 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,800 kg (10,582 lb).

Solid rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 1.50 kN (337 lbf) thrust. Mass 38 kg (84 lb).

**Super Lightweight External Tank**.

Alternate designation for Shuttle Super Lightweight Tank rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 18.00 kN (4,047 lbf) thrust. Mass 30 kg (66 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 317,600/19,600 kg. Thrust 7,538.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds. Earliest member of what would become the Saturn family. Masses estimated.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 96,700/7,200 kg. Thrust 1,884.59 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 29,400/1,900 kg. Thrust 412.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds. Length estimated.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,150,000/100,000 kg. Thrust 33,656.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Ancestor of N1 Block A; conical liquid oxygen/kerosene stage using massive cluster of Kuznetsov engines. Gross mass estimated based on 2,000 tonne total vehicle weight; empty mass estimated.

Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 700,000/75,000 kg. Thrust 8,330.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 550 seconds. Nuclear engine operating at 3500 deg K. Mass estimated; empty mass calculated.

**T-4. **

Mach 3 rocket carrier. Loaded/empty mass 114,400/55,600 kg. Thrust 633.50 kN. Specific impulse 1980 seconds. Sukhoi experimental interceptor - delta wing with forward canards. A modification to be used as first stage in Sukhoi proposal for Spiral manned spaceplane project. Maximum release conditions: 25,000 kg at 3,000 kph at 20,000 m altitude

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,000 kg.

Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 570.00 kN (128,141 lbf) thrust. Mass 25,600 kg (56,438 lb).

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,649/3,733 kg. Thrust 577.34 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,505/1,456 kg. Thrust 144.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 255 seconds. Included 100 kg spin table for spin-up of third stage prior to release. Burn time is 33.7 seconds at full thrust, 142.3 seconds at half thrust.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 252/50 kg. Thrust 18.33 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 250 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage. 1000.00 kN (224,809 lbf) thrust. Mass 60,000 kg (132,277 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg. Thrust 58.70 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg. Thrust 516.00 kN. The Talos motor was fitted with a conical adapter for mating to the second stage. Differential drag forces caused separation. Four fins were arranged at the aft end in a cruciform configuration and drove the vehicle to approximately one revolution per second burnout roll rate.

Solid rocket stage. 457.00 kN (102,738 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,363 kg (3,005 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 13.00 kN (2,923 lbf) thrust. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 48,960/4,300 kg. Thrust 2,204.50 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. ICBM MX Peacekeeper ICBM 1st stage. Used for only first Taurus launch

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 13,242/1,088 kg. Thrust 484.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Pegasus stage 1 without the wings and stabilisers.

**Taurus-Lite**.

Alternate designation for Orion 50SG rocket stage.

**TE-M-711-17**.

Alternate designation for PAM-S rocket stage.

**TE-M-711-18**.

Alternate designation for PAM-D rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 26,600 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 8,700 kg (19,180 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800/322 kg. Thrust 257.50 kN. The Terrier MK 12 Mod 1 rocket motor was typically equipped with four 0.22 square meter fin panels arranged in a cruciform configuration.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 7.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 300 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 55.10 kN (12,387 lbf) thrust. Mass 600 kg (1,323 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,038/290 kg. Thrust kN. The basic Terrier mk70 motor was 3.94 m long with a principal diameter of 46 cm. There was a 7.6-cm interstage adapter which allowed for drag separation at Terrier burnout. Typically, the Terrier booster would utilize two spin motors to reduce dispersion and also serve as drag plates. Each Terrier fin was 0.43 square meters in area. Normally, the fins were canted to provide two revolutions per second spin rate at Terrier burnout.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 400 kg (882 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 600 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 385,554/68,038 kg. Thrust 14,746.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,340/3,125 kg. Thrust 758.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 48,354/2,948 kg. Thrust 760.64 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds.

**Thrust Augmented Thor**.

Alternate designation for Delta Thor TA rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 170.00 kN (38,218 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,700 kg (3,748 lb).

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 170,000/45,000 kg. Thrust 2,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 1000 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,000/7,500 kg. Thrust 441.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 1000 seconds.

Nuclear/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/28,500 kg. Thrust 2,206.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 1000 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 76,203/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,467.91 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 290 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,939/1,725 kg. Thrust 355.86 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 308 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 117,866/6,736 kg. Thrust 2,172.23 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,939/2,404 kg. Thrust 444.82 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 116,573/5,443 kg. Thrust 2,339.76 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 29,188/2,653 kg. Thrust 453.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 139,935/7,000 kg. Thrust 2,413.19 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 37,560/2,900 kg. Thrust 460.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 163,000/8,000 kg. Thrust 2,428.31 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 302 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 39,500/4,500 kg. Thrust 459.51 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 500,000/45,000 kg. Thrust 4,457.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 425 seconds. Part of launch vehicle proposed by Martin as alternative to NLS. All figures estimated based on 1,000,000 lb thrust single engine.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 57,400/6,000 kg. Thrust 666.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 403 seconds. Engine developed 1958-1960, but launch vehicle cancelled 1961.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 150,000/10,000 kg. Thrust 2,940.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 130 seconds. Masses estimated (cluster of four Titan I first stages)

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 350,000/20,000 kg. Thrust 4,344.46 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. 15 foot diameter core Titan proposed in 1960's for space station logistics. Masses estimated.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 50,000/3,000 kg. Thrust 444.82 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. 15 foot diameter core Titan proposed in 1960's for space station logistics. Masses estimated.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,247/1,950 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds.

N2O4/Aerozine-50 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 15,000/2,200 kg. Thrust 71.17 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. 20% stretch of Transtage to handle geosynch insertion of larger payloads launched by Titan 3C7. Masses estimated.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 226,233/33,798 kg. Thrust 5,849.41 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 251,427/40,827 kg. Thrust 6,227.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 319,330/51,230 kg. Thrust 7,117.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 272 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 357,239/52,040 kg. Thrust 7,560.68 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 286 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 170.00 kN (38,218 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,100 kg (2,425 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 53.00 kN (11,915 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

**Topaze**.

Alternate designation for Diamant-2 rocket stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,500 kg. Thrust 120.00 kN.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,200 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 980.00 kN (220,313 lbf) thrust. Mass 26,000 kg (57,320 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 490.00 kN (110,156 lbf) thrust. Mass 13,000 kg (28,660 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 245.00 kN (55,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,000 kg (13,228 lb).

**TOS**.

Alternate designation for IUS-2 rocket stage.

**TOS. **

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 10,960/1,130 kg. Thrust 185.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds. IUS-2 stage with simplified electronics.

Solid rocket stage. 608.00 kN (136,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 10,800 kg (23,810 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 608.00 kN (136,684 lbf) thrust. Mass 7,500 kg (16,535 lb).

**TR-201**.

Alternate designation for Delta P rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 200.00 kN (44,962 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 22.00 kN (4,946 lbf) thrust. Mass 100 kg (220 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 2.30 kN (517 lbf) thrust.

**Transfer Orbit Stage**.

Alternate designation for TOS rocket stage.

**Transtage**.

Alternate designation for Titan Transtage rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 23,000 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 8,000 kg.

Solid rocket stage. Mass 2,000 kg (4,409 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 39,100 kg (86,201 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 11,800 kg (26,015 lb).

Solid rocket stage. Mass 2,200 kg (4,850 lb).

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 122,300/6,400 kg. Thrust 2,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. SL-11; 11K68;R-36M

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 49,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,200/400 kg. Thrust 77.96 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds. Integral portion of payload.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 127,000/8,300 kg. Thrust 3,032.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 301 seconds. SL-14;11K69

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 53,300/4,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 318 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,600/1,407 kg. Thrust 78.71 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 317 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 116.00 kN (26,078 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 61.00 kN (13,713 lbf) thrust. Mass 700 kg (1,543 lb).

Turbojet powered cruise missile stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,200/7,200 kg. Thrust 98.00 kN. KR-15-300 engine by OKB-300 (now MZ Soyuz), rated for 15 hour endurance.

Nuclear/Air propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 27,000/7,300 kg. Turbojet using mixed propulsion, either burning kerosene or heating air directly with a nuclear reactor.

Mach 2 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 205,442/99,773 kg. Thrust 533.67 kN. Specific impulse 1980 seconds. Tupolev Bomber-variable geometry. Maximum release conditions: Belly-mounted, 9,977 kg at 2,451 kph at 18,292 m altitude

Airbreathing Slush LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,000/40,000 kg. Thrust 882.00 kN. Specific impulse 1550 seconds. Aerospaceplane to compete with American X-30. Single stage to orbit, scramjet air breather. Tupolev assigned to start work in 1993. Mockup built, and some subscale flights to Mach 6 on tactical missiles of scramjet model, but project now dormant due to lack of funds. Wing area 160 square meters, wing sweep 70 degrees. Two crew.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 544,311/37,195 kg. Thrust 8,924.48 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 725,500/49,250 kg. Thrust 18,181.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 263 seconds. 4 Segment version of basic 3-segment UA 156 motor.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,200/360 kg. Thrust 77.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 291 seconds.

**Upgraded Solid Rocket Motor**.

Alternate designation for Titan USRM rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 6,000 kg.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,100/725 kg. Thrust 4.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 77,150/5,695 kg. Thrust 1,778.66 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,195/1,485 kg. Thrust 214.27 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. Engine has one main engine and four verniers. Verniers continue to burn for 19 seconds after mainstage shutoff.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 107,500/6,600 kg. Thrust 2,235.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Developed 1960-1965. Orevo has sectioned hardware. All data accurate except empty mass prorated between first and second stages.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,810/2,400 kg. Thrust 612.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. Tsniimash has 1:10 structural simulation model. Developed 1960-1965. Orevo has sectioned hardware. All data accurate except empty mass prorated between first and second stages.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 367,360/25,560 kg. Thrust 8,989.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Original conventional 'Monoblock' design for Proton first stage.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 378,900/26,900 kg. Thrust 8,989.70 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Original 'Polyblock' design for Proton first stage. This was selected configuration; although somewhat greater in dry mass, it had the advantages of shorter length.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 137,700/16,000 kg. Thrust 3,183.20 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Original Proton second stage design.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 23,940/2,180 kg. Thrust 613.11 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 320 seconds. Original Proton third stage design.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 137,000/9,300 kg. Thrust 1,637.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 331 seconds. Empty mass estimated based on overall vehicle mass fraction. Length estimated based on total mass.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 161,000/11,000 kg. Thrust 1,860.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 346 seconds. Empty mass estimated based on overall vehicle mass fraction. Length estimated based on total mass.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,210,000/222,100 kg. Thrust 40,364.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds. Includes propellant tanks which fed stage two engines from liftoff to first stage cutoff.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,072,000/75,600 kg. Thrust 20,182.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 322 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 399,400/26,000 kg. Thrust 5,139.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 328 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 33,500/1,900 kg. Thrust 131.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds. Estimated empty mass. Three used to propell LK-700 spacecraft towards moon.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,000,000/750,000 kg. Thrust 204,027.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on follow-on RD-170 engines.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,250,000/500,000 kg. Thrust 102,013.60 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on follow-on RD-170 engines.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,000,000/200,000 kg. Thrust 11,700.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Total mass, length, estimated based on empty mass, total vehicle mass. Engine specific impulse estimated based on performance requirements.

Rocket stage used on UR-700 launch vehicle.

Solid rocket stage. 85.00 kN (19,109 lbf) thrust. Mass 200 kg (441 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 3,000 kg. Thrust 1,962.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Amine propellant rocket stage. Thrust 103.00 kN.

**V-2**.

Alternate designation for A-4 rocket stage.

Rocket stage used on S-225 missile.

Rocket stage used on S-225 missile.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,661/811 kg. Thrust 134.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210/31 kg. Thrust 11.56 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 230 seconds.

Solid rocket stage. 75.00 kN (16,861 lbf) thrust. Mass 900 kg (1,984 lb).

Solid rocket stage. 200.00 kN (44,962 lbf) thrust. Mass 800 kg (1,764 lb).

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 991,000/89,300 kg. Thrust 15,413.89 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds.

Nitric acid/Turpentine rocket stage. 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

Nitric acid/Turpentine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 1,900 kg. Thrust 60.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Turpentine propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 2,000 kg. Thrust 60.00 kN.

Nitric acid/Turpentine rocket stage. 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf) thrust. Mass 1,300 kg (2,866 lb).

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 500 kg. Thrust 20.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 40.00 kN (8,992 lbf) thrust. Mass 500 kg (1,102 lb).

Nitric acid/Turpentine rocket stage. 140.00 kN (31,473 lbf) thrust. Mass 5,000 kg (11,023 lb).

Lox/Alcohol rocket stage. 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf) thrust. Mass 6,800 kg (14,991 lb).

Lox/Alcohol rocket stage. 93.00 kN (20,907 lbf) thrust. Mass 4,500 kg (9,921 lb).

**Viper**.

Alternate designation for Viper V-Dart-1 rocket stage.

Solid rocket stage. 25.00 kN (5,620 lbf) thrust. Mass 35 kg (77 lb).

Solid rocket stage.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg. Thrust 27.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Thrust 20.00 kN.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100,000 kg. Sled studied in tradeoff studies leading to MAKS. Release conditions: Piggy-back, 290,000 kg, Mach 0.5, zero altitude. Effective velocity gain compared to vertical launch 100 m/s.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 377/57 kg. Thrust 20.49 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 275 seconds.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg. Thrust 682.00 kN.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg.

Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,500,000/700,000 kg. Thrust 141,286.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 257 seconds.

Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 770,000/70,000 kg. Thrust 16,271.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds.

Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,000/22,000 kg. Thrust 2,033.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,500,000/700,000 kg. Thrust 141,286.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 257 seconds.

Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 770,000/70,000 kg. Thrust 16,271.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 298 seconds.

Nitric acid/Hydrazine propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 105,000/22,000 kg. Thrust 2,033.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 296 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,100,000/140,000 kg. Thrust 28,257.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 257 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 154,000/14,000 kg. Thrust 3,254.23 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds.

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,400/2,100 kg. Thrust 406.77 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 297 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,400/3,800 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 314 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,500/6,800 kg. Thrust 941.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,300/2,000 kg. Thrust 294.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 54.90 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,700 kg. Thrust 995.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,000/6,500 kg. Thrust 940.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 8,100/1,100 kg. Thrust 54.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,710 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 312 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 49.42 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 43,300/3,710 kg. Thrust 970.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 313 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,400/6,800 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 315 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,775/1,440 kg. Thrust 54.52 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 326 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 1,158,192/96,650 kg. Thrust 18,643.47 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 467 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 687,503/71,901 kg. Thrust 11,186.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 467 seconds.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,093,761/419,154 kg. Thrust 63,387.80 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 485 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 355,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,891.01 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. Original design of Energia strap-ons, for use with Vulkan booster for manned lunar expedition. Ultimately derived from R-56 of 1961.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 800,000/80,000 kg. Thrust 7,450.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 452 seconds. Original version of Energia core as used on Vulkan booster, with in-line upper stages and payloads. Developed 1974-1976; cancelled when Energia / Buran development begun.

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 142,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 411.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 460 seconds. Upper stage design by KB Saturn for manned lunar expedition, large geosynchronous platform launch.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 20,000 kg. Thrust 682.00 kN.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg.

Solid rocket stage. 220.00 kN (49,458 lbf) thrust. Mass 300 kg (661 lb).

Nitric acid/Aniline propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 300/125 kg. Thrust 6.70 kN.

Nitric acid/Tonka propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,500/1,700 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN.

Subsonic rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 4,100/1,200 kg. Thrust 34.30 kN. Specific impulse 2000 seconds. Carries SpaceShipOne to release point 65 km from Mohave Airport base, then releases it at 15 km altitude at 215 kph. Wing area 43.5 sq m.

Lox/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,184/5,158 kg. Thrust 262.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds.

Lox/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 16,069/7,766 kg. Thrust 262.45 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 276 seconds.

Lox/Ammonia rocket stage. Mass 7,026 kg (15,490 lb).

Rocket stage used on X-17 test vehicle.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 700 kg. Thrust 209.00 kN.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 30 kg.

**X-30. **

Scramjet/Slush LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 140,000/60,000 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Specific impulse 1550 seconds.

**X-33. **

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 123,800/28,600 kg. Thrust 2,284.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 439 seconds.

**X-34. **

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 21,800/8,200 kg. Thrust 268.93 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 310 seconds. Low cost reusable vehicle technology demonstrator.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 29,500/6,700 kg. Thrust 386.30 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 316 seconds. Original design for two-stage reusable space launcher. Abandoned in favour of more modest X-34A technology demonstrator after industry refused to make significant investments in the concept.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 4,500/300 kg. Thrust 44.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 348 seconds.

Mach 3 rocket launch aircraft. Loaded/empty mass 226,758/68,027 kg. Thrust 520.32 kN. Specific impulse 2084 seconds. N. American Bomber-delta wing. Maximum release conditions: Piggy-back, 27,273 kg (19.1 m length x 6.7 m span) at 3,193 kph at 21,341 m altitude

**XM-19**.

Alternate designation for Journeyman-0 rocket stage.

Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 180,000/22,000 kg. Thrust 1,660.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Engines in development by Bondayuk and Glushko. Alternate propellants ammonia only or ammonia/alcohol mixture. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Masses calculated based on given vehicle gross weight and performance.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 110,000/8,250 kg. Thrust 2,393.72 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311 seconds. R-7 strap-ons increased in size dimensionally 50%, equipped with 6 engines from R-9. Boost nuclear thermal core stage to altitude before ignition of nuclear engine. Masses calculated based on vehicle total weight and performance.

Nuclear/Ammonia propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 84,400/8,600 kg. Thrust 1,370.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Nuclear-propelled ICBM with engines in development by Glushko. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Payload 2,600 kg to 14,000 km. Empty mass, vehicle length calculated.

Nuclear/Ammonia+Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 96,000/8,800 kg. Thrust 1,660.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 470 seconds. Nuclear-propelled ICBM with engines in development by Bondayuk. Four expansion nozzles fed by single reactor. Payload 4,000 kg to 14,000 km. Empty mass, vehicle length calculated.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 26,900/3,000 kg. Thrust 1,200.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 289 seconds. The Zefiro 23 was derived from a 16-tonne solid rocket motor development (Zefiro 16) initiated by Fiat-Avio, now Avio S.p.A., with company funding and contracted by the Italian space agency ASI.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 11,100/1,000 kg. Thrust 313.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 294 seconds. The Zefiro 9 was derived from a 16-tonne solid rocket motor development (Zefiro 16) initiated by Fiat-Avio, now Avio S.p.A., with company funding and contracted by the Italian space agency ASI.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 200 kg. Thrust 80.00 kN.

Solid rocket stage. 45.00 kN (10,116 lbf) thrust. Mass 600 kg (1,323 lb).

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 354,300/28,600 kg. Thrust 8,181.13 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 337 seconds. Modification of same stage used as strap-on for Energia launch vehicle.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 90,600/9,000 kg. Thrust 912.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 349 seconds.

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 17,300/2,720 kg. Thrust 84.92 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 352 seconds. Adaptation of Block D for Zenit.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 100 kg.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 5,850/1,150 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 220 seconds. Used monolithic single motor with Nylon-S propellant. Combustion chamber pressure 30-40 kg/cm2.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,200/2,200 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds. Used cluster of four motors with Nylon-B propellant.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 6,600/1,400 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 200 seconds. Used cluster of four motors with Nylon-B propellant.

Solid propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 14,700/2,500 kg. Vacuum specific impulse 220 seconds. Used monolithic single motor with Nylon-S propellant.

N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded mass 10,000 kg.

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