Encyclopedia Astronautica
Jupiter C

Redstone engine
Credit: NASA
Lox/Hydyne propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 28,430/3,890 kg. Thrust 416.18 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 265 seconds. Redstone missile, stretched, modified with different propellants to serve as first stage of IRBM nose cone/orbital test vehicle.

AKA: Juno 1 (retrospectively).
Status: Retired 1967.
Gross mass: 28,430 kg (62,670 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 3,890 kg (8,570 lb).
Height: 17.58 m (57.67 ft).
Diameter: 1.77 m (5.80 ft).
Span: 4.19 m (13.74 ft).
Thrust: 416.18 kN (93,562 lbf).
Specific impulse: 265 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 235 s.
Burn time: 155 s.
Number: 77 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • A-7 Rocketdyne Lox/Hydyne rocket engine. 416.2 kN. Out of Production. Version of Redstone engine for Jupiter-C test vehicle, with Hydyne fuel and 140 seconds burn time. Flew 1956-1959. Gas generator, pump-fed. Thrust 370 kN at sea level. Isp=265s. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Redstone Redstone was the first large liquid rocket developed in the US using German V-2 technology. Originally designated Hermes C. Redstones later launched the first US satellite and the first American astronaut into space. More...
  • Jupiter C American orbital launch vehicle. Re-entry vehicle test booster and satellite launcher derived from Redstone missile. The Jupiter A version of the Redstone missile was modified with upper stages to test Jupiter re-entry vehicle configurations. Von Braun's team was ordered to ballast the upper stage with sand to prevent any 'inadvertent' artificial satellites from stealing thunder from the official Vanguard program. Korolev's R-7 orbited the first earth satellite instead. The Jupiter C was retroactively named the 'Juno I' by Von Braun's team. More...
  • Sparta American orbital launch vehicle. Three stage vehicle consisting of 1 x Redstone + 1 x Antares 2 + 1 x BE-3 More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Hydyne Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Hydyne was a propellant blend pushed rather vigorously by the Redstone arsenal in the late 1950's, but it found little application. Hydyne, which is also known as MAF-4, is a 60 per cent, by weight, mixture of UDMH and 40 weight percent diethyltrianine (DETA). More...

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