Encyclopedia Astronautica
Jupiter Cluster


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 226,716/27,205 kg. Thrust 3,034.29 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 282 seconds. Masses estimated (cluster of four Jupiter IRBM stages)

No Engines: 4.

Status: Study 1959.
Gross mass: 226,716 kg (499,823 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 27,205 kg (59,976 lb).
Height: 18.28 m (59.97 ft).
Diameter: 5.34 m (17.51 ft).
Span: 5.34 m (17.51 ft).
Thrust: 3,034.29 kN (682,134 lbf).
Specific impulse: 282 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 248 s.
Burn time: 172 s.

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • S-3 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 758.7 kN. Juno II, Saturn A-2 studies of 1959. Isp=282s. First flight 1958. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Saturn A-2 American orbital launch vehicle. More powerful version of Saturn I with low energy second stage consisting of cluster of four IRBM motors and tankage, Centaur third stage. Masses, payload estimated. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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