Encyclopedia Astronautica
Keldysh Bomber


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 100,000/29,500 kg. Thrust 980.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 285 seconds. Boosted to launch speed of 500 m/s by rocket sled. Boost phase assisted with two ramjets which increases effective specific impulse to over 500 seconds.

Status: Design 1946.
Gross mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 29,500 kg (65,000 lb).
Height: 28.00 m (91.00 ft).
Diameter: 3.60 m (11.80 ft).
Span: 15.00 m (49.00 ft).
Thrust: 980.00 kN (220,310 lbf).
Specific impulse: 285 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 252 s.
Burn time: 180 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RKDS-100 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 980 kN. Keldysh Bomber. Design 1946. Nominal design engine for 1946 Keldysh bomber design. The Soviet Union would not produce an engine with these propellants and thrust levels until nearly 20 years later. Isp=285s. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Keldysh Bomber Russian intercontinental boost-glide missile. Soviet version of the Saenger antipodal bomber intensely studied on Stalin's direct orders in 1946-1947. The final study concluded that, given the fuel consumption of foreseeable rocket engines, the design would only be feasible using ramjet engines and greatly advanced materials. This meant that development could only begin in the late 1950's, when such technologies were available. By that time the design had been superseded by more advanced concepts. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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