Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 210,000/15,000 kg. Thrust 3,216.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 336 seconds. 4 11D121 verniers. Empty mass estimated.

No Engines: 4.

Status: Design 1985.
Gross mass: 210,000 kg (460,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 15,000 kg (33,000 lb).
Height: 23.00 m (75.00 ft).
Diameter: 3.90 m (12.70 ft).
Span: 3.90 m (12.70 ft).
Thrust: 3,216.00 kN (722,985 lbf).
Specific impulse: 336 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 298 s.
Burn time: 195 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-120K Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 873 kN. Soyuz M stage 1, 2. Proposed for X-34. Isp=336s. Sea-level variant of RD-120. As of 1996 RD-120 prototype with 1.8 m diameter had been built, development time estimated for three years. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kvant Russian orbital launch vehicle. The Kvant was the Soviet third generation light launch vehicle planned to replace the Kosmos and Tsyklon series. Unlike the vehicles it was to replace, the booster used non-toxic 'environmentally friendly' liquid oxygen/kerosene propellants. Although such a light launch vehicle was on Space Forces wish lists since 1972, full scale development was again deferred due to the crash effort on Soviet 'star wars' in the second half of the 1980's. RKK Energia marketed the vehicle design from 1994 to 2001, but could find no source for development funds. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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