Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/Kerosene/LH2 rocket stage. Mass 248,100 kg (546,967 lb).

Cost $ : 5.000 million.

Status: Development ended 1988.
Gross mass: 248,100 kg (546,900 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 10,820 kg (23,850 lb).
Height: 32.10 m (105.30 ft).
Diameter: 6.38 m (20.93 ft).
Span: 6.38 m (20.93 ft).
Specific impulse: 437 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 396 s.
Burn time: 440 s.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • None Indicates that the stage shown is a propellant tank. The engine on another stage is drawing propellants from this tank. Performance shown is for that of the engine on the other stage. First flight 1964. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • MAKS Russian air-launched winged orbital launch vehicle. The MAKS spaceplane was the ultimate development of the air-launched spaceplane studies conducted by NPO Molniya. The draft project for MAKS was completed in 1988 and consisted of 220 volumes, generated by NPO Molniya and 70 sub-contractors and government institutes. Development of MAKS was authorised but cancelled in 1991. At the time of the cancellation, mock-ups of both the MAKS orbiter and the external tank had been finished. A 9,000 kgf experimental engine with 19 injectors was tested. There were 50 test burns proving the separate modes and a smooth switch between them. Since it was expected that MAKS could reduce the cost of transport to earth orbit by a factor of ten, it was hoped in the 1990's that development funding could be found. However this did not materialise. MAKS was to have flown by 1998. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene/LH2 Tripropellant motors use high-density kerosene for the boost phase, then low-density, high-performance liquid hydrogen for the later stages of ascent. However the propellants are stored in separate tanks. The fuel density indicated is the average for the MAKS design, which burned 17,850 kg LH2 and 18,698 Kerosene to reach orbit using 175,758 kg of liquid oxygen oxidiser. More...

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