Encyclopedia Astronautica
Molniya 8K78M-2


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 24,800/1,976 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Cost $ : 3.000 million.

Status: Active.
Gross mass: 24,800 kg (54,600 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,976 kg (4,356 lb).
Height: 2.84 m (9.31 ft).
Diameter: 2.56 m (8.39 ft).
Span: 2.56 m (8.39 ft).
Thrust: 298.10 kN (67,016 lbf).
Specific impulse: 330 s.
Burn time: 241 s.
Number: 294 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-0110 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2. Modified to increase reliability. Isp=326s. First flight 1964. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Molniya 8K78M 2BL Russian orbital launch vehicle. Improved Molniya variant with Blok-2BL upper stage for placement of Oko early-warning satellites into Molniya-class orbits with apogees of 38,000 km. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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