Encyclopedia Astronautica
Nova MM T10RR-2-2

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 2,041,000/181,000 kg. Thrust 20,015.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 455 seconds. Operational date would have been December 1976. Recoverable stage.

Status: Study 1963.
Gross mass: 2,041,000 kg (4,499,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 181,000 kg (399,000 lb).
Height: 24.40 m (80.00 ft).
Diameter: 21.30 m (69.80 ft).
Span: 21.30 m (69.80 ft).
Thrust: 20,015.00 kN (4,499,550 lbf).
Specific impulse: 455 s.
Burn time: 408 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • Toroid FD Notional lox/lh2 rocket engine. 20,015 kN. Study 1963. Operational date would have been December 1976. Engines for recoverable stage. Isp=455s. Used on Nova MM T10RR-2 launch vehicle. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nova MM T10RR-2 American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Two stage Nova using CD modules; reusable first stage with 24 modules exhausting to a zero length plug nozzle; reusable second stage with a toroidal plug nozzle engine. Operational date would have been December 1976. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

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