Encyclopedia Astronautica
Nova 60-8-1



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Nova NASA 8 F-1
Credit: © Mark Wade
Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 3,628,000/227,000 kg. Thrust 61,928.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds. Mass estimated based on total LV weight.

No Engines: 8.

Status: Study 1960.
Gross mass: 3,628,000 kg (7,998,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 227,000 kg (500,000 lb).
Height: 41.20 m (135.10 ft).
Diameter: 17.40 m (57.00 ft).
Span: 18.00 m (59.00 ft).
Thrust: 61,928.00 kN (13,921,968 lbf).
Specific impulse: 304 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 265 s.
Burn time: 161 s.
Number: 1 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • F-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7740.5 kN. Isp=304s. Largest liquid rocket engine ever developed and flown. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. First flight 1967. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nova 8L American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. Most capable NASA Nova design, studied in June 1960 just prior to selection of Saturn for moon landing. Used a three stage configuration of eight F-1 engines in stage 1, two M-1 engines in stage 2, and one J-2 engine in stage 3. Similar to the Saturn C-8 except in the use of M-1 engines. Unlike other modular Nova designs of the time, this one had the unitary stage construction of Saturn. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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