Encyclopedia Astronautica
Nova NASA-2

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 499,000/35,000 kg. Thrust 7,640.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 304 seconds.

Status: Study 1959.
Gross mass: 499,000 kg (1,100,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 35,000 kg (77,000 lb).
Height: 12.50 m (41.00 ft).
Diameter: 9.80 m (32.10 ft).
Span: 9.80 m (32.10 ft).
Thrust: 7,640.00 kN (1,717,540 lbf).
Specific impulse: 304 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 265 s.
Burn time: 177 s.

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • F-1 Rocketdyne Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 7740.5 kN. Isp=304s. Largest liquid rocket engine ever developed and flown. Severe combustion stability problems were solved during development and it never failed in flight. First flight 1967. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Nova NASA American heavy-lift orbital launch vehicle. The Nova vehicle most often illustrated in the popular press and histories. As in other early concepts, this NASA design of 1959/1960 used F-1 engine in both first and second stages. Resulting performance and total liftoff mass was equivalent to later Saturn V. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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