Encyclopedia Astronautica
Proton K-2


N2O4/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 167,828/11,715 kg. Thrust 2,399.22 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 327 seconds.

Cost $ : 5.000 million. No Engines: 4.

AKA: 8S811K.
Status: Active.
Gross mass: 167,828 kg (369,997 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 11,715 kg (25,827 lb).
Height: 14.00 m (45.00 ft).
Diameter: 4.15 m (13.61 ft).
Span: 4.15 m (13.61 ft).
Thrust: 2,399.22 kN (539,365 lbf).
Specific impulse: 327 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 230 s.
Burn time: 206 s.
Number: 423 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-0211 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Proton stage 2. Out of Production. Variant of RD-0210 providing tank pressurization. Staged combustion cycle. Isp=326s. More...
  • RD-0210 Kosberg N2O4/UDMH rocket engine. 582.1 kN. Isp=326s. Cluster of four similar engines used in second stage of Proton - one providing tank pressurization (8D412K/RD-0211) and three (8D411K/RD-0210). Staged combustion cycle. First flight 1965. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • UR-200 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Universal rocket designed by Chelomei to cover the ICBM, FOBS, satellite launch vehicle, and spaceplane booster roles. Flight tested in 1963-1964 but cancelled in favour of Yangel's R-36. More...
  • Proton-K/D Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was originally designed to send manned circumlunar spacecraft into translunar trajectory. Guidance to the Block D stage must be supplied by spacecraft. The design was proposed on 8 September 1965 by Korolev as an alternate to Chelomei's LK-1 circumlunar mission. It combined the Proton 8K82K booster for the LK-1 with the N1 lunar Block D stage to boost a stripped-down Soyuz 7K-L1 spacecraft around the moon. The Korolev design was selected, and first flight came on 10 March 1967. The crash lunar program led to a poor launch record. Following a protracted ten year test period, the booster finally reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...
  • Proton-K Russian orbital launch vehicle. Development of a three-stage version of the UR-500 was authorised in the decree of 3 August 1964. Decrees of 12 October and 11 November 1964 authorised development of the Almaz manned military space station and the manned circumlunar spacecraft LK-1 as payloads for the UR-500K. Remarkably, due to continuing failures, the 8K82K did not satisfactorily complete its state trials until its 61st launch (Salyut 6 / serial number 29501 / 29 September 1977). Thereafter it reached a level of launch reliability comparable to that of other world launch vehicles. More...
  • Proton-K/DM Russian orbital launch vehicle. The original four stage Proton / Block D configuration was used until 1976, at which time it was replaced by a modernised version equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in geosynchronous orbit and its own self-contained guidance unit. This was accepted into military service in 1978 with the first Raduga launch. The stage was first developed for launch of gesynchronous military communications and early warning satellites (Raduga, Ekran, Gorizont, Potok, SPRN). Its later versions continue in use for launch of MEO and geosynchronous comsats, and was Russia's most successful commercial launcher. More...
  • Proton-K/D-1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This derivative of the original four stage Block D / 11S824 version of the Proton was used from 1978 to launch Lavochkin OKB planetary probes (Mars, Venera) and high earth orbit astronomical observatories (Astron, Granat). Guidance to the Block D-1 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. Equipped with N2O4/UDMH verniers for precise placement of payloads in high orbits or planetary trajectories. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This improved four stage version uses the Block DM-2 / 11S861 fourth stage, which has its own guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Replaced the original Block DM / 11S86 version from 1982 to 1995. Used for launch of Glonass navigation satellites into medium earth orbit; and launch of Luch, Ekran-M, Potok, Raduga, Gorizont, Raduga-1, Elektro, and Gals communications satellites into geosynchronous orbit. Commercial version with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for Western payloads was dubbed 'Block DM1'. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2 DM1 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861 with adapter for Lockheed Martin AS 4000 bus spacecraft. More...
  • Proton-K/D-2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. This four stage version of the Proton was a modification of the original Block D / 11S824M for launch of late 1980's Lavochkin OKB probes on missions to Mars. Guidance to the Block D-2 stage must be supplied by spacecraft. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M This four stage version uses the Block DM-2M / 11S861-01 upper stage, which has its own self-contained guidance unit. This reduces payload but does not require the spacecraft's guidance system to provide steering commands to booster. Used for launches of Russian geosynchronous satellites from 1994 on. More...
  • Proton-K/17S40 DM2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 17S40 with payload adapter for deployment of multiple LM 700 (Iridium) spacecraft into medium earth orbit. More...
  • Proton/Briz K/M Earlier 8K82K model Proton, but Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaced the Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Proton/Briz M Improved Proton orbital launch vehicle. Improvements in lower stages to reduce structural mass, increase thrust, and fully utilize propellants (reducing release of toxic chemicals in stage impact areas). Briz M storable propellant upper stage replaces Block D cyrogenic stage. More...
  • Proton-K/DM-2M DM4 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Version of the 11S861-01 with Saab payload adapter-seperation system for insertion of FS-1300 bus spacecraft into geosynchronous orbit. More...

Associated Propellants
  • N2O4/UDMH Nitrogen tetroxide became the storable liquid propellant of choice from the late 1950's. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

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