Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-1


Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 12,630/4,066 kg. Thrust 307.09 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 233 seconds. Payload 815 / 483 kg. Range 270 km. Maximum altitude 77 km. Time of flight 5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 1465 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally.

AKA: 8A11.
Status: Retired 1964.
Gross mass: 12,630 kg (27,840 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 4,066 kg (8,963 lb).
Height: 14.15 m (46.42 ft).
Diameter: 1.65 m (5.42 ft).
Span: 3.54 m (11.61 ft).
Thrust: 307.09 kN (69,035 lbf).
Specific impulse: 233 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 206 s.
Burn time: 63 s.
Number: 162 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-100 Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 304 kN. R-1, V-1A. Isp=237s. Russian copy of the V-2 engine using Russian materials - which made it very difficult! German rocket scientists assisted in its development. First flight 1948. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-1 Russian short range ballistic missile. Stalin did not decide to proceed with Soviet production of this copy of the German V-2 until 1948. Despite the threatening supervision of the program by Stalin's secret police chief, Beria, and the assistance of German rocket engineers, it took eight years for the German technology to be absorbed and the missile to be put into service. It was almost immediately superseded by later designs, but the effort laid the groundwork for the Soviet rocket industry. Surplus R-1's were converted to use as a sounding rockets for military and scientific research missions. More...
  • R-1A Russian short range ballistic test vehicle. Experimental missile for testing warhead separation. More...
  • R-1V Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1V version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. More...
  • R-1B Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including study of cosmic rays; properties of the atmosphere; solar spectra; effects if zero-G and radiation on animals; and development of recovery of the entire missile using parachutes in order to reuse it for further experimental launches. More...
  • R-1 8A11 Russian short range ballistic missile. Initial production version. More...
  • R-1D Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1B version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, the ionosphere, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. More...
  • R-1E Russian short range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-1E version was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 100 km, including winds aloft, air composition, solar radiation, the ionosphere, ozone layer characteristics, and effects of spaceflight and recovery of living animals. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Alcohol Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Alcohol (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China used it as well. Better performance was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned. More...

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