Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-2


Lox/Alcohol propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 19,632/4,592 kg. Thrust 404.11 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 237 seconds. Payload 1350 / 508 kg. Range 550 km. Maximum altitude 171 km. Time of flight 7.5 minutes. Max velocity at burnout 2175 m/s. Accuracy 8 km in range, 4 km laterally.

AKA: 8Zh38.
Status: Retired 1962.
Gross mass: 19,632 kg (43,281 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 4,592 kg (10,123 lb).
Height: 17.65 m (57.90 ft).
Diameter: 1.65 m (5.42 ft).
Span: 3.56 m (11.69 ft).
Thrust: 404.11 kN (90,848 lbf).
Specific impulse: 237 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 214 s.
Burn time: 85 s.
Number: 111 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-101 Glushko Lox/Alcohol rocket engine. 404 kN. R-2 and V-2A. Isp=237s. Developed simultaneously with the RD-100 but with no German involvement. More compact, increased thrust, increased chamber pressure and higher alcohol concentration. First flight 1949. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • R-2 Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. The Soviet R-2 ballistic missile was developed in 1947-1953, nearly in parallel with the R-1 from which it derived. It incorporated many detailed improvements, had double the range of the R-1 and V-2, and was equipped with a deadly radiological warhead. The ethyl alcohol used in the V-2 and R-1 was replaced by methyl alcohol in the R-2, eliminating the problem of the launch troops drinking up the rocket fuel. Versions of the R-2 for suborbital manned flight were studied by Korolev in 1956-1958, but it was decided instead to move directly to orbital flights of the Vostok. However some equipment tested on the R-2 found its way onto canine flights of Sputnik and Vostok. The R-2 design was transferred to China in 1957 to 1961, providing the technical basis of the Chinese rocket industry. More...
  • R-2E Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2E prototype tested technological innovations planned for the production R-2 missile. These included use of an integral fuel tank and a seperable warhead. More...
  • R-2R Russian intermediate range ballistic missile. More...
  • R-2A Russian intermediate range ballistic suborbital launch vehicle. The R-2A was designed for scientific research at altitudes of up to 200 km, including properties of the atmosphere from 150-200 km; ultraviolet observations of the sun; recovery of animals from flights to 200 km altitude; and study of the ionosphere at altitudes of 150-200 km. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Alcohol Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Alcohol (C2H5OH) was the fuel used for the German V-2 rocket, and the first derivative rocket engines in the United States, Soviet Union, and China used it as well. Better performance was achieved by increasing the alcohol concentration in the post-war engines. But after better-performance rocket-grade kerosene was developed by Rocketdyne in the REAP program of 1953, use of alcohol was abandoned. More...

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