Encyclopedia Astronautica
R-9A Stage 1


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 61,600/4,000 kg. Thrust 1,595.83 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 311.4 seconds. Payload 3,500 kg. Range 13,000 km. Accuracy (90%) 8 km in range and 5 km in dispersion with radio guidance; 20 km / 10 km with inertial guidance. Empty mass estimated.

AKA: 8K77 Blok A.
Status: Retired 1969.
Gross mass: 61,600 kg (135,800 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 4,000 kg (8,800 lb).
Height: 14.79 m (48.52 ft).
Diameter: 2.68 m (8.79 ft).
Span: 3.30 m (10.80 ft).
Thrust: 1,595.83 kN (358,757 lbf).
Specific impulse: 311 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 269 s.
Burn time: 108 s.
Number: 70 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-111 Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1628 kN. R-9 stage 1. Isp=317s. Developed for R-9 ICBM. It had special flexible pipelines and gimbals, allowing lox loading in 20 minutes. First flight 1961. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Romashka Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Pad-launched version. More...
  • 8K77 Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Version with vacuum-isolated liquid oxygen tanks to provide capability to hold ready for instant launch. Studied but never developed. More...
  • Desna Russian intercontinental ballistic missile. Silo-launched version, silo hardened to 15-30 atmospheres overpressure. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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