Encyclopedia Astronautica

Nitric acid/UDMH propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 20,135/1,435 kg. Thrust 156.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 303 seconds. Launch count 411 orbital and ca. 300 suborbital to end 1994. Failures based on proration of failures to orbit.

Cost $ : 4.000 million.

Status: Active.
Gross mass: 20,135 kg (44,390 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 1,435 kg (3,163 lb).
Height: 6.00 m (19.60 ft).
Diameter: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Span: 2.40 m (7.80 ft).
Thrust: 156.00 kN (35,070 lbf).
Specific impulse: 303 s.
Burn time: 375 s.
Number: 1173 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • 11D49 Isayev Nitric acid/UDMH rocket engine. 157.5 kN. Kosmos-3M stage 2. Engine has one main and four steering nozzles. Thrust 157.5 + 4 x 25 kN. Precessor was 11D47 in R-14 (derivative ?) stage 2. Isp=303s. First flight 1964. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Kosmos 65S3 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Prototype of light satellite launcher using as a first stage the Yangel R-14 (8K65) IRBM. The protoype system was launched eight times before production was handed over to the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Initial serial production version was the Kosmos-3, built at the Krasnoryarsk Machine Factory. Flew only four times, with two failures, before being succeeded by the modernized production version under the responsibility of NPO Polyot. More...
  • Kosmos 11K65M Russian orbital launch vehicle. Definitive and prolific production version of satellite launcher based on Yangel R-14 IRBM. After further development at NPO Polyot (Omsk, Chief Designer A S Klinishkov), the modified Kosmos-3M added a restartable second stage with an orientation system. This booster was launched form two 'Cusovaya' launch complexes from 1967. The second stage used low thrust rockets using gas generator output to adjust the final velocity of the stage More...
  • K65M-R Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M. More...
  • K65M-RB Russian orbital launch vehicle. Two stage vehicle for suborbital tests consisting of 1 x R-14 + 1 x S3M. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/UDMH Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

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