Encyclopedia Astronautica
Saturn II-INT-17

Lox/LH2 propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 495,000/48,000 kg. Thrust 9,713.40 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 450 seconds. Saturn II modifed with reduced expansion ratio HG-3 high pressure engines for use a first stage (sea level launch).

No Engines: 7.

Status: Study 1966.
Gross mass: 495,000 kg (1,091,000 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 48,000 kg (105,000 lb).
Height: 24.84 m (81.49 ft).
Diameter: 10.06 m (33.00 ft).
Span: 10.06 m (33.00 ft).
Thrust: 9,713.40 kN (2,183,659 lbf).
Specific impulse: 450 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 275 s.
Burn time: 200 s.

More... - Chronology...

Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • HG-3-SL Rocketdyne lox/lh2 rocket engine. 1387 kN. Study 1966. Isp=450s. High-performance high-pressure chamber engine developed from the J-2, fitted with lower-expansion nozzle for sea level use on Saturn INT-17. Technology led to Space Shuttle Main Engines. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Saturn INT-17 North American study, 1966. Saturn variant with a modified S-II first stage with seven high-performance HG-3 engines; S-IVB second stage. Poor performance and cost-effectiveness and not studied further. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/LH2 Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. Liquid hydrogen was identified by all the leading rocket visionaries as the theoretically ideal rocket fuel. It had big drawbacks, however - it was highly cryogenic, and it had a very low density, making for large tanks. The United States mastered hydrogen technology for the highly classified Lockheed CL-400 Suntan reconnaissance aircraft in the mid-1950's. The technology was transferred to the Centaur rocket stage program, and by the mid-1960's the United States was flying the Centaur and Saturn upper stages using the fuel. It was adopted for the core of the space shuttle, and Centaur stages still fly today. More...

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