Encyclopedia Astronautica
Shaheen 2-2

Nitric acid/UDMH rocket stage.

Status: Active.
Height: 4.00 m (13.10 ft).
Diameter: 0.88 m (2.88 ft).
Number: 4 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Shaheen 2 Pakistani mobile two-stage solid propellant intermediate range ballistic missile developed by Pakistan, derived from Chinese technology. First flight March 9, 2004. Range extended from 2,500 km to 3,500 km during development. More...

Associated Manufacturers and Agencies
  • Sanjiang Chinese manufacturer of rocket engines and rockets. Sanjiang Space Group, Xiaogan, China. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Nitric acid/UDMH Drawing on the German World War II Wasserfall rocket, nitric acid (HNO3) became the early storable oxidiser of choice for missiles and upper stages of the 1950's. To overcome various problems with its use, it was necessary to combine the nitric acid with N2O4 and passivation compounds. These formulae were considered extremely secret at the time. By the late 1950's it was apparent that N2O4 by itself was a better oxidiser. Therefore nitric acid was almost entirely replaced by pure N2O4 in storable liquid fuel rocket engines developed after 1960. Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine ((CH3)2NNH2) became the storable liquid fuel of choice by the mid-1950's. Development of UDMH in the Soviet Union began in 1949. It is used in virtually all storable liquid rocket engines except for some orbital manoeuvring engines in the United States, where MMH has been preferred due to a slightly higher density and performance. More...

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