Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz 11A511U2-1


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 101,160/6,500 kg. Thrust 1,011.00 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 319 seconds.

Cost $ : 13.000 million.

Status: Retired 1996.
Gross mass: 101,160 kg (223,010 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 6,500 kg (14,300 lb).
Height: 27.80 m (91.20 ft).
Diameter: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Span: 2.95 m (9.67 ft).
Thrust: 1,011.00 kN (227,281 lbf).
Specific impulse: 319 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 252 s.
Burn time: 286 s.
Number: 104 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-108-11D512P Glushko Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 1011 kN. Soyuz 11A511U2-1. Out of production. Isp=319s. A 1-2 second specific impulse increase was made possible by the use of synthetic fuel Sintin and a modified mixing head. First flight 1982. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz 11A511U2 Russian orbital launch vehicle. Soyuz 11A511U2 used synthetic kerosene ('Sintin') in first stage for launch of premium reconnaisance satellite and manned payloads requiring just a bit more payload than the standard 11A511 could offer. Further use of the 11A511U2 abandoned in 1996 due to Sintin production stoppage. Later Soyuz spacecraft launched on standard Soyuz, with reduced payload and rendezvous with Mir in lower orbit accepted. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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