Encyclopedia Astronautica
Soyuz 11A511U-2


Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 25,200/2,355 kg. Thrust 298.10 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 330 seconds.

Cost $ : 3.000 million.

Status: In production..
Gross mass: 25,200 kg (55,500 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 2,355 kg (5,191 lb).
Height: 6.74 m (22.11 ft).
Diameter: 2.66 m (8.72 ft).
Span: 2.66 m (8.72 ft).
Thrust: 298.10 kN (67,016 lbf).
Specific impulse: 330 s.
Burn time: 250 s.
Number: 28 .

More... - Chronology...


Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • RD-0110 Kosberg Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 297.9 kN. Soyuz 11A511, Molniya-M 8K78M. Precursor RD-0107 used in 11A57 Voskhod stage 2. Modified to increase reliability. Isp=326s. First flight 1964. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Ikar Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Ikar upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for the Kozlov Yantar series of spy satellites. More...
  • Soyuz M Rus project was to result in first major propulsion upgrade to R-7 family in forty years, using first stage engines derived from those developed for Zenit second stage to boost performance. It would have permitted launches from Plesetsk with same or greater payload than launch of standard Soyuz-U from Baikonur, permitting move of more launch operations back onto Russian territory. Instead the more modest Soyuz ST / Soyuz FG upgrades were made. More...
  • Soyuz 11A511U / Fregat Russian orbital launch vehicle. Standard Soyuz universal booster with the Fregat upper stage, derived from the propulsion system for Lavochkin interplanetary probes. More...
  • Soyuz-U Russian orbital launch vehicle. Alternate designation for Soyuz 11A511U. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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