Encyclopedia Astronautica

Lox/Kerosene propellant rocket stage. Loaded/empty mass 7,661/811 kg. Thrust 134.79 kN. Vacuum specific impulse 270 seconds.

Cost $ : 4.000 million.

Status: Retired 1959.
Gross mass: 7,661 kg (16,889 lb).
Unfuelled mass: 811 kg (1,787 lb).
Height: 12.20 m (40.00 ft).
Diameter: 1.14 m (3.74 ft).
Span: 1.14 m (3.74 ft).
Thrust: 134.79 kN (30,302 lbf).
Specific impulse: 270 s.
Specific impulse sea level: 248 s.
Burn time: 145 s.
Number: 13 .

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Associated Countries
Associated Engines
  • X-405 GE Lox/Kerosene rocket engine. 134.8 kN. Vanguard 1st stage. Isp=270s. First flight 1957. More...

Associated Launch Vehicles
  • Vanguard American orbital launch vehicle. Vanguard was the 'civilian' vehicle developed by the US Navy to launch America's first satellite as part of the International Geophysical Year. The Army / von Braun Jupiter-C instead launched the first US satellite after Sputnik and Vanguard's public launch failure. The second stage design led to the Able upper stage for Thor/Atlas, and then to the Delta upper stage still in use in the 21st Century. The original version of Vanguard used a Grand Central final stage. More...

Associated Propellants
  • Lox/Kerosene Liquid oxygen was the earliest, cheapest, safest, and eventually the preferred oxidiser for large space launchers. Its main drawback is that it is moderately cryogenic, and therefore not suitable for military uses where storage of the fuelled missile and quick launch are required. In January 1953 Rocketdyne commenced the REAP program to develop a number of improvements to the engines being developed for the Navaho and Atlas missiles. Among these was development of a special grade of kerosene suitable for rocket engines. Prior to that any number of rocket propellants derived from petroleum had been used. Goddard had begun with gasoline, and there were experimental engines powered by kerosene, diesel oil, paint thinner, or jet fuel kerosene JP-4 or JP-5. The wide variance in physical properties among fuels of the same class led to the identification of narrow-range petroleum fractions, embodied in 1954 in the standard US kerosene rocket fuel RP-1, covered by Military Specification MIL-R-25576. In Russia, similar specifications were developed for kerosene under the specifications T-1 and RG-1. The Russians also developed a compound of unknown formulation in the 1980's known as 'Sintin', or synthetic kerosene. More...

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