Encyclopedia Astronautica
April 02


April 02 Chronology


1910 April 2 - .
  • Birth of Carl FJ Overhage - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physicist, director of Lincoln Laboratories 1957-1964..

1944 April 2 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1946 April 2 - . LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas.
  • MX-774 strategic missile study contract awarded - . Nation: USA. Summary: Convair received contract W33-038-AC-14168 for a $1.4 million, one-year study of two missile designs..

1948 April 2 - . 13:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 25.
  • UM-1 Aeronomy / ionosphere / solar ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; UM. Apogee: 144 km (89 mi). Summary: Launched 06:40 local time. Reached 144.4 km. Carried Density, pressure, temperature, composition, cosmic and solar radiation (Naval Research Lab) experiments for Signal Corps Engineering Lab, University of Michigan..

1952 April 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 89R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1953 April 2 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1954 April 2 - .
  • Death of Hoyt S Vandenberg - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Vandenberg, Hoyt. Summary: Immensely influential American officer, Air Force Chief of Staff in the late 1940's and 1950's during the formative period of rocketry development and the work on intercontinental ballistic missiles..

1954 April 2 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1734E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1958 April 2 - .
  • Eisenhower proposed the establishment of NASA - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Eisenhower. President Dwight D. Eisenhower, in a message to Congress, proposed the establishment of a National Aeronautics and Space Agency into which the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics would be absorbed. The new agency would conduct the civilian space program through research in its own facilities or by contract and would also perform military research required by DOD. Projects primarily military in character would remain the responsibility of DOD. Additional Details: Eisenhower proposed the establishment of NASA.

1959 April 2 - .
  • NASA Astronaut Training Group 1 selected. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Carpenter; Cooper; Glenn; Grissom; Schirra; Shepard; Slayton. The group was selected to provide six pilots for the single-crew Mercury manned spacecraft. Originally a wide pool of candidates was going to be considered, but in December 1958 President Eisenhower ruled that military test pilots would form the candidate pool.. Qualifications: Qualified jet pilot with minimum 1,500 flight-hours/10 years experience, graduate of test pilot school, bachelor's degree or equivalent, under 40 years old, under 180 cm height, excellent physical condition.. Screening of military service records showed 110 military officers that met these criteria. These 110 were to be called in three groups for briefings on the Mercury program. Of the first two groups of 35 called, 56 volunteered for further physical and psychiatric tests. This provided enough candidates and the third group was never even called for a briefing or asked if they would like to volunteer. Of the 56 tested, seven were finally selected (no objective way was found to reduce the seven finalists to six).

    Of the seven astronauts, all eventually flew in space. Grounded due to a heart murmur, Slayton had to wait 16 years for his flight aboard the last Apollo mission. Glenn left for a career in politics after becoming the first American to orbit the earth, but returned to space aboard a shuttle over 36 years later in a NASA publicity stunt. Schirra was the only astronaut to fly aboard Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo spacecraft. Shepard was the only one to reach the lunar surface (after being grounded for a medical condition during the Gemini program). Grissom would die in the Apollo 204 ground fire.


1959 April 2 - .
  • Bidders briefing for Project Mercury worldwide tracking range - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. A preliminary briefing was conducted for prospective bidders on construction of the worldwide tracking range for Project Mercury. This meeting was attended by representatives from 20 companies. At this time the preliminary plan called for an orbital mission tracking network of 14 sites. Contacts had not been made with the governments of any of the proposed locations with the exception of Bermuda. It was planned that all the sites would have facilities for telemetry, voice communications with the pilot, and teletype (wire or radio) communications with centers in the United States for primary tracking. The tracking sites would provide the control center at Cape Canaveral, Florida, with trajectory predictions; landing-area predictions; and vehicle, systems, and pilot conditions.

1959 April 2 - .
  • Seven astronauts selected for Mercury project. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cooper; Grissom; Slayton; Carpenter; Shepard; Schirra; Glenn. Program: Mercury. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Mercury. Seven astronauts were selected for Project Mercury after a series of the most rigorous physical and mental tests ever given to U.S. test pilots. Chosen from a field of 110 candidates, the finalists were all qualified test pilots: Capts. Leroy G. Cooper, Jr., Virgil I. Grissom, and Donald K. Slayton, (USAF); Lt. Malcolm S. Carpenter, Lt. Comdr. Alan B. Shepard, Jr., and Lt. Comdr. Watler M. Schirra, Jr. (USN); and Lt. Col. John H. Glenn (USMC).

1961 April 2 - . 14:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. Launch Pad: LC41/pad?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16. LV Configuration: R-16 5L-7T.
  • First full range R-16 flight. - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi). Summary: The R-16 carried a warhead to the impact zone in the Kamchatka Peninsula, only 400 m off target in range, and only 50 m to the right..

1963 April 2 - .
  • Final contract with McDonnell for the Gemini spacecraft. - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Spacecraft: Gemini. NASA announced the signing of a contract with McDonnell for the Gemini spacecraft. Final negotiations had been completed February 27, 1963. Estimated cost was $428,780,062 with a fixed fee of $27,870,000 for a total estimated cost-plus-fixed-fee of $456,650,062. NASA Headquarters spent two weeks on a detailed review of the contract before signing. Development of the spacecraft had begun in December 1961 under a preliminary letter contract which the final contract superseded. The contract call for a 13 flight-rated spacecraft, 12 to be used in space flight, one to be used for ground testing. In addition, McDonnell would provide two mission simulator trainers, a docking simulator trainer, five boilerplates, and three static articles for vibration and impact ground tests.

1963 April 2 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78/E6. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78/E6 G103-11.
  • Luna 4 - . Payload: E-6 s/n 3. Mass: 1,422 kg (3,134 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1963-04-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 563 . COSPAR: 1963-008A. Apogee: 182 km (113 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 87.98 min. Luna 4 was the second attempted Soviet unmanned lunar soft lander probe. The spacecraft, rather than being sent on a straight trajectory toward the Moon, was placed first in an earth parking orbit. The rocket stage then reignited and put the spaccecraft on a translunar trajectory. Failure of Luna 4 to make a required midcourse correction resulted in it missing the Moon by 8336.2 km on April 6, at 4:26 a.m. Moscow time. It thereafter entered a barycentric Earth orbit. The Soviet news agency, Tass, reported that data had been received from the spacecraft throughout its flight and that radio communication would continue for a few more days.

1964 April 2 - . Launch Site: San Marco. Launch Complex: San Marco Rita. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1964 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-23.
  • Zond 1 - . Payload: 3MV-1 s/n 4. Mass: 890 kg (1,960 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Program: Venera. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Venera 3MV-1. USAF Sat Cat: 785 . COSPAR: 1964-016D. Summary: Failed Venus probe. Solar Orbit (Heliocentric). Elaboration of a long range space system and conduct of scientific research..

1965 April 2 - . 13:22 GMT - . Launch Site: Pacific Ocean. Launch Pad: 12.1 S x 78.2 W. Launch Platform: CVE-25. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.185UE.
  • UNH Particles Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). Summary: Launched at 1965 Croatan MRF Expedition LP31 - - Latitude: 12.12 S - Longitude: 78.22 W..

1966 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU31. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • SLI K Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1968 April 2 - .
  • 40 percent nitrogen for the Apollo CM cabin in prelaunch operations - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM ECS. NASA Hq. confirmed oral instructions to MSC and KSC to use 60 percent oxygen and 40 percent nitrogen to pressurize the Apollo CM cabin in prelaunch checkout operations and during manned chamber testing, as recommended by the Design Certification Review Board on March 7 and confirmed by the NASA Administrator on March 12. This instruction was applicable to flight and test articles at all locations.

1968 April 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-C. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II B-36.
  • Glory Trip 10T - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi). Summary: FOT GT10T Follow-on Test launch.

1969 April 2 - .
  • Death of Boris Sergeyevich Stechkin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Stechkin. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1955-1969 of OKB Fakel. At the Academy of Sciences performed attitude control engine work..

1969 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • OT? - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 April 2 - . 08:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 181 km (112 mi).

1969 April 2 - . 10:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 233-01. FAILURE: First stage - 1 x RD-253 fire beginning at T+ 0.02 sec, rocket crashed near pad.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • M-69 s/n 522 - . Payload: M-69 s/n 522. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Mars. Class: Mars. Type: Mars probe. Spacecraft: Mars M-69. Decay Date: 1969-04-02 . COSPAR: F690402A. Mars probe intended to enter Martian orbit and comprehensively photograph Mars, together with a landing probe. Further Mars launches during the 1969 launch window were cancelled when this attempt resulted in a major accident, which almost wiped out all of the leaders of the space industry. The Proton rocket lifted off, but one engine failed. The vehicle flew at an altitude of 50 m horizontally, finally exploding only a short distance from the launch pad, spraying the whole complex with poisonous propellants that were quickly spread by the wind. Everyone took off in their autos to escape, but which direction to go? Finally it was decided that the launch point was the safest, but this proved to be even more dangerous - the second stage was still intact and liable to explode. The contamination was so bad that there was no way to clean up - the only possibility was just to wait for rain to wash it away. This didn't happen until the Mars launch window was closed, so the first such probe was not put into space until 1971. This accident also severely damaged plans to divert attention from America's Apollo programme during the rest of 1969. 10-12 UR-500K launches had been intended to land on the moon lunar soil return and rover robots to supplement the N1 launches.

1970 April 2 - .
  • X-24 Flight 11 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24A flight 11. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24A. Summary: Maximum Speed - 919 kph. Maximum Altitude - 17892 m. Flight Time - 435 sec..

1970 April 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. LV Configuration: Minuteman 3 FTM-309.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 April 2 - . 01:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 S66/1.
  • ESRO S66 / 1 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Europe. Agency: ESRO. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1971 April 2 - .
  • International Delegations tour Star City. - . Nation: USSR. Star City staff is busy preparing for foreign delegations attending the communist party congress that will also visit the cosmonaut centre. There is dirty snow, icy roads - and in two days 100 delegates will have to get to the forested location and be able to get around. The Vietnamese are coming on 4 April, followed by the Hungarians on 6 April and the Czechs on 7 April. A standard tour is laid out, to be followed by the films 'Our Gagarin' and 'In Memory of a Visit to Star City'.

1971 April 2 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 403 - . Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1971-04-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 5108 . COSPAR: 1971-026A. Apogee: 229 km (142 mi). Perigee: 216 km (134 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1971 April 2 - . 10:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 April 2 - . 17:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Met Para - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1974 April 2 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2.
  • FOT GT119M Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1975 April 2 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 723 - . Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: RORSAT. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military naval surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: US-A. Decay Date: 1975-07-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 7797 . COSPAR: 1975-024D. Apogee: 961 km (597 mi). Perigee: 899 km (558 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 103.60 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance; nuclear powered..

1976 April 2 - .
  • Crew escape system test sled on dock, Downey - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1976 April 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena Athena D.
  • MSV-1 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1977 April 2 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 76 km (47 mi).

1979 April 2 - . 05:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 87 km (54 mi).

1980 April 2 - . 12:39 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-2 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 April 2 - . 14:23 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-2 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 April 2 - . 14:23 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 658. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-2 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 April 2 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion. LV Configuration: Taurus Orion NASA 33.20GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1982 April 2 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1347 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 49.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-05-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 13122 . COSPAR: 1982-028A. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1983 April 2 - . 02:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML.
  • Molniya 1-57 - . Payload: Molniya-1T. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. Decay Date: 2000-01-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 13964 . COSPAR: 1983-025A. Apogee: 39,551 km (24,575 mi). Perigee: 802 km (498 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Replaced Molniya 1-52. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network..

1984 April 2 - . 07:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk Nike. LV Configuration: Taurus Nike Tomahawk NASA 38.01UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1984 April 2 - . 07:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Orion. LV Configuration: Taurus Orion NASA 33.42UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1985 April 2 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Hawk. Launch Vehicle: Orion Sounding Rocket. LV Configuration: Orion NASA 30.25UE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1986 April 2 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1987 April 2 - . 08:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • IPMS - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1988 April 2 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1989 April 2 - . 02:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA1. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 2. LV Configuration: Ariane 2 V30.
  • TELE-X - . Payload: Tele X. Mass: 2,142 kg (4,722 lb). Nation: Sweden. Agency: NSAB. Program: TELE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 300. Completed Operations Date: 1998-01-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 19919 . COSPAR: 1989-027A. Apogee: 36,128 km (22,448 mi). Perigee: 36,061 km (22,407 mi). Inclination: 4.3000 deg. Period: 1,451.80 min. TV, business communications for Nordic countries; 5 deg E. High power telecommunications satellite with a dual mission; direct TV broadcasting and data communications. Four active transponders with two redundant; power output 200 W per transponder. Coverage area - East Nordic coverage zone as defined by ITU (WARC -77). Mission period estimated to be 6 to 8 years. Position 5 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 5 deg E in 1989-1998 As of 28 August 2001 located at 138.62 deg W drifting at 3.929 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 132.37W drifting at 3.933W degrees per day.

1991 April 2 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1992 April 2 - . 01:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2 369-01.
  • Gorizont 25 - . Payload: Gorizont s/n 36L. Mass: 2,125 kg (4,684 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Gorizont . USAF Sat Cat: 21922 . COSPAR: 1992-017A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,783 km (22,234 mi). Inclination: 0.2000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Stationed at 103 deg E. Transmission of Russian radio and television programmes in Siberia and the solution of communications problems in Russia's eastern regions. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 103 deg E in 1992-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 140.44 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 44.59W drifting at 1.512W degrees per day.

1992 April 2 - .
1993 April 2 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 12. LV Configuration: Black Brant XII NASA 40.04UE.
  • UCB Alaska '93 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,425 km (885 mi).

1993 April 2 - . 10:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: VLS. Launch Vehicle: VS-40. LV Configuration: VS-40 PT-01.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: INPE. Apogee: 950 km (590 mi).

1993 April 2 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2240 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 66.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-06-07 . USAF Sat Cat: 22592 . COSPAR: 1993-021A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 188 km (116 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1994 April 2 - .
  • Chinese satellite accident. - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: FY-2. Summary: The first Fen Yung 2 geostationary weather satellite was undergoing final checkout before being mated to its launch vehicle when a fire and explosion erupted, destroying the vehicle, killing one worker and injuring 20 others..

1996 April 2 - .
  • Mir News 296: American EVA outside Mir - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir NASA-1; Mir EO-21. The EVA made by Clifford and Godwin on 27.03.96 lasted 6 hrs and 2 mins. The Mir crew experienced this EVA passively: their involvement consisted of observing and filming the event through some portholes. It was not easy to cover all activities of the American astronauts fully. They could see a part of the EVA through a porthole in de airlock of Module-D. The best view they got was through the porthole of the cabin of the board engineer in the Base Block. During the EVA the communications went via American channels. On the EVA frequency 279.000 mc Clifford and Godwin could be heard now and then. The same transmissions could be heard via the CNN relay from a TDRS. The Americans installed the experiments on the outer surface of the Docking Compartment at the Kristall-module. (The Russians speak about the 'SO'. The 'O' stands for Otsek, which means 'compartment'. So the do not speak about 'module'.) Atlantis-Mir-combination: During the period in which Atlantis and Mir were linked together many activities took place during the night in our area. We were lucky that this was not so during the EVA, which took place during our morning hours. The operations during the precursor flights cast a gloom over the future. It becomes obvious who will be in command during the flight of the International Space Station: undoubtedly this will be the Americans. Immediately after the docking the Americans took over the attitude control of the whole complex, and most of the communications and the control of the operations were theirs. Undocking of Atlantis. This took place on 29.03.96 at 0108 UTC. After the undocking Atlantis made a flight around the Mir complex and moved away at abt 1 hour later. Onufriyenko could be heard on the Mir-frequencies 130.625 and 143.625mc speaking about the attitude (movements-) control of the Mir station which was now under full control of FCC Kalingrad again. (TsUP-M). The transmissions of the images from Mir about the Atlantis were relayed by tracking stations inside Russian territory.

    Mir: The passes of Mir for our area take place during the night hours and so there is not much to report about the life on board. Module Priroda: The launch of this module has been put back again. Latest available planned launch date: 23.04.1996. Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1997 April 2 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1998 April 2 - .
  • Death of Eberhard Friedrich Michael Rees - . Nation: Germany; USA. Related Persons: Rees. Summary: German-American engineer, von Braun's right hand man, in charge of manufacturing 1940-1969 for V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and rockets stages for Saturn LVs that took America to the moon. Succeeded von Braun as Director at Huntsville 1970-1973..

1998 April 2 - . 02:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Arguello WADZ. Launch Pad: 36.0 N x 123.0 W. Launch Platform: L-1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F21.
  • TRACE - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: Small Explorer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: TRACE. USAF Sat Cat: 25280 . COSPAR: 1998-020A. Apogee: 652 km (405 mi). Perigee: 602 km (374 mi). Inclination: 97.8000 deg. Period: 97.10 min. NASA's third Small Explorer, the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), was successfully launched by an Orbital Pegasus XL. The L-1011 carrier aircraft took off from Vandenberg and dropped the Pegasus over the Pacific Ocean. TRACE, a project led by Lockheed's solar physics group, carried a 30-cm extreme ultraviolet imaging telescope which will study the Sun. The telescope mirrors were made by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. TRACE had an 8.5 arcmin field of view and 1 arcsecond resolution.

1999 April 2 - . 11:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Progress M-41 - . Payload: Progress M s/n 241. Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 105.99 days. Decay Date: 1999-07-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 25664 . COSPAR: 1999-015A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.51 min. Resupply craft docked uneventfully with the Mir complex two days later. It also delivered the Sputnik-99 amateur radio satellite, launched into orbit by hand by the cosmonauts during an EVA on April 16. Still hopeful of finding a backer to pay to keep Mir in space, Progress M-41 began a series of engine burns in late April to raise the orbit of the station. It finally undocked from Mir at 11:20 GMT on July 17 and was deorbited over the Pacific later the same day.
  • Sputnik-99 - . Nation: France. Agency: AmSat. Program: Oscar. Class: Communications. Type: Amateur radio communications satellite. Spacecraft: OSCAR. Decay Date: 1999-07-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 25685 . COSPAR: 1999-015C. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi). Perigee: 400 km (240 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Summary: Subscale amateur radio model of Sputnik 1. Reentered July 29..

1999 April 2 - . 22:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P-3 V117.
  • Insat 2E - . Payload: Insat 2E. Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Program: Insat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Insat 2. USAF Sat Cat: 25666 . COSPAR: 1999-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. ISRO's Insat 2E was placed in geostationary transfer orbit. The Indian-built satellite carried a C and S band communications package. Stationed at 83 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 83 deg E in 1999. As of 3 September 2001 located at 82.90 deg E drifting at 0.015 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.93E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day.

2000 April 2 - . 07:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 TEXUS 38.
  • TEXUS 38 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi).

2003 April 2 - . 01:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-ML 684.
  • Molniya 1-92 - . Payload: Molniya 1T-26 or 28. Mass: 1,660 kg (3,650 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Reshetnev. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1T. USAF Sat Cat: 27707 . COSPAR: 2003-011A. Apogee: 39,693 km (24,664 mi). Perigee: 655 km (406 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 717.60 min.

2004 April 2 - .
  • International Space Station Status Report #04-17 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fincke; Foale; Kaleri; Kuipers; Padalka. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-8. Summary: Plans for the next crew rotation on the International Space Station are on schedule this week, as the Expedition 8 crew members moved into their final month on orbit and their successors to within weeks of their scheduled launch.. Additional Details: International Space Station Status Report #04-17.

2008 April 2 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 04/02/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Love; Malenchenko; Reisman; Tani; Whitson; Yi So-yeon. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-1. From the US voluntary 'job jar' task list, after wakeup and before breakfast, CDR Whitson and FE-2 Reisman downloaded the SLEEP (Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure during Spaceflight) experiment data from their Actiwatches to the HRF-1 (Human Research Facility 1) laptop.

    Yi So-yeon, the South Korean SFP (Space Flight Participant), will participate in the experiment. (To monitor the crewmember's sleep/wake patterns and light exposure, crewmembers wear a special Actiwatch device which measures the light levels encountered by them as well as their patterns of sleep and activity throughout the Expedition. The log entries are done within 15 minutes of final awakening for seven consecutive days.)

    Also upon wake-up, CDR Whitson started Part 2 (of 5) of the periodic acoustic measurement protocol by recording post-sleep data of the crew-worn acoustic dosimeters, later deploying the dosimeters statically in Node-2, COL (Columbus Orbital Laboratory), and SM (Service Module) near the Central Post for the duration of the day. (Acoustic data must be taken twice per Increment, each time for the duration of the 16-hour crew workday.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 04/02/08.


2010 April 2 - . 04:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz-FG s/n 1754.
  • Soyuz TMA-18 - . Call Sign: Cliff. Crew: Skvortsov, Aleksandr; Korniyenko; Caldwell. Backup Crew: Borisenko, Andrei; Samokutyayev; Kelly, Scott. Payload: Soyuz 7K-STMA s/n 228. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-23; ISS EO-22. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 176.05 days. Decay Date: 2010-04-20 . USAF Sat Cat: 36505 . COSPAR: 2010-011A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. ISS EO-23. The crew first attempted to depart the ISS on 24 September. However the latches between the Soyuz and the station failed to release. Return to earth the next day was successful, with undocking at 02:03 GMT; deorbit burn at 04:31 GMT; and landing in Kazakhstan at 05:23 GMT.

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