Encyclopedia Astronautica
April 08


April 08 Chronology


1906 April 8 - .
  • Birth of William AM Burden - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer. Aviation consultant, served on the National Aeronautics and Space Council 1958-1959..

1945 April 8 - . Launch Site: V-2 Battery 836. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • The end of V-2 Battery 836 and the V-2 missile campaign. - . Nation: Germany. Agency: Wehrmacht. After being forced to retreat from its operational area in late March 1945, Battery 836 was to have moved first to a location 16 km west of Osnabruck for firing operations, but the situation on the ground prevented this. They then moved to Celle (about 30 km north of Hanover). From there the remaining rockets were to be fired against Russian forces at Kostrzyn, 100 km northeast of Berlin. The unit could not set up in time to accomplish this before Kammler ordered the rocket units to be dissolved and convert to infantry. On April 8 the battery destroyed its rockets and launching equipment and ceased to exist. In all, 1593 V-2's had been fired against Antwerp, 1225 against London, and 461 against other cities and targets, by one accounting. A total of 3000 to 3280 missiles had been fired in combat launches, and another 440 to 1000 in test and training launches. A total of 6,100 missiles had been manufactured, at least 1,800 of which were early production versions that were either scrapped or cannibalised for later production.

1948 April 8 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 83 - . Crew: Fitzgerald. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 48. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Fitzgerald. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 26. Familiarization flight..

1949 April 8 - . Launch Vehicle: RM-10.
  • RM-10 - . Nation: USA. Summary: Heat transfer studies.

1949 April 8 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: RM-10.
  • First successful rocket-propelled RM-10 rocket. - . Nation: USA. Summary: First successful rocket-propelled RM-10 research missile for drag and heat transfer studies at transonic and supersonic speeds, making use of skin calorimeter techniques, at Wallops Island, Va..

1952 April 8 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Redstone rocket named. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: The Redstone missile system officially received its popular name. Previously, this missile was known at various times and places as the Hermes C1, Major, Ursa, XSSM-G-14, and XSSM-A-14..

1953 April 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Phase I state trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1954 April 8 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: Honest John. LV Configuration: Honest John 296M.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 April 8 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 410.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1955 April 8 - . 15:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Nike Deacon.
  • DAN-1 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 108 km (67 mi).

1958 April 8 - . 01:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Akita. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: K150. LV Configuration: K150 K150S-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 6.00 km (3.70 mi).

1959 April 8 - . 06:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Able II. LV Configuration: Thor Able II 133.
  • RVX-1 Reentry test / particles mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,230 km (760 mi).

1960 April 8 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 1. LV Configuration: Titan I C-5.
  • RVX-3 Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1960 April 8 - . 02:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC11. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas D. LV Configuration: Atlas D 48D. FAILURE: Failure. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1961 April 8 - . 19:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC1E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor Agena B. LV Configuration: Thor Agena B 307 / Agena B 1106.
  • Discoverer 23 - . Payload: KH-5 s/n 9016A / Agena B 1106 / Capsule SRV 521. Mass: 1,150 kg (2,530 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-5. Decay Date: 1962-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 100 . COSPAR: 1961-Lambda-1. Apogee: 651 km (404 mi). Perigee: 295 km (183 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 94.10 min. Summary: KH-5; film capsule boosted into higher orbit, decayed 5/23/62. Mission failed. Loss of satellite control gas caused unstable condition. No recovery. Officially: Spacecraft Engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..

1962 April 8 - . Launch Site: Chelkar. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • NIIP-A Target - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 April 8 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC29A. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3X-18.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 April 8 - . 07:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AD-2A-44.
  • Auroral study Apr9? Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 154 km (95 mi).

1964 April 8 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC19. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan II GLV. LV Configuration: Titan II GLV GT-1 / 62-12556.
  • Gemini 1 - . Payload: Gemini SC1. Mass: 3,187 kg (7,026 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Gemini. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Decay Date: 1964-04-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 782 . COSPAR: 1964-018A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 154 km (95 mi). Inclination: 32.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. The first Gemini mission, Gemini-Titan I, was launched from Complex 19 at Cape Kennedy at 11:00 a.m., e.s.t. This was an unmanned flight, using the first production Gemini spacecraft and a modified Titan II Gemini launch vehicle (GLV). The mission's primary purpose was to verify the structural integrity of the GLV and spacecraft, as well as to demonstrate the GLV's ability to place the spacecraft into a prescribed earth orbit. Mission plans did not include separation of the spacecraft from the second stage of the vehicle, and both were inserted into orbit as a unit six minutes after launch. The planned mission encompassed only the first three orbits and ended about four hours and 50 minutes after liftoff. No recovery was planned for this mission, but Goddard continued to track the spacecraft until it reentered the atmosphere on the 64th orbital pass over the southern Atlantic Ocean (April 12) and disintegrated. The flight qualified the GLV and its systems and the structure of the spacecraft.

1964 April 8 - . 18:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Delamar Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.3 N x 114.9 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 1-46-73.
  • X-15A Optical Degradation /Alternate Build Technology/test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 53 km (32 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5580 kph. Maximum Altitude - 53340 m..

1965 April 8 - .
  • Contract for Apollo deep space tracking and data acquisition system - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Summary: Goddard Space Flight Center awarded a $4.6 million contract to RCA for a deep space tracking and data acquisition system. The equipment, to be installed on Cooper's Island, Bermuda, would support a variety of NASA space missions, including Apollo flights..

1966 April 8 - .
  • Agreement between the Department of Defense and NASA on extraterrestrial mapping - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Seamans. Program: Apollo. Deputy Administrator Robert C. Seamans, Jr., received a letter from John S. Foster, Jr., Director of Defense Research and Engineering, expressing pleasure that the agreement between the Department of Defense and NASA on extraterrestrial mapping, charting, and geodesy support had been consummated. He was returning a copy of the agreement for the NASA files.

1966 April 8 - .
  • Voskhod 3 further delayed - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Tyulin. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3; Voskhod 4; Voskhod 5. Tyulin reveals that Voskhod 3 should be completely integrated and ready to go by the end of April, but the flight will be pushed back even farther than that. Mishin is also raising questions about Voskhod 4 and Voskhod 5. The cosmonauts are ready, but have nothing to do but wait. Who will supervise future manned space missions is in question. Korolev was de facto leader in the past. The others - the President of the State Commission, the President of the Academy of Sciences - were in fact just there in support roles. Without Korolev, this may change in the future, and the question has become controversial.

1966 April 8 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36B. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Centaur D. LV Configuration: Atlas Centaur D AC-8 / Centaur D 184D. FAILURE: Centaur propellant leak.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Surveyor Model - . Payload: Surveyor SD-3. Mass: 784 kg (1,728 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; JPL. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Surveyor. Decay Date: 1966-05-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 2139 . COSPAR: 1966-030A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 30.7000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Launch vehicle test. Payload was dummy Surveyor spacecraft..

1966 April 8 - . 04:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.76UI.
  • MIP 3 Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 159 km (98 mi).

1966 April 8 - . 19:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 5001 (AA15) / Agena D 6703.
  • OAO 1 - . Payload: OAO A1. Mass: 1,774 kg (3,911 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: OAO. USAF Sat Cat: 2142 . COSPAR: 1966-031A. Apogee: 793 km (492 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 35.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min. Summary: Orbiting Astronomical Observatory. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1967 April 8 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/D. LV Configuration: Proton-K/D 228-01. FAILURE: Block D ullage rocket failure; no restart.. Failed Stage: 4.
  • Cosmos 154 - . Payload: Soyuz 7K-L1P s/n 3P. Mass: 5,020 kg (11,060 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Chelomei; Mishin; Tsybin. Agency: RVSN. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. Duration: 1.98 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 2745 . COSPAR: 1967-032A. Apogee: 203 km (126 mi). Perigee: 187 km (116 mi). Inclination: 51.5000 deg. Period: 88.30 min. Protoype Soyuz 7K-L1 manned circumlunar spacecraft. There are high winds for the L1 launch, 15-17 m/s. The official limit is 20 m/s, but Chelomei wants to scrub the launch if winds go over 15 m/s. Nevertheless the launch proceeds in 17-18 m/s winds and the L1 reached earth orbit. However the Block D translunar injection stage failed to fire (ullage rockets, which had to fire to settle propellants in tanks before main engine fired, were jettisoned prematurely). The failure is blamed on Mishin and has Tsybin seething in anger. Mishin is disorganised and has made many mistakes. Spacecraft burned up two days later when orbit decayed. Later in the day comes the news the RTS has to be replaced on one of the Soyuz 1/2 spacecraft. This will have a 3 to 4 day schedule impact, and push the launch back to 15-20 April. The crews arrive the same day for the upcoming Soyuz launch.

1967 April 8 - . 20:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.329IE.
  • DLR K-NA-2 Aurora / barium release mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: NASA; DLR. Apogee: 237 km (147 mi).

1968 April 8 - .
  • Further MiG-15UTI crashes - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin. Summary: MiG-15UTI trainer crashes are reported from Algeria and Hungary. They are to be investigated - could they be due to some common problem that also killed Gagarin?.

1969 April 8 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.282CS.
  • AS&E Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1970 April 8 - . 08:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thorad Agena D SLV-2G. LV Configuration: Thorad SLV-2G Agena D 553 (TA13) / Agena D 6223.
  • Nimbus 4 - . Payload: Nimbus D. Mass: 620 kg (1,360 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Nimbus. USAF Sat Cat: 4362 . COSPAR: 1970-025A. Apogee: 1,099 km (682 mi). Perigee: 1,088 km (676 mi). Inclination: 100.1000 deg. Period: 107.10 min. Environmental research. Primary experiments consisted of an image dissector camera system for providing daytime cloudcover pictures both in real-time and recorded modes, temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) for measuring daytime and nighttime surface and cloudtop temperatures as well as the water vapor content of the upper atmosphere, infrared interferometer spectrometer (IRIS) for measuring the emission spectra of the earth/atmosphere system, satellite infrared spectrometer (SIRS) for determining the vertical profiles of temperature and water vapor in the atmosphere, a monitor of ultraviolet solar energy (MUSE) for detecting solar UV radiation, a backscatter ultraviolet (BUV) detector for monitoring the vertical distribution and total amount of atmospheric ozone on a global scale, a filter wedge spectrometer (FWS) for accurate measurement of IR radiance as a function of wavelength from the earth/atmosphere system, a selective chopper radiometer (SCR) for determining the temperatures of six successive 10-km layers in the atmosphere from absorption measurements in the 15-micrometer CO2 band, and an interrogation, recording, and location system (IRLS) for locating, interrogating, recording, and retransmitting meteorological and geophysical data from remote collection stations. The spacecraft performed well until April 14, 1971, when attitude problems started. The experiments then operated on a limited time basis until September 30, 1980.
  • TOPO 1 - . Payload: Topo A. Mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USA TOPO. Class: Earth. Type: Geodetic satellite. Spacecraft: TOPO. USAF Sat Cat: 4363 . COSPAR: 1970-025B. Apogee: 1,087 km (675 mi). Perigee: 1,084 km (673 mi). Inclination: 100.0000 deg. Period: 107.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). .

1970 April 8 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 331 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1970-04-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4364 . COSPAR: 1970-026A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1970 April 8 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C. LV Configuration: Titan IIIC 3C-18.
  • Vela 12 - . Payload: Vela 6A / OPS 7044. Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. Decay Date: 1992-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 4366 . COSPAR: 1970-027A. Apogee: 121,227 km (75,326 mi). Perigee: 101,261 km (62,920 mi). Inclination: 61.2000 deg. Period: 6,691.00 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • Vela 11 - . Payload: Vela 6B / OPS 7033. Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. Decay Date: 1992-12-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 4368 . COSPAR: 1970-027B. Apogee: 119,313 km (74,137 mi). Perigee: 103,570 km (64,350 mi). Inclination: 57.4000 deg. Period: 6,707.90 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..

1971 April 8 - .
  • Soyuz 10 crew preparations. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Summary: The DOS cosmonauts are working on their flight plans/logs at Area 17. Kamanin discusses the physical training of crews for long missions with Stepanov. They must do thirty minutes of vigorous exercise per day..

1971 April 8 - .
  • Death of Fritz von Opel - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Opel. Summary: German automobile manufacturer and rocketry enthusiast. Grandson of founder of Opel, after graduation, put in charge of testing and publicity. Funded Valier's tests of rocket engines in ground and air vehicles..

1971 April 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. LV Configuration: Minuteman 3 STM-2W.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1972 April 8 - . 14:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure 1. LV Configuration: Centaure 1 Rehbar 24.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Pakistan. Agency: SUPARCO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1973 April 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67PM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1974 April 8 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 40 km (24 mi).

1975 April 8 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 725 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 77. Mass: 400 kg (880 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1976-01-02 . Decay Date: 1976-01-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 7730 . COSPAR: 1975-026A. Apogee: 481 km (298 mi). Perigee: 270 km (160 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 92.10 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1976 April 8 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1977 April 8 - . 06:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.1013GA.
  • Auroral extreme ultraviolet Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 157 km (97 mi).

1978 April 8 - . 02:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Loki Dart.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 64 km (39 mi).

1979 April 8 - . 04:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1980 April 8 - .
  • Voyager 1's Discovery of Saturn Moon Telesto - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Voyager.

1981 April 8 - . 14:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1982 April 8 - . 00:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65047-242.
  • Cosmos 1349 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 13127 . COSPAR: 1982-030A. Apogee: 1,009 km (626 mi). Perigee: 966 km (600 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite. Replaced Cosmos 1153..

1983 April 8 - . 04:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC200/40. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM 315-02.
  • Raduga 12 - . Payload: Raduga s/n 23L. Mass: 1,940 kg (4,270 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Raduga . Completed Operations Date: 1985-06-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 13974 . COSPAR: 1983-028A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,772 km (22,227 mi). Inclination: 8.4000 deg. Period: 1,435.80 min. Provision of uninterrupted round the clock telephone and telegraph radiocommunication in the USSR and simultaneous transmission of colour and black-and-white USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita network. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 85 deg E in 1983-1984 As of 4 September 2001 located at 65.56 deg E drifting at 0.028 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 82.54E drifting at 0.059W degrees per day.

1983 April 8 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1451 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-04-22 . USAF Sat Cat: 13975 . COSPAR: 1983-029A. Apogee: 232 km (144 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 88.60 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable. First launch from LC43/4 since on-pad explosion in March 1980..

1983 April 8 - . 19:00 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 642. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1983 April 8 - . 21:05 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-6-1 - . Crew: Musgrave; Peterson. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.17 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Musgrave; Peterson. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-6. Spacecraft: Challenger. Summary: Tested EMU Manoeuvring Unit. Tested EVA emergency procedures..

1984 April 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT101GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1984 April 8 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF09. Launch Pad: LF09?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT102GM Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1984 April 8 - . 11:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC1. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 3 CZ3-2 (10).
  • STTW-T2 - . Payload: STTW-T2. Mass: 900 kg (1,980 lb). Nation: China. Agency: MAI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: DFH-2. Completed Operations Date: 1988-06-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 14899 . COSPAR: 1984-035A. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,733 km (22,203 mi). Inclination: 6.1000 deg. Period: 1,435.00 min. Prototype of DFH-2 communications satellite. After on-orbit testing and check out of the satellite and the ground stations, the satellite system was declared operational, and was used experimentally for the transmission of television, telephone, and data messages with good results. It stayed in operation for more than four years, exceeding the design life of three years by a comfortable margin. Operated in geosynchronous orbit at 125 deg E in 1984-1988. As of 4 September 2001 located at 40.81 deg E drifting at 0.320 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 133.57E drifting at 0.079W degrees per day.

1984 April 8 - . 14:18 GMT - .
1985 April 8 - . 20:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 52 km (32 mi).

1986 April 8 - . 09:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Super Chief. Launch Vehicle: Talos Castor. LV Configuration: Talos Castor GL A51.378.
  • SPIRIT I Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 241 km (149 mi).

1987 April 8 - . 03:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 1834 - . Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-P. Decay Date: 1988-10-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 17847 . COSPAR: 1987-031A. Apogee: 415 km (257 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance..

1988 April 8 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur Jubilee.
1991 April 8 - .
  • EVA STS-37-2 - . Crew: Ross; Apt. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.25 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Apt. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-37. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Summary: Tested CETA (Crew / Equipment Translation Aids - rail with cart for moving astronauts around exterior of International Space Station)..

1992 April 8 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • FCET-40 Follow-On CINC Evaluation Test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1992 April 8 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • FCET-40 Follow-On CINC Evaluation Test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1992 April 8 - . 12:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2183 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 314.00 days. Decay Date: 1993-02-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 21928 . COSPAR: 1992-018A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 237 km (147 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1993 April 8 - . 05:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-56.
  • STS-56 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Cameron; Cockrell; Foale; Ochoa; Oswald. Payload: Discovery F16 / Spartan 201-F1 / Atlas-2. Mass: 7,441 kg (16,404 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Cameron; Cockrell; Foale; Ochoa; Oswald. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-56. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 9.26 days. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023A. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 2, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) A, Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201 (Solar Wind Generation Experi-ment), Solar Ultraviolet Experiment (SUVE), Commercial Material Dispersion Apparatus (CMIX), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting, and Environmental System (HER-CULES), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Space Tissue Loss (STL), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III.
  • SPTN-SFSS - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.
  • Atlas-2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1993-04-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 22621 . COSPAR: 1993-023xx. Apogee: 293 km (182 mi). Perigee: 280 km (170 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.20 min.
  • Spartan 201 - . Mass: 1,289 kg (2,841 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Program: STS. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Spartan. Decay Date: 1993-04-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 22623 . COSPAR: 1993-023B. Apogee: 298 km (185 mi). Perigee: 291 km (180 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Studied solar corona and galaxy; deployed from STS-56 4/11/93; Shuttle Point Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy; retrieved 4/13/93..

1996 April 8 - . 23:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K/DM-2M. LV Configuration: Proton-K/DM-2M (DM3) 390-01.
  • Astra 1F - . Mass: 3,010 kg (6,630 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: SES. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23842 . COSPAR: 1996-021A. Apogee: 35,793 km (22,240 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 19.3E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 19 deg E in 1996-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 19.16 deg E drifting at 0.002 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.18E drifting at 0.016W degrees per day..

1997 April 8 - . 03:55 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9CM1. LV Configuration: Black Brant 9CM1 NASA 36.157UL.
  • WISP 3 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 375 km (233 mi).

1997 April 8 - .
1998 April 8 - . 02:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

2002 April 8 - . 09:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF10. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3. LV Configuration: Minuteman 3 GT178GM.
  • GT178GM Functional Dependency gate operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

2002 April 8 - . 20:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39B. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-110.
  • STS-110 - . Call Sign: Atlantis. Crew: Bloomfield; Frick; Walheim; Ochoa; Morin; Ross; Smith, Steven. Payload: Atlantis F25 / SO. Mass: 100,000 kg (220,000 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bloomfield; Frick; Walheim; Ochoa; Morin; Ross; Smith, Steven. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: Boeing. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-110. Spacecraft: Atlantis. Duration: 10.82 days. Decay Date: 2002-04-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 27413 . COSPAR: 2002-018A. Apogee: 402 km (249 mi). Perigee: 309 km (192 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Launch delayed from March 22, April 4. Space Shuttle Atlantis entered an orbit of approximately 59 x 229 km x 51.6 deg at 2052 UTC, and separated from the External Tank, ET-114. ET-114 reached apogee around 2122 UTC and reentered over the Pacific about 2150 UTC at the end of its first orbit. Atlantis fired its OMS engines at apogee to raise its perigee to 155 km. Further orbit changes will lead to a rendezvous with the Space Station on Station mission 8A. STS-110 carried the S0 truss segment to the Station. The truss was the first segment of the main backbone of the Station which was to grow to carry the large solar panel wings and radiators. Cargo manifest:
    • Bay 1-2: Orbiter Docking System - 1800 kg + 3 EMU spacesuits - 360 kg
    • Bay 4-13: S0 Truss - 12623 kg. The S0 truss, built by Boeing/Huntington Beach, was 13.4 m long and 4.6 m in diameter. The main truss had a hexagonal cross section. One face carried fluid, power and data cables, while another face carried the rails for the Mobile Transporter. The S0 contained avionics, GPS antennae, and a radiation dose monitor. The S0 would be attached to the LCA (Lab Cradle Assembly) which was attached to the top of the Destiny lab module in 2001. Attached to S0 were:
      • 4 x MTS (Module to Truss Structure) struts. These were used to connect it to the Destiny module
      • Airlock Spur. This was a 4.2 m beam that hinged out to connect to the Quest module and had handrails for spacewalkers
      • Mobile Transporter (MT). This was made by TRW Astro Aerospace in Carpinteria and was an 885 kg, 2.7 m long truck which moved on the S0 rails to transfer heavy cargo along the truss.
    • Sill: RMS arm - 410 kg
    • Total: 15193 kg

2003 April 8 - . 08:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 TEXUS 40.
  • TEXUS 40 Microgravity mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: SSC. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi).

2003 April 8 - . 12:40 GMT - .
  • EVA ISS EO-6-2 - . Crew: Bowersox; Pettit. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.27 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bowersox; Pettit. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-6. The Quest airlock was depressurized at 1236 GMT. Cosmonaut Budarin supported the operations from inside the station. One of the more important tasks was to reroute power cables for two of the station's critical control moment gyros, so that the pair could not be disabled by any single power disruption. This was important to provide extra redundancy, since one of the four total gyros has already failed and could not be replaced due to the grounding of the shuttle fleet after the STS-107 disaster.

2003 April 8 - . 13:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC40. Launch Pad: SLC40. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan Centaur 401B. LV Configuration: Titan 401B/Centaur 4B-35/TC-23.
  • USA 169 - . Payload: Milstar 6 / Milstar 2-F4. Mass: 4,500 kg (9,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Milstar. USAF Sat Cat: 27711 . COSPAR: 2003-012A. Apogee: 35,811 km (22,251 mi). Perigee: 35,762 km (22,221 mi). Inclination: 0.9100 deg. Period: 1,436.13 min. Summary: Delayed from November 4, 2002, and January 21, February 2 and 4, March 5, 8 and 21, and April 6, 2003. As of 2007 Feb 4 located at 89.84W drifting at 0.014W degrees per day..

2004 April 8 - . 15:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Complex: Mojave RW12/30. Launch Platform: W-Knight. Launch Vehicle: Tier One.
  • SpaceShipOne Flight 13P - . Crew: Siebold. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Binnie; Melvill; Siebold. Agency: Scaled. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft: SpaceShipOne. Duration: 0.0114 days. Apogee: 32 km (19 mi). White Knight/SpaceShipOne Flight 53L / 13P. 40 second motor burn time. Handling qualities during boost, through transonic and supersonic. Reaction control system functionality in-flight and feather configuration stability during transonic re-entry. Evaluation of radar tracking capability. Launch conditions were 13.96 km and 230 kph. A planned immediate motor ignition was delayed about 2 minutes to evaluate a shock induced stall buffet resulting in an ignition altitude of only 11.7 km. The 40 second rocket boost was smooth with good control. Pilot commented that the motor was surprisingly quiet; however the boost was heard by ground observers. Burnout occurred at 1.6M and apogee was over 32 km. There was no noted flight control flutter or buzz during the climb. Feather recovery was nominal. Maximum feathered speed on entry was 0.9 Mach. The wing was de-feathered and locked by 12 km. Handling quality assessments during descent were satisfactory and a smooth landing made to runway 30 at Mojave. All video and tracking systems performed well with spectacular footage obtained onboard, from chase and from ground stations.

2005 April 8 - .
2006 April 8 - . 23:48 GMT - .
2008 April 8 - . 11:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz FG. LV Configuration: Soyuz FG s/n 1731.
  • Soyuz TMA-12 - . Call Sign: Eridanus. Crew: Volkov, Sergey; Kononenko, O D; Yi So-yeon. Return Crew: Volkov, Sergey; Kononenko, O D; Garriott, Richard. Payload: Soyuz TMA s/n 222. Mass: 7,200 kg (15,800 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Volkov, Sergey; Kononenko, O D; Yi So-yeon; Garriott, Richard. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-17; ISS EO-16-3. Spacecraft: Soyuz TMA. Duration: 198.54 days. Decay Date: 2008-04-19 08:29:00 . USAF Sat Cat: 32756 . COSPAR: 2008-015A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 336 km (208 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.30 min. Launched the EO-17 long-duration crew to replace the EO-16 crew. The commander was the son of cosmonaut Aleksandr Volkov. Also aboard was Oleg Kononenko (no relation to the 1970's Buran pilot of the same name) and Korean astronaut Yi Soyeon. Soyuz TMA-12 docked at the Pirs module of the International Space Station on 2008 Apr 10 at 12:57 GMT on 10 April. Volkov and Kononenko stayed aboard as the EO-17 long duration crew. Yi returned to earth with the EO-16 crew aboard Soyuz TMA-11. Soyuz TMA-12 undocked on 24 October at 00:16 GMT with the EO-17 crew of Kononenko and Volkov, plus space tourist Richard Garriott, aboard. They landed safely at 03:37 GMT.

2010 April 8 - . 13:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC109. Launch Pad: LC109/95. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: Dnepr. LV Configuration: Dnepr s/n D-14.
  • Cryosat 2 - . Mass: 720 kg (1,580 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: Makeyev. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Cryosat. USAF Sat Cat: 36508 . COSPAR: 2010-013A. Apogee: 724 km (449 mi). Perigee: 713 km (443 mi). Inclination: 92.0000 deg. Period: 99.20 min. Summary: Satellite carried a Ku-band radar to study the thickness of the polar ice caps. Launched to fulfill mission of Cryosat 1, which failed to reach orbit in 2005..

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