Encyclopedia Astronautica
April 16


April 16 Chronology


1916 April 16 - .
  • Birth of Leonid Vasilyevich Smirnov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian government official. Chaired the Military-Industrial Commission 1963-1985. Director of YuzhMash Plant 1952-1961..

1920 April 16 - .
  • Birth of Earl D Hilburn - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer. At NASA 1963-1966, in charge of industrial affairs. Later President of Western Union..

1920 April 16 - .
  • Birth of Lee B James - . Nation: USA. Summary: American Army officer, assigned to ABMA Huntsville 1956-1960. Seconded to NASA 1962-1971, where he oversaw NASA Huntsville, except for a stint 1962-1968 as Deputy Director for the Apollo program..

1944 April 16 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
1946 April 16 - . 21:47 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 2. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test / chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi). Summary: First flight test of American-assembled V-2 rocket launched by the Army at White Sands Proving Ground. Launched 14:47 local time. Reached 5.5 km. Carried cosmic radiation (Applied Physics Lab, John Hopkins University) experiments for General Electric..

1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 87 - . Crew: Lundquist. Payload: XS-1 # 1 flight 50. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lundquist. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: AF flight 28. Pressure distribution survey. Only cylinders 2 and 4 ignited..

1948 April 16 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 86 - . Crew: Lilly. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 37. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Lilly. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 17. Stability and loads investigation. Plane's nosewheel collapsed on landing. Moderate damage..

1951 April 16 - . Launch Site: Holloman. Launch Complex: Holloman SLED. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: MX-775.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi). Summary: First successful sled-launched Snark airframe..

1953 April 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 331P.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 April 16 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1367T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 April 16 - .
  • Birth of David McDowell Brown - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physician mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-107. Perished in Columbia shuttle disintegration during re-entry..

1956 April 16 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 0317.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1957 April 16 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/2?. LV Family: Snark. Launch Vehicle: Snark. LV Configuration: Snark N-69D 53-8176.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1959 April 16 - .
  • TF-102B and T-33 aircraft for Project Mercury astronauts. - . Nation: USA. Program: Mercury. Summary: NASA requested that the Air Force furnish two TF-102B and two T-33 aircraft to be used by the Project Mercury astronauts. One of the requirements in the astronaut training program was to maintain proficiency in high performance aircraft..

1959 April 16 - .
  • Birth of Michael Reed Barratt - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physician mission specialist astronaut, 2000-on..

1959 April 16 - . 20:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LE-8. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 161.
  • IWST test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: RAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Summary: Integrated Weapon System Training 1. First Thor IRBM launched by British crew at Vandenberg AFB..

1960 April 16 - . 16:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Luna 8K72. LV Configuration: Vostok-L 8K72 L1-9A. FAILURE: Strap-on B reached only 75 percent of thrust at ignition. Four tenths of a second after liftoff it broke away from the core.. Failed Stage: 2.
  • Luna failure at lift-off - . Payload: E-3 s/n 2. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-3. Decay Date: 1960-04-16 . COSPAR: F600419A. Summary: This dramatic failure resulted in a loss of thrust, and the lateral strap-on units separated and flew over the tracking stations and living areas. The core continued on its trajectory..

1961 April 16 - .
  • Sunday in Moscow - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Khrushchev; Gagarin. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 1. Summary: Gagarin and Kamanin spend the day at Khrushchev's dacha..

1962 April 16 - . LV Family: N1; R-56; Tsiklon.
  • N1, R-36, R-36-O, and R-56 rockets authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Decree 'On Important Development of Intercontinental Ballistic and Global Missiles and Carriers-Rockets for Space Objects--work on the N1, R-36, R-36-O, and R-56' was issued..

1962 April 16 - .
  • Soyuz A circumlunar spacecraft authorised. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: Soyuz A; Soyuz B; Soyuz V. Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On the Development of the 'Soyuz' Complex for Piloted flight to the Moon--approving the Soyuz program for circumlunar flight' was issued. The Soyuz was to be capable of the following:

    • Automatic rendezvous with other spacecraft
    • Automatic approach and alignment
    • Automatic docking
    • Exit of crew into open space for transfer from spacecraft to spacecraft
    • Astronavigation
    • Maneuvering in orbit (changing of orbital parameters)
    • Test of re-entry using body lift to modify the landing point and alleviate G-forces
    • Test of the operation of radio equipment and tracking equipment
    • Scientific research

1963 April 16 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike Smoke 355.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 21 km (13 mi).

1964 April 16 - .
  • Apollo changes for Block II - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block II. Joseph F. Shea, ASPO Manager, in a letter to North American's Apollo Program Manager, summarized MSC's review of the weight status of the Block I and the design changes projected for Block II CSM's.

    The Block II design arose from the need to add docking and crew transfer capability to the CM. Reduction of the CM control weight (from 9,500 to 9,100 kilograms (21,000 to 20,000 pounds)) and deficiencies in several major subsystems added to the scope of the redesign. Additional Details: Apollo changes for Block II.


1964 April 16 - .
  • Apollo scientist-astronaut program planned - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Summary: NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) and the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) were planning a scientist-astronaut program. The screening-for-selection process could be scheduled for February 1965.. Additional Details: Apollo scientist-astronaut program planned.

1964 April 16 - . 07:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AD-2A-36.
  • Ionosphere / particles / micrometeorite mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 152 km (94 mi).

1964 April 16 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.143UI.
  • E-layer Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 168 km (104 mi).

1965 April 16 - .
  • Voskhod female crew opposition - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Gagarin; Beregovoi; Shatalov; Tereshkova; Solovyova; Ponomaryova. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 3. Spacecraft: Voskhod. Gagarin and the rest of the male cosmonauts, as many as other VVS officers, are opposed to Kamanin's plan for a female Voskhod flight. The first cosmonaut group are also opposed to appointment of Beregovoi and Shatalov to flight crews. Tereshkova has lost 5 kg and looks ill, but all the doctors say she is healthy.

1965 April 16 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • First clustered firing of Saturn V's first stage - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. MSFC conducted the first clustered firing of the Saturn V's first stage (the S-IC). The booster's five F-1 engines burned for about 6½ seconds and produced 33,360 kilonewtons (7.5 million lbs) thrust.

    Eight days later, at its static facility in Santa Susana, California, North American first fired the S-II, intermediate stage of the Saturn V. The event was chronicled as the "second major Saturn V milestone" during April. Additional Details: First clustered firing of Saturn V's first stage.


1965 April 16 - . 19:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-C. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II B-45.
  • Bear Hug operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1967 April 16 - .
  • Soyuz 1 is moved to the integration hall. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. The Soyuz 2 crew trains from 15:00 to 20:00 - they had to wait due to problems with the spacecraft, but then the training went all right. The argument continues on whether to do an automatic or a manual docking. The design bureau wants to use the Igla automatic system; the cosmonauts want to do it manually. They have done 800 dockings in the simulator, so they should know best, in Kamanin's opinion. They want to let the automatic system take the spacecraft up to 50 to 70 m from the target, then use manual maneuvering to proceed to dock. The number two valve on the Soyuz 1 spacecraft's nitrogen tank was inadvertently opened during preparation. It was said not to be serious, but the problems are getting on everyone's nerves.

1968 April 16 - . 03:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AKD-2A-113.
  • Auroral breakup Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1969 April 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 2339.
  • OT GT19M operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1969 April 16 - . Launch Site: CELPA. LV Family: Canopus. Launch Vehicle: Canopus 2.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Argentina. Agency: CONAE. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1969 April 16 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Gan Island. Launch Vehicle: Kookaburra.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 65 km (40 mi).

1969 April 16 - . 16:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150 MI. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 MI-20 NASA 04.247DS.
  • Solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1969 April 16 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.393UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 06:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo. LV Configuration: Cockatoo COCKATOO 0101.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 06:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.443UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 07:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 07:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 08:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 SL728.
  • X-ray spectra / Ozone X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 210 km (130 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: Cockatoo. LV Configuration: Cockatoo COCKATOO 0102.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1970 April 16 - . 11:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1971 April 16 - .
  • Soyuz 10 closed out. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Soyuz s/n 31 is completed. The crew are given a final look at it in the afternoon. They spend four hours in the powered-down spacecraft. Kamanin notes that Nikolayev and Sevastyanov do not look out after their physical condition even on the ground -- no wonder they were so sick after their flight! Afterwards all three crews go to the sauna together.

1971 April 16 - . 05:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P62K.
  • VLF waves Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 138 km (85 mi).

1972 April 16 - . 17:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V. LV Configuration: Saturn V SA-511.
  • Apollo 16 - . Call Sign: Caspar. Crew: Duke; Mattingly; Young. Backup Crew: Haise; Mitchell; Roosa. Payload: Apollo CSM 113/LM 11/ ALSEP/ LRV-2/PFS 2/S-IVB-511. Mass: 30,358 kg (66,927 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Duke; Mattingly; Young; Haise; Mitchell; Roosa. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Duration: 11.08 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6000 . COSPAR: 1972-031A. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 32.5420 deg. Period: 88.93 min. The Apollo 16 (AS-511) space vehicle was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12:54 p.m. EST April 16, with a crew of astronauts John W. Young, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Charles M. Duke, Jr. After insertion into an earth parking orbit for spacecraft system checks, the spacecraft and the S-IVB stage were placed on a trajectory to the moon at 3:28 p.m. CSM transposition and docking with the LM were achieved, although a number of minor anomalies were noted.

    One anomaly, an auxiliary propulsion system leak on the S-IVB stage, produced an unpredictable thrust and prevented a final S-IVB targeting maneuver after separation from the CSM. Tracking of the S-IVB ended at 4:04 p.m. EST April 17, when the instrument unit's signal was lost. The stage hit the lunar surface at 4:02 p.m. April 19, 260 kilometers northeast of the target point. The impact was detected by the seismometers left on the moon by the Apollo 12, 14, and 15 missions.

    Spacecraft operations were near normal during the coast to the moon. Unexplained light-colored particles from the LM were investigated and identified as shredded thermal paint. Other activities during the translunar coast included a cislunar navigation exercise, ultraviolet photography of the earth and moon, an electrophoresis demonstration, and an investigation of the visual light-flash phenomenon noted on previous flights. Astronaut Duke counted 70 white, instantaneous light flashes that left no after-glow.

    Apollo 16 entered a lunar orbit of 314 by 107.7 kilometers at 3:22 p.m. April 19. After separation of LM-11 Orion from CSM 112 Casper, a CSM active rendezvous kept the two vehicles close together while an anomaly discovered on the service propulsion system was evaluated. Tests and analyses showed the redundant system to be still safe and usable if required. The vehicles were again separated and the mission continued on a revised timeline because of the 5 3/4-hour delay.

    The lunar module landed with Duke and Young in the moon's Descartes region, about 230 meters northwest of the planned target area at 9:23 p.m. EST April 20. A sleep period was scheduled before EVA.

    The first extravehicular activity began at 11:59 a.m. April 21, after the eight-hour rest period. Television coverage of surface activity was delayed until the lunar roving vehicle systems were activated, because the steerable antenna on the lunar module could not be used. The lunar surface experiments packages were deployed, but accidental breaking of the electronics cable rendered the heat flow experiment inoperable. After completing activities at the experiments site, the crew drove the lunar roving vehicle west to Flag Crater, where they performed the planned tasks. The inbound traverse route was just slightly south of the outbound route, and the next stop was Spook Crater. The crew then returned via the experiment station to the lunar module and deployed the solar wind composition experiment. The duration of the extravehicular activity was 7 hours 11 minutes. The distance traveled by the lunar roving vehicle was 4.2 kilometers. The crew collected 20 kilograms of samples.

    The second extravehicular traverse, which began at 11:33 a.m. April 22, was south-southeast to a mare-sampling area near the Cinco Craters on Stone Mountain. The crew then drove in a northwesterly direction, making stops near Stubby and Wreck Craters. The last leg of the traverse was north to the experiments station and the lunar module. The second extravehicular activity lasted 7 hours 23 minutes. The distance traveled by the lunar roving vehicle was 11.1 kilometers.

    Four stations were deleted from the third extravehicular traverse, which began 30 minutes early at 10:27 a.m. April 23 to allow extra time. The first stop was North Ray Crater, where "House Rock" on the rim of the crater was sampled. The crew then drove southeast to "Shadow Rock." The return route to the LM retraced the outbound route. The third extravehicular activity lasted 5 hours 40 minutes, and the lunar roving vehicle traveled 11.4 kilometers.

    Lunar surface activities outside the LM totaled 20 hours 15 minutes for the mission. The total distance traveled in the lunar roving vehicle was 26.7 kilometers. The crew remained on the lunar surface 71 hours 14 minutes and collected 96.6 kilograms of lunar samples.

    While the lunar module crew was on the surface, Mattingly, orbiting the moon in the CSM, was obtaining photographs, measuring physical properties of the moon and deep space, and making visual observations. Essentially the same complement of instruments was used to gather data as was used on the Apollo 15 mission, but different areas of the lunar surface were flown over and more comprehensive deep space measurements were made, providing scientific data that could be used to validate findings from Apollo 15 as well as add to the total store of knowledge of the moon and its atmosphere, the solar system, and galactic space.

    The LM lifted off from the moon at 8:26 p.m. EST April 23, rendezvoused with the CSM, and docked with it in orbit. Young and Duke transferred to the CSM with samples, film, and equipment, and the LM was jettisoned the next day. LM attitude control was lost at jettison; therefore a deorbit maneuver was not possible and the LM remained in lunar orbit, with an estimated orbital lifetime of about one year.

    The particles and fields subsatellite was launched into lunar orbit and normal system operation was noted. However, the spacecraft orbital shaping maneuver was not performed before ejection and the subsatellite was placed in a non-optimum orbit that resulted in a much shorter lifetime than the planned year. Loss of all subsatellite tracking and telemetry data on the 425th revolution (May 29) indicated that the subsatellite had hit the lunar surface.

    The mass spectrometer deployment boom stalled during a retract cycle and was jettisoned before transearth injection. The second plane-change maneuver and some orbital science photography were deleted so that transearth injection could be performed about 24 hours earlier than originally planned.

    Activities during the transearth coast phase of the mission included photography for a contamination study for the Skylab program and completion of the visual light-flash-phenomenon investigation that had been partially accomplished during translunar coast. A 1-hour 24-minute transearth extravehicular activity was conducted by command module pilot Mattingly to retrieve the film cassettes from the scientific instrument module cameras, inspect the equipment, and expose a microbial-response experiment to the space environment. Two midcourse corrections were made on the return flight to achieve the desired entry interface conditions.

  • Apollo 16 LM - . Call Sign: Orion. Payload: Apollo LM 11. Mass: 16,437 kg (36,237 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar spacecraft. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Duration: 11.08 days. Decay Date: 1972-04-27 . USAF Sat Cat: 6000 . COSPAR: 1972-031x. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi). Perigee: 167 km (103 mi). Inclination: 32.5420 deg. Period: 88.93 min.
  • Apollo 16 Subsatellite - . Payload: PFS 2. Mass: 36 kg (79 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: PFS. Decay Date: 1972-05-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 6009 . COSPAR: 1972-031D. Summary: Released from Apollo 16 into lunar orbit on 24 April 1972 at 21:56:09 GMT into a 96 km x 122 km orbit; fields and particles data; impacted lunar surface 29 May 1972..

1972 April 16 - . 23:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Syowa Base. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: S-160. LV Configuration: S-160JA-4.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: NIPR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1973 April 16 - .
1973 April 16 - . 10:04 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Ute Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Ute Tomahawk CRL A09.209-1.
  • Photometers Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 195 km (121 mi).

1973 April 16 - . 11:58 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Ute Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Ute Tomahawk CRL A09.102-1.
  • Photometers Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF CRL. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1974 April 16 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • DKh state trials flight - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1974 April 16 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF06. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B.
  • SSTTP M2-135 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1975 April 16 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 727 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 7742 . COSPAR: 1975-030A. Apogee: 334 km (207 mi). Perigee: 172 km (106 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1975 April 16 - . 09:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.175GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 299 km (185 mi).

1976 April 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kerguelen. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1977 April 16 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 5C. LV Configuration: Black Brant VC NASA 21.54UG.
  • JHU FOT 1 Ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 136 km (84 mi).

1979 April 16 - .
  • SSME 2006, flight engine delivered for acceptance - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Space shuttle main engine 2006, flight engine delivered to NSTL, for acceptance test firing.

1980 April 16 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 91 km (56 mi).

1981 April 16 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1265 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 12.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 12402 . COSPAR: 1981-036A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1982 April 16 - . 06:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.003GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi).

1982 April 16 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.1029GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1984 April 16 - . 20:31 GMT - . Launch Site: Eareckson. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 51 km (31 mi).

1985 April 16 - .
  • EVA STS-51-D-1 - . Crew: Hoffman; Griggs. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.13 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Hoffman; Griggs. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-D. Spacecraft: Discovery. Summary: RMS 'Ryswatters' installed..

1985 April 16 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1645 / Foton 1 - . Payload: Foton s/n 1L. Mass: 6,200 kg (13,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Materials. Type: Materials science satellite. Spacecraft: Foton. Duration: 12.16 days. Decay Date: 1985-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 15645 . COSPAR: 1985-029A. Apogee: 388 km (241 mi). Perigee: 214 km (132 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 90.50 min. Summary: Materials processing tests..

1986 April 16 - . 14:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Molodezhnaya. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1987 April 16 - . 06:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 1836 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 230.00 days. Decay Date: 1987-12-02 . USAF Sat Cat: 17876 . COSPAR: 1987-033A. Apogee: 289 km (179 mi). Perigee: 236 km (146 mi). Inclination: 64.8000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1987 April 16 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: UK S23. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3TK.
  • Chevaline demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: UK. Agency: RN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1988 April 16 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 58 km (36 mi).

1991 April 16 - . 07:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47148-401.
  • Cosmos 2142 - . Mass: 810 kg (1,780 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 21230 . COSPAR: 1991-029A. Apogee: 1,019 km (633 mi). Perigee: 960 km (590 mi). Inclination: 83.0000 deg. Period: 104.90 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 5 of constellation. Signals at 150.03 and 400.07 MHz..

1992 April 16 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 83 km (51 mi).

1993 April 16 - . 07:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 2242 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 73. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 22626 . COSPAR: 1993-024A. Apogee: 665 km (413 mi). Perigee: 629 km (390 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Summary: Ocean surveillance. Investigation of outer space. .

1994 April 16 - . 01:22 GMT - . Launch Site: El Arenosillo. LV Family: INTA. Launch Vehicle: INTA-300B. LV Configuration: INTA-300B IAA.
  • O2-INTA300 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Spain. Agency: INTA. Apogee: 156 km (96 mi).

1997 April 16 - . 23:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44LP. LV Configuration: Ariane 44LP-3 V95.
  • Thaicom 3 - . Nation: Thailand. Agency: Shinawat. Manufacturer: Cannes. Program: Thaicom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 24768 . COSPAR: 1997-016A. Apogee: 35,803 km (22,246 mi). Perigee: 35,770 km (22,220 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 78.5E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 78 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 78.53 deg E drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 111.51W drifting at 5.525W degrees per day..
  • BSAT 1a - . Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 24769 . COSPAR: 1997-016B. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Geosynchronous. Stationed over 110.0E Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1997-1999 As of 4 September 2001 located at 109.56 deg E drifting at 0.018 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.63E drifting at 0.008W degrees per day..

1998 April 16 - .
  • US Congress Investgates Space Technology Exports to China - . Nation: China. Several US Congressional committees investigated the Clinton administration's policy of exporting space satellite technology to China, asserting it had helped China and other countries to develop and use nuclear missiles. Two US companies were being investegated by the Justice Department as well. Beijing denied that it had gotten any sensitive technology from US.

1999 April 16 - . 04:37 GMT - .
  • EVA Mir EO-27-1 - . Crew: Afanasyev; Haignere. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.26 days. Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Afanasyev; Haignere. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir EO-27; Mir EO-26/-27. Spacecraft: Mir. Summary: Haignere launched by hand the Sputnik-99 amateur radio satellite, delivered to Mir by Progress M-41..

2002 April 16 - . 14:29 GMT - .
  • EVA STS-110-4 - . Crew: Ross; Morin. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.28 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Ross; Morin. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-110. Summary: From about 1426 UTC to 2106 UTC the astronauts deployed the Airlock Spur, a small ladder from S0 to Quest, as well as installing some floodlights..

2002 April 16 - . 23:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44L. LV Configuration: Ariane 44L-3 V150.
  • NSS 7 - . Mass: 4,692 kg (10,344 lb). Nation: Netherlands. Agency: New Skies. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 27414 . COSPAR: 2002-019A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Ariane mission V150 placed Lockheed Martin A2100-class satellite NSS 7 satellite into orbit. The satellite was owned by New Skies, an Intelsat spinoff, and carried a C/Ku band telecoms payload. The spacecraft was in a 24200 x 35706 km x 0.7 deg orbit by April 24, on its way to geosynchrnous orbit. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 22.01W drifting at 0.010W degrees per day.

2003 April 16 - .
2004 April 16 - . 00:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-163.
  • Superbird 6 - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JSCC. Program: Superbird. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 28218 . COSPAR: 2004-011A. Apogee: 35,797 km (22,243 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: The satellite was to provide Ka and Ku band communications for Japan's Space Communications Corporation..

2005 April 16 - .
  • Cassini, Titan Flyby, Successful - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: Cassini.

2005 April 16 - .
2008 April 16 - . 17:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Platform: L1011. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F39.
  • C/NOFS - . Mass: 395 kg (870 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: McLean. Class: Earth. Type: Seismology satellite. Spacecraft: C/NOFS. USAF Sat Cat: 32765 . COSPAR: 2008-017A. Apogee: 852 km (529 mi). Perigee: 405 km (251 mi). Inclination: 13.0000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. The C/NOFS (Communication/Navigation Outage Forecasting System) satellite flew the US Defence Department's Space Test Program P00-3 space weather forecasting mission. The L-1011 launch aircraft staged from Kwajalein atoll to a release point for the Pegasus booster somewhere over the Pacific at 10.5229 N 167.7562 E. The research satellite carring ionospheric instruments, including Aerospace Corporation's CORISS receiver which used GPS signals to determine electron densities in the ionosphere, and the Naval Research Laboratory's CERTO ionospheric radio beacon. The spacecraft was built by General Dynamics C4 Systems (former Spectrum Astro) and was managed by DoD-STP and the Air Force Research Lab. The objective was to provide data that would allow better forecasts of ionospheric scintillation which causes problems with communications and GPS signals. The satellite deployed six 10-meter booms after release from the final booster stage.

2010 April 16 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2462 - . Mass: 6,900 kg (15,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: KVR. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 95.76 days. Decay Date: 2010-07-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 36511 . COSPAR: 2010-014A. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 67.2000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Recoverable optical surveillance satellite. Secondary recoverable film capsules probably recovered on 9 June and 18 July. Main spacecraft reentry vehicle landed at 09:10 GMT on 21 July 2010..

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