Encyclopedia Astronautica
April 20


April 20 Chronology


1935 April 20 - .
1938 April 20 - . LV Family: Goddard. Launch Vehicle: Goddard L-C.
  • Flight of Goddard series L section C rocket - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Goddard. Apogee: 1.26 km (0.78 mi). Summary: Rocket reached altitude 4215 ft; duration of propulsion 25.3 sec; landed 6960 ft from tower; carried official NAA barograph. .

1944 April 20 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17354. FAILURE: Failure.
  • V-2 A01 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Attempt abandoned; launched on 22 April (Test # A06).

1945 April 20 - .
1950 April 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 49R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1951 April 20 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 144 - . Crew: Crossfield. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 63. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Crossfield. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 43. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.07..

1953 April 20 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 334P.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1954 April 20 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. LV Family: R-11. Launch Vehicle: R-11.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1955 April 20 - .
  • Birth of Donald Roy Pettit - . Nation: USA. Summary: American chemical engineer mission specialist astronaut. Flew on ISS EO-6, STS-126. First NASA astronaut to return to earth in a Russian spacecraft..

1955 April 20 - . 06:51 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-9. FAILURE: Guidance system malfunction at 310 sec due to air pressure loss. ST-80 lateral guidance only..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 7,000 m..

1957 April 20 - . 04:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18 102. FAILURE: Console wiring error resulted in erroneous tracking indication; destroyed by range safety.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Series I research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 0 km ( mi). Douglas Thor IRBM (XSM-75) was launched at Cape Canaveral, Fla., destroyed by range safety officer. The missile was actually on course throughout its flight. The console wiring error led the range safety officer to believe it was headed inland rather than out to sea, so he hit the destruct button.

1958 April 20 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1959 April 20 - .
  • Canada-NASA sounding rocket agreement. - . Nation: Canada. Summary: NASA announced acceptance of proposals by the Canadian Defense Research Telecommunications Establishment for continuing joint rocket and satellite ionospheric experiments of a nonmilitary nature..

1959 April 20 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25A. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris AX. LV Configuration: Polaris AX-6.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1960 April 20 - . Launch Site: Santa Barbara Channel DZ. Launch Pad: EAFB. Launch Platform: F-104. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: ALSOR. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Model A (F4) test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 70 km (43 mi).

1961 April 20 - .
  • Prospector vs Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Prospector. A conference was held at NASA Headquarters on the relationship between the Prospector and Apollo programs. Representatives of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and STG discussed the possible redirection of Prospector planning to support more directly the manned space program. The Prospector spacecraft was intended to soft-land about 2,500 pounds on the lunar surface with an accuracy of +/-1 kilometer anywhere on the visible side of the moon. An essential feature of Prospector was the development of an automatic roving vehicle weighing about 1500 pounds which would permit detailed reconnaissance of the lunar surface over a wide area. Additional Details: Prospector vs Apollo program.

1961 April 20 - . 03:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-03.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1961 April 20 - . 18:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-04.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1961 April 20 - . 18:43 GMT - . Launch Site: Salto di Quirra. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp ISRC-RS-05.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Italy. Agency: CRS. Apogee: 190 km (110 mi).

1962 April 20 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • OP -Orbital Belt - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Korolev. Spacecraft: OP. Korolev’s fantastic ‘Orbitalniy Poyas’ (OP -Orbital Belt) scheme anticipated Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defence Initiative by 25 years. Two to three large N-I launched military manned stations would control a constellation of strategic assets. Geosynchronous nuclear-powered satellites would provide secure communications. Piloted reconnaissance spacecraft would surprise the enemy, observing military preparations without warning. The orbital stations would provide continuous observations of the territory of the imperialist block.

1962 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: R-9. Launch Vehicle: Romashka. FAILURE: Failure.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1962 April 20 - . 19:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Mud Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.9 N x 117.1 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 3-4-8.
  • X-15A MH-96, M=5 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 63 km (39 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 6097 kph. Maximum Altitude - 63250 m..

1963 April 20 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Valerievich Kostenko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian businessman, cosmonaut training 2005, backup to Gregory Olsen for the space tourist seat on Soyuz TMA-7..

1963 April 20 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Sergeant. Launch Vehicle: Shotput. LV Configuration: Shotput 6.
  • San Marco Satellite test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 426 km (264 mi).

1963 April 20 - . 10:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique. LV Configuration: Veronique AGI35.
  • Airglow Aeronomy /ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1964 April 20 - . LV Family: Saturn I; Saturn V.
  • IBM to build the instrument units for the Saturn launch vehicles - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. NASA selected IBM, Federal Systems Division, to develop and build the instrument units (IU) for the Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles. (IBM had been chosen by NASA in October 1963 to design and build the IU data adapters and digital guidance computers and to integrate and check out the IUs.) Under this new contract, expected to be worth over $175 million, IBM would supply the structure and the environmental control system. NASA would furnish the telemetry system and the stabilized platform (ST-124M) of the guidance system. MSFC would manage the contract.

1964 April 20 - . Launch Site: Ile du Levant. Launch Pad: CERES. LV Family: VE. Launch Vehicle: Agate. LV Configuration: Agate R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: France. Agency: ONERA. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi).

1964 April 20 - . 08:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M T15000-21. FAILURE: Power failure caused upper stage shutdown at T+340 seconds.. Failed Stage: U.
  • Luna failure - . Payload: E-6 s/n 5. Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Program: Luna. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Luna E-6. Decay Date: 1964-04-20 . COSPAR: F640420A. Summary: The upper stages broke up on re-entry into the atmosphere...

1964 April 20 - . 16:30 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P-286.
  • First surface launch test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1964 April 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 625. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2P-119.
  • Submerged launch test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1965 April 20 - . 15:40 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NE3.156.
  • Solar ultraviolet and x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NRL. Apogee: 201 km (124 mi).

1966 April 20 - . 02:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 2. LV Configuration: Skylark 2 SL582.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 172 km (106 mi).

1966 April 20 - . 08:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 395-B. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2. LV Configuration: Titan II B-55.
  • Long Light operational test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1966 April 20 - . 10:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92.
  • Cosmos 115 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 35. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 2147 . COSPAR: 1966-033A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 189 km (117 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: . Program partially completed. Abnormal operation of SA-10 camera..

1966 April 20 - . 12:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 8. LV Configuration: Kappa 8 K-8-13.
  • Aeronomy / plasma / fields mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1967 April 20 - .
  • Soyuz 1/2 State Commission. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Soyuz. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. 150 people attend. The readiness of the spacecraft and launch vehicles are confirmed. The final responsibilities and schedule are approved. Everything is go. Afterwards there is a meeting with Mishin. He is mainly worried about two things that could cause them to scrub the launch of the second Soyuz: a failure of the Igla automatic docking system or the solar panels on Soyuz 1.

1967 April 20 - . 01:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC3E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas SLV-3. LV Configuration: Atlas SLV-3 7003.
  • Prime 3 - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,500 km (900 mi). The full design 1145 km cross range was demonstrated, and the X-23A SV-5D lifting body vehicle was successfully snatched at 3700 m altitude, 8 km from the target point. With this success the rest of the project was cancelled, and the two remaining unflown X-22A's were sent to the USAF Museum at Wright Patterson Air Force Base.

1967 April 20 - . 11:21 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2E. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta E. LV Configuration: Thor Delta E 484/D48.
  • ESSA 5 - . Payload: TOS C. Mass: 145 kg (319 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ESSA. Program: Tiros. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: TOS. USAF Sat Cat: 2757 . COSPAR: 1967-036A. Apogee: 1,422 km (883 mi). Perigee: 1,355 km (841 mi). Inclination: 102.0000 deg. Period: 113.50 min. Summary: Replaced ESSA 3. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C)..

1967 April 20 - . 17:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.224GM. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Grenade Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 107 km (66 mi).

1967 April 20 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 3. LV Configuration: Skylark 3 SL425.
  • X-ray survey / ne Solar x-ray / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE; RAE. Apogee: 218 km (135 mi).

1968 April 20 - .
  • Cosmos 213 landing/L1 preparations - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L1; Soyuz. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1; Soyuz 7K-OK. Summary: Unfuelled tests of the Proton rocket on the pad are completed successfully. The K-100 star sensor on the L1 is a special concern..

1968 April 20 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 216 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 62. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-04-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 3207 . COSPAR: 1968-034A. Apogee: 267 km (165 mi). Perigee: 198 km (123 mi). Inclination: 51.0000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Unsuccessful mission. Spacecraft landed in River Volga 1 km from shore and sank after 42 minutes. 85% of the data was ruined..

1968 April 20 - . 17:38 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA2. Launch Pad: LA2A?. LV Family: Astrobee. Launch Vehicle: Astrobee 1500. LV Configuration: Astrobee 1500 NASA 16.04UI.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,250 km (770 mi).

1969 April 20 - . 04:15 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • Meteorological Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 120 km (70 mi).

1969 April 20 - . 13:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1969 April 20 - . 15:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 171 km (106 mi).

1970 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC162/36. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 20 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: SSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02. LV Configuration: SSBS S02 C4.
  • S02C4 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 April 20 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Cajun Dart.
1971 April 20 - .
  • DOS State Commission. - . Nation: USSR. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11; Soyuz 12 / DOS 1. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Six of eight fans in the ECS have failed. There are only two back-ups, which are not enough for the 90-day active mission life planed. But it is decided the problem could actually be failed sensors, and in any case the first crew can easily repair the fans. At 17:00 the State Commission meets publicly (radio and television coverage) to approve the launch of Soyuz 10. Launch is set for 22 April at 03:30.

1972 April 20 - . 00:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Greely. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute,Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 55 km (34 mi).

1973 April 20 - . 23:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 1914. LV Configuration: Delta 1914 583/D94.
  • Anik A2 - . Payload: Telesat 2. Mass: 272 kg (599 lb). Nation: Canada. Agency: Telesat. Program: Anik. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 333. Completed Operations Date: 1982-10-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 6437 . COSPAR: 1973-023A. Apogee: 35,952 km (22,339 mi). Perigee: 35,886 km (22,298 mi). Inclination: 13.7000 deg. Period: 1,442.90 min. Anik I and Anik II also registered as United States objects. .The satellites, act as space repeaters capable of receiving transmissions from earth stations and retransmitting them to other earth stations in Canada. The antenna coverage of the satellite pr ovides the capability of serving virtually all of Canada. Anik I and II had weights of 1240.59 lb and 1246.48 lb. Each satellite has 12 RF channels each capable of transmitting a color television signal or up to 900 one-way voice channels. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Americas at 109 deg W in 1973-1979; over the Americas at 106 deg W in 1979-1981; over the Americas at 114 deg W in 1981-1982 As of 26 August 2001 located at 0.59 deg E drifting at 1.690 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 150.94E drifting at 1.684W degrees per day.

1974 April 20 - . 20:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 1-27 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1983-11-17 . USAF Sat Cat: 7260 . COSPAR: 1974-023A. Apogee: 39,752 km (24,700 mi). Perigee: 606 km (376 mi). Inclination: 63.0000 deg. Period: 717.80 min. Summary: Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network..

1976 April 20 - . 20:08 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 656. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • FOT-18? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1976 April 20 - . 20:09 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 656. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • FOT-18? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 April 20 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 904 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 9930 . COSPAR: 1977-028A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 71.4000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1977 April 20 - . 10:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 617/D130.
  • ESA-Geos 1 - . Payload: ESA GEOS 1. Mass: 573 kg (1,263 lb). Nation: Europe. Agency: ESA. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ESA-Geos. USAF Sat Cat: 9931 . COSPAR: 1977-029A. Apogee: 38,214 km (23,745 mi). Perigee: 2,939 km (1,826 mi). Inclination: 26.6000 deg. Period: 734.00 min. Summary: Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). .

1978 April 20 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1003 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKM. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1978-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 10811 . COSPAR: 1978-040A. Apogee: 328 km (203 mi). Perigee: 178 km (110 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1979 April 20 - .
  • TKS VA s/n 103 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 103. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA .

1979 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24.
  • TKS VA s/n 008 - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 008. Mass: 4,250 kg (9,360 lb). Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: TKS VA s/n 008. Spacecraft: TKS VA . On 20 April 1979 LVI-4 VA (VA s/n 103 and s/n 008) was awaiting launch. The booster ignited, but then shut down on the pad. This triggered the launch escape system, which pulled the top capsule away from the booster. The parachute system failed and the capsule crashed to the ground. The lower capsule remained in the rocket. The top capsule was to have been manned, but the inability to demonstrate two consecutive failure-free launches of the Proton/TKS-VA combination made that (luckily) impossible.

1979 April 20 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/24. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton 8K82K s/n 300-02. FAILURE: Engines ignited but immediately shut down on launch pad. Booster could be reused with new payload.. Failed Stage: 1.
  • - . Payload: TKS VA s/n 008. Nation: USSR. Program: Almaz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: TKS VA . Decay Date: 1979-05-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 11362 . Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 193 km (119 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.70 min.

1979 April 20 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1095 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-05-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 11335 . COSPAR: 1979-034A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 199 km (123 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 April 20 - . 20:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 95 km (59 mi).

1982 April 20 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Poker Flat. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 10. LV Configuration: Black Brant X NASA 35.004GE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1,195 km (742 mi).

1983 April 20 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 372.
1984 April 20 - . 21:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 66 km (41 mi).

1985 April 20 - . 07:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C NASA 27.82UG.
  • IMAPS 2 Far ultraviolet astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi).

1987 April 20 - . 15:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1988 April 20 - . 05:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 1939 - . Payload: Resurs-O1 no. 2. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 19045 . COSPAR: 1988-032A. Apogee: 602 km (374 mi). Perigee: 570 km (350 mi). Inclination: 97.7000 deg. Period: 96.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation. Stayed in operation for six years, six months, far beyond its rated life of 3 to 5 years..

1989 April 20 - . 18:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2018 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 60.00 days. Decay Date: 1989-06-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 19938 . COSPAR: 1989-031A. Apogee: 327 km (203 mi). Perigee: 185 km (114 mi). Inclination: 62.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1990 April 20 - . 18:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/3. Launch Pad: LC133/3?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53726-195.
  • Cosmos 2074 - . Mass: 825 kg (1,818 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Parus. USAF Sat Cat: 20577 . COSPAR: 1990-036A. Apogee: 1,005 km (624 mi). Perigee: 963 km (598 mi). Inclination: 82.9000 deg. Period: 104.80 min. Summary: Military navigation satellite. Positioned in plane 2 of constellation..

1994 April 20 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Ryori. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135P. LV Configuration: MT-135P-R887.
  • Meteorological mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: JMA. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1994 April 20 - .
1995 April 20 - .
  • Mir News 251: GFZ-1 launched by Mir-crew - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-18. On 19.04.1995 at 1912 UTC this spherical microsat (21 CM diameter, mass 20 KG) has been pushed into space from an airlock of Mir's base block. GFZ-1 moved off with a speed of 1.2 M/sec. The traffic in which the reports of data and images of the autonomous GFZ-1 could be monitored via Altair. The same operation had taken place some days before: On 17.04.1995 at 08Hrs 19Mins 50Secs the crew launched a container with garbage to be sure that the system would work well. This object is now in space under catalogue number 23557. GFZ-1 has been built by the German firm Kayser-Threde. The co-ordination of the observations of GFZ-1 will be done by the Geoforschungszentrum Potsdam. Abt 25 observatories all over the world will execute measurements by laser reflections. Stations are among others: London, Grasse (France), Potsdam, Easterisland, Graz (Austria) and even one in Kirgizie. The stations can 'catch' GFZ-1 with a beamwidth of 200 Meters. During the first pass London and Graz did not get reflections, but during the 2d pass Graz caught GFZ-1 and was able to pick the first geodetic and ballistic measurements. During the launch the Mir-crew acted independently.

    Planning for the near future:

    Some crucial operations had to be put back by the Russians (launch module Spektr, EVA-s, a.s.o.) and this forced the Americans to put back the launch of the Atlantis to the second half of June. Therefore the flight of Discovery has been put forward and will now begin at abt 8.06.1995.

    Cargo Progress-M27: An antenna for radio-amateur purposes, delivered by Progress-M27, has been damaged due an improper packing. The crew showed this antenna via Altair and discussed this problem with the well known radio-amateur Sergey Samburov.

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


1996 April 20 - . 22:36 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 42P. LV Configuration: Ariane 42P-3 V85.
  • M-SAT 1 - . Nation: Canada. Agency: TMI. Program: M-SAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23846 . COSPAR: 1996-022A. Apogee: 35,794 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,777 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Geostationary at 106.5W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 106 deg W in 1996-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 106.55 deg W drifting at 0.004 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 11 located at 106.48W drifting at 0.004W degrees per day..

1997 April 20 - .
  • Failed FSW Launch - . Nation: China. Spacecraft: FSW. Repeated rumours appeared that a Chinese military satellite was launched or suffered a failure on this date. The story was first carried by Reuters in May 1997. In December 2000 it was again reported in a Chinese professional magazine that China launched its last recoverable satellite on April 20, 1997. The last official launch of the series was in October 1996.

2000 April 20 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 00-16 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Halsell; Helms; Horowitz; Voss; Weber; Williams, Jeffrey. Program: ISS. If all goes as planned, this time next week the International Space Station will house visitors for the first time since the visit by the crew of STS-96 last year. All continues to go smoothly with preparations for the launch of Atlantis to start the STS-101 mission on Monday. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS 00-16.

2001 April 20 - .
2002 April 20 - .
  • ISS Port Cleared - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Flight: STS-110. Summary: At 0916 UTC on April 20 Soyuz TM-33 undocked from the Zarya nadir port carrying the Expedition-4 crew. It redocked with the Pirs nadir port at 0937 UTC. This cleared the port Zarya port for the pending Soyuz TM-34 launch..

2004 April 20 - . 16:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7920-XC. LV Configuration: Delta 7920-10C D304.
  • Gravity Probe B - . Mass: 3,145 kg (6,933 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Gravity Probe-B. USAF Sat Cat: 28230 . COSPAR: 2004-014A. Apogee: 646 km (401 mi). Perigee: 640 km (390 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 97.60 min. Gravity Probe B's mission was to confirm a prediction of Einstein's theory of relativity. The physics experiment, developed by Stanford University and Lockheed Martin, was to observe the magnitude 5 star IM Pegasi for over a year, attempting to measure the tiny shifts in the spacecraft gyroscopes' orientation caused by the Lense-Thirring gravitomagnetic (or `frame-dragging') effect. To accomplish this the spacecraft carried four gyroscopes kept at 1.8 deg Kelvin by a liquid helium dewar, laser retroreflectors and two GPS receivers for orbit determination, a drag compensation system, and a 14 cm aperture quartz telescope. The satellite was also to make an accurate measurement of the already-established gravitostatic warping of spacetime due to the Earth's mass.

2004 April 20 - . 17:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Topol. Launch Vehicle: Topol M.
  • Pacific operational test launch - . Nation: Russia. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2006 April 20 - . 20:27 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. Launch Pad: SLC41. LV Family: Atlas V. Launch Vehicle: Atlas V 411. LV Configuration: Atlas V 411 AV-008.
  • Astra 1KR - . Payload: A2100AX. Mass: 4,332 kg (9,550 lb). Nation: Luxembourg. Agency: SES. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Astra. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 2100. USAF Sat Cat: 29055 . COSPAR: 2006-012A. Apogee: 35,696 km (22,180 mi). Perigee: 35,631 km (22,140 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,429.80 min. The first Centaur upper stage burn placed the stack into a 167 km x 22442 km x 24.8 deg transfer orbit. After a second burn the Centaur released the satellite into a 6470 km x 36240 km x 23.8 deg orbit, from which it would use its own engine to achieve final geosynchronous orbit. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 19.18E drifting at 0.022W degrees per day.

2007 April 20 - .
2008 April 20 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 04/20/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Drew; Kononenko, O D; Love; Malenchenko; Reisman; Volkov, Sergey. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-16; ISS EO-16-3; ISS EO-17; STS-122. Ahead: Week 1 of Increment 17 (with CDR Sergei Volkov, FE-1 Oleg Kononenko, FE-2 Garrett Reisman).

    Crew wake/sleep cycle has 'normalized', Today's wakeup - 2:00am, sleeptime - 5:30pm EDT.

    First activity this morning for FE-2 Reisman was to start on his FD30 (Flight Day 30) session with the NASA/JSC experiment NUTRITION w/Repository. Reisman completed the all-day session, collecting urine samples for 24 hrs (to continue through tomorrow morning) and blood samples (for Serum & Heparin). (Garrett performed self-phlebotomy, i.e., drew his blood samples (from an arm vein) which were first allowed to coagulate in the Repository, then spun in the HRF2 RC (Human Research Facility 2/Refrigerated Centrifuge) and finally placed in MELFI (Minus-Eighty Laboratory Freezer for ISS). The RC was later powered off after a temperature reset to limit wear on the compressor, and cleaned. Background: NUTRITION is the most comprehensive in-flight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. The Clinical Nutritional Assessment profile currently required on all U.S. Astronauts collects blood and urine samples preflight and postflight. NUTRITION expands this protocol by also capturing in-flight samples and an additional postflight sample. Furthermore, additional measurements are included for samples from all sessions, including additional markers of bone metabolism, vitamin status, and hormone and oxidative stressor tests. The results will be used to better understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements. The Clinical Nutritional Assessment profile (MR016L), first started on two Mir crewmembers and then on all ISS US crews, nominally consists of two pre-flight and one post-flight analysis of nutritional status, as well as an in-flight assessment of dietary intake using the FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire). The current NUTRITION project has expanded MR016L testing in three ways: Addition of in-flight blood & urine collection (made possible by MELFI), normative markers of nutritional assessment, and a return session plus 30-day (R+30) session to allow evaluation of post-flight nutrition and implications for rehabilitation.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 04/20/08.


2009 April 20 - . 01:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV CA. LV Configuration: PSLV CA.
  • Risat-2 - . Mass: 340 kg (740 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Spacecraft: Tecsar. USAF Sat Cat: 34807 . COSPAR: 2009-019A. Apogee: 552 km (342 mi). Perigee: 446 km (277 mi). Inclination: 41.2000 deg. Period: 94.60 min. Summary: Tecsar-class radar imaging satellite bought by India from Israel..
  • Anusat - . Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Spacecraft: Anusat. USAF Sat Cat: 34808 . COSPAR: 2009-019B. Apogee: 551 km (342 mi). Perigee: 401 km (249 mi). Inclination: 41.2000 deg. Period: 94.10 min. Summary: 40 kg imaging satellite from Anna University, Chennai, India..

2009 April 20 - . 08:16 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiritimati. Launch Pad: 0.0 N x 154.0 W. Launch Platform: Odyssey. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SL.
  • Sicral 1B - . Payload: Italsat-3000. Mass: 3,038 kg (6,697 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: SeaLaunch. Spacecraft: Italsat. USAF Sat Cat: 34810 . COSPAR: 2009-020A. Apogee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Perigee: 35,785 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.00 min. Summary: Second Italian military communications satellite. Dry mass 1680 kg..

2011 April 20 - . 04:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota PSLV. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV.
  • X-Sat - . Nation: India. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37389 . COSPAR: 2011-015C. Apogee: 822 km (510 mi). Perigee: 803 km (498 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.10 min. Summary: Nanyang Technological University Singapore satellite; carried a 10-meter-resolution multispectral imager..
  • Resourcesat 2 - . Mass: 1,200 kg (2,600 lb). Nation: India. Program: IRS. Class: Surveillance. Type: Surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 37387 . COSPAR: 2011-015A. Apogee: 825 km (512 mi). Perigee: 820 km (500 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.30 min. Surveillance satellite. Carried the LISS-4 camera, a 6-meter-resolution imager, which was to be used for both military reconnaissance and civilian remote sensing. It also carried the lower resolution LISS-3 (23 m resolution) and AWIFS (56 m resolution), and an AIS Automatic Identification System payload for Comdev of Canada for tracking ships at sea.
  • Youthsat - . Nation: India. Class: Science. Type: Science satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 37388 . COSPAR: 2011-015B. Apogee: 823 km (511 mi). Perigee: 803 km (498 mi). Inclination: 98.8000 deg. Period: 101.20 min. Summary: Carried experiments to study solar-terrestrial relationships..

Home - Browse - Contact
© / Conditions for Use