Encyclopedia Astronautica
April 23


April 23 Chronology


1910 April 23 - .
  • Birth of Ivan Ivanovich Utkin - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer. Chief Designer 1960-1970 of NII IT. Specialised in spacecraft memory data recorders..

1944 April 23 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17344. FAILURE: Failed at launch.
1952 April 23 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Deacon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon. FAILURE: Failure.
  • D109/FFAR seeker test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1953 April 23 - . 19:33 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee XASR-SC-2. LV Configuration: Aerobee XASR-SC-2 SC 30.
  • Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1954 April 23 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 1720.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 April 23 - . LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone.
  • Army proposes Redstone satellite launch. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Summary: Army informed the OSD that a Jupiter missile could be fired in an effort to orbit a small satellite in January 1957..

1957 April 23 - . LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15A.
  • X-15 first public details announced. - . Nation: USA. Program: X-15. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-15A. Summary: Details of X-15 rocket research airplane were publicly revealed for the first time..

1957 April 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg.
  • Vandenberg AFB established by ARDC - . Nation: USA. Summary: Vandenberg AFB established by Air Research and Development Command (ARDC) on the north 64,047 acres (approximately 100 square miles) of what was then Camp Cooke..

1959 April 23 - . Launch Site: Grand Turk Island DZ. LV Family: Hound Dog. Launch Vehicle: Hound Dog. LV Configuration: Hound Dog 001.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Program: Navaho. Apogee: 20 km (12 mi). Summary: First Hound Dog test launch..

1959 April 23 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 176.
  • Series IV research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi). Summary: Fourth recovery of a data capsule at AMR, USAF Thor 1,500-mile accuracy test flight..

1960 April 23 - . 21:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150A NASA 04.10GT.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 246 km (152 mi). Summary: NASA fired first of five Aerobee-Hi sounding rockets from Wallops Station in program to measure ultraviolet radiation..

1962 April 23 - . 20:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena B 133D (AA4) / Agena B 6004 (AA4).
  • Ranger 4 - . Mass: 328 kg (723 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Ranger. Class: Moon. Type: Lunar probe. Spacecraft: Ranger 3-4-5. Decay Date: 1962-04-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 280 . COSPAR: 1962-Mu-1. Ranger IV was launched by an Atlas-Agena B booster from the Atlantic Missile Range, attained a parking orbit, and was fired into the proper lunar trajectory by the restart of the Agena B engine. Failure of a timer in the spacecraft payload caused loss of both internal and ground control over the vehicle. The Goldstone Tracking Station maintained contact with the spacecraft until it passed behind the left edge of the moon on April 26. It impacted at a speed of 9,617 km per hour, the first American spacecraft to land on the lunar surface. The Agena B second stage passed to the right of the moon and later went into orbit around the sun. Lunar photography objectives were not achieved.

1963 April 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF05. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1A. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1A 585.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1963 April 23 - . 20:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150A. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150A NASA 04.44GI.
  • Electron density Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 199 km (123 mi).

1963 April 23 - . 22:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Hammaguira. Launch Complex: Hammaguira Blandine. LV Family: Veronique. Launch Vehicle: Veronique. LV Configuration: Veronique AGI49.
  • Aeronomy /ionosphere mission - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 140 km (80 mi).

1964 April 23 - .
1964 April 23 - . 11:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF03. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 917.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 April 23 - . 16:19 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4W. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena D 351D / Agena D S01A 4805.
  • KH 7-07 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 7 / OPS 3743. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1964-04-29 . USAF Sat Cat: 786 . COSPAR: 1964-020A. Apogee: 336 km (208 mi). Perigee: 150 km (90 mi). Inclination: 103.6000 deg. Period: 89.40 min. Summary: KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1965 April 23 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 4 and spacecraft No. 4 were mechanically mated at complex 19. - . Nation: USA. Flight: Gemini 4. The Electrical Interface Integrated Validation and Joint Guidance and Control Test were completed April 26-29. These had been separate tests for earlier vehicles, but from Gemini-Titan 4 on, the tests were combined and performed as one. The spacecraft/GLV Joint Combined Systems Test followed on April 30. The Flight Configuration Mode Test finished systems testing May 7.

1965 April 23 - . 01:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78 U103-35.
  • Molniya 1-01 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1979-08-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 1324 . COSPAR: 1965-030A. Apogee: 39,300 km (24,400 mi). Perigee: 538 km (334 mi). Inclination: 65.5000 deg. Period: 707.30 min. Summary: First announced launch of Soviet communications satellite. Television programme transmission and long range two way multi channel telephone and telegraph communications. Orbital characteristics after correction of 2 May 1965..

1965 April 23 - . 03:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun NASA 10.171NA.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1965 April 23 - . 04:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.255NA.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 145 km (90 mi).

1965 April 23 - . 17:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Hidden Hills DZ. Launch Pad: 36.1 N x 116.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 3-41-64.
  • X-15A HT/Abl TPS/BLN Test/Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 24 km (14 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5760 kph. Maximum Altitude - 24293 m..

1966 April 23 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1967 April 23 - . 00:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511 U15000-04.
  • Soyuz 1 - . Call Sign: Rubin (Ruby ). Crew: Komarov. Backup Crew: Gagarin. Payload: Soyuz 7K-OK s/n 4. Mass: 6,450 kg (14,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Komarov; Gagarin. Agency: MOM. Program: Soyuz. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: Soyuz 1; Soyuz 2A. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-OK. Duration: 1.12 days. Decay Date: 1967-04-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 2759 . COSPAR: 1967-037A. Apogee: 223 km (138 mi). Perigee: 197 km (122 mi). Inclination: 50.8000 deg. Period: 88.70 min. Space disaster that put back Soviet lunar program 18 months. Soyuz 1 as active spacecraft was launched first. Soyuz 2, with a 3 man crew would launch the following day, with 2 cosmonauts spacewalking to Soyuz 1. However immediately after orbital insertion Komarov's problems started. One of the solar panels failed to deploy, staying wrapped around the service module. Although only receiving half of the planned solar power, an attempt was made to manoeuvre the spacecraft. This failed because of interference of the reaction control system exhaust with the ion flow sensors that were one of the Soyuz' main methods of orientation. Additional Details: Soyuz 1.

1968 April 23 - .
  • L1 launch failure - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin. Program: Lunar L1. Spacecraft: Soyuz 7K-L1. The cosmonauts and VVS staff will watch the Proton launch from Area 130. Kamanin observes from Area 81, near the pads. It is a warm, starry night and the booster heads toward space on pillars of fire. Up until T+260 seconds all proceeds normally, then the stage 2 shuts down 79 seconds into its burn. At 02:50 it is reported that the capsule separated successfully from the inert booster and has landed 520 km from the launch pad, 110 km east of Dzhezkazgan. Two Il-14 search aircraft and one Mi-4 helicopter fly over the recovery zone, but no signal is received from the capsule. Mishin immediately blames Chelomei's TsKBEM for the booster failure -- later it is shown that Mishin's L1 spacecraft sent an erroneous abort command to the rocket, which then shut down it engines! The capsule is sighted after dawn and picked up by a Mi-6 helicopter and delivered to Dzhezkazgan airfield at 15:00. It is then taken to Moscow for examination. The SAS abort and capsule landing systems have certainly been proven reliable! They have worked perfectly on the last three launches!

1968 April 23 - . 04:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 2. LV Configuration: Black Brant II AMF-2A-115.
  • dup for 116? Aurora / aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: NRCC. Apogee: 337 km (209 mi).

1968 April 23 - . 04:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.41UE.
  • Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 268 km (166 mi).

1968 April 23 - . 23:06 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.238UA.
  • Airglow Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1969 April 23 - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ALFS. LV Family: Stromboli. Launch Vehicle: Eridan. LV Configuration: Eridan E003.
  • FU-187 test, A cone test - . Nation: France. Agency: CNES. Apogee: 420 km (260 mi).

1969 April 23 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF07. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1090.
  • FOT GT35B Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1969 April 23 - . Launch Site: Biscarosse. Launch Complex: Biscarosse BLB. LV Family: SSBS. Launch Vehicle: SSBS S02. LV Configuration: SSBS S02 V2.
  • S02V-2 test - . Nation: France. Agency: DMA. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 April 23 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 280 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1969-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 3906 . COSPAR: 1969-040A. Apogee: 250 km (150 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; carried weather experiments; maneuverable..

1969 April 23 - . 13:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 169 km (105 mi).

1969 April 23 - . 15:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Solar Extreme ultraviolet mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 176 km (109 mi).

1970 April 23 - .
  • Mishin proposes crews for Soyuz 10 and 11. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Mishin; Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Shonin; Kubasov; Kolodin; Volynov; Feoktistov; Patsayev; Khrunov; Volkov; Sevastyanov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10; Soyuz 11. Two months after first raising the issue, Mishin has proposed crews for the flights to the DOS station, still planned to occur before the end of the year. Mishin is still pushing Feoktistov, who Kamanin believes is not only seriously ill, but immoral, being on his second wife. Kamanin now has 20 spacecraft crews, but they will have to wait six years or more for a trip to space at the current mission rate. Mishin's proposed DOS crews are as follows: 1 - Shatalov, Yeliseyev, Rukavishnikov; 2 - Shonin, Kubasov, Kolodin; 3 - Volynov, Feoktistov, Patsayev; 4 - Khrunov, Volkov, Sevastyanov.

1970 April 23 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 1. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena V141D.
  • USAF V141D re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 00:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta M. LV Configuration: Thor Delta M 559/D78.
  • Intelsat 3 F-7 - . Mass: 293 kg (645 lb). Nation: International. Agency: INTELSAT. Program: Intelsat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Intelsat 3. Completed Operations Date: 1972-05-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 4376 . COSPAR: 1970-032A. Apogee: 35,791 km (22,239 mi). Perigee: 35,775 km (22,229 mi). Inclination: 0.9000 deg. Period: 1,435.90 min. Stationed at 341 deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 19 deg W in 1970-1971 Last known longitude (1 January 1972) L 139.45 deg E drifting at 0.022 deg E per day. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C).

1970 April 23 - . 07:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 07:32 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 11:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 170 km (100 mi).

1970 April 23 - . 13:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 334 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 31. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1970-08-10 . Decay Date: 1970-08-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 4378 . COSPAR: 1970-033A. Apogee: 458 km (284 mi). Perigee: 287 km (178 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1971 April 23 - .
  • Soyuz 10 docking failure. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Shatalov; Yeliseyev; Rukavishnikov; Mishin. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 10. Spacecraft: Salyut 1. Soyuz 10 approached to 180 m from Salyut 1 automatically. It was hand docked after faillure of the automatic system, but hard docking could not be achieved because of the angle of approach. Post-flight analysis indicated that the cosmonauts had no instrument to proivde the angle and range rate data necessary for a successful manual docking. Soyuz 10 was connected to the station for 5 hours and 30 minutes. Despite the lack of hard dock, it was said that the crew were unable to enter the station due to a faulty hatch on their own spacecraft. When Shatalov tried to undock from the Salyut, the jammed hatch impeded the docking mechanism, preventing undocking. After several attempts he was unable to undock and land. Additional Details: Soyuz 10 docking failure..

1971 April 23 - . 01:18 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.465UA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1971 April 23 - . 01:48 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.467UA.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 124 km (77 mi).

1971 April 23 - . 09:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 06F demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1971 April 23 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53727-116.
  • Cosmos 407 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 5174 . COSPAR: 1971-035A. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi). Perigee: 773 km (480 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.60 min.

1972 April 23 - .
  • EVA Apollo 16-4 - . Crew: Young; Duke. EVA Type: Internal Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.0014 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Young; Duke. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo LM. Summary: Threw excess equipment out of LM before lift-off..

1972 April 23 - . 02:23 GMT - .
  • Apollo 16 LM touches down on the moon - . Nation: USA. Flight: Apollo 16. After separation of LM-11 Orion from CSM 112 Casper, a CSM active rendezvous kept the two vehicles close together while an anomaly discovered on the service propulsion system was evaluated. Tests and analyses showed the redundant system to be still safe and usable if required. The vehicles were again separated and the mission continued on a revised timeline because of the 5 3/4-hour delay. The lunar module landed with Duke and Young in the moon's Descartes region, about 230 meters northwest of the planned target area. A sleep period was scheduled before EVA.

1972 April 23 - . 15:25 GMT - .
  • EVA Apollo 16-3 - . Crew: Young; Duke. EVA Type: Extra-Vehicular Activity. EVA Duration: 0.24 days. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Young; Duke. Program: Apollo. Class: Moon. Type: Manned lunar lander. Flight: Apollo 16. Spacecraft: Apollo LRV. Summary: Drove in lunar rover to North Ray crater..

1973 April 23 - . 21:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Starute, Datasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 61 km (37 mi).

1974 April 23 - . 00:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 6 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 6 AC SL1207.
  • Ions / Ba / Li / Te Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 177 km (109 mi).

1974 April 23 - . 14:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/2. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65033-202.
  • Cosmos 641 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 65. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7265 . COSPAR: 1974-024A. Apogee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,387 km (861 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.50 min. Summary: Eight satellites launched by a single carrier rocket..
  • Cosmos 642 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 66. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7266 . COSPAR: 1974-024B. Apogee: 1,480 km (910 mi). Perigee: 1,319 km (819 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 113.80 min.
  • Cosmos 647 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 71. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7271 . COSPAR: 1974-024G. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,422 km (883 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.00 min.
  • Cosmos 643 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 67. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7267 . COSPAR: 1974-024C. Apogee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,352 km (840 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.20 min.
  • Cosmos 645 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 69. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7269 . COSPAR: 1974-024E. Apogee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,369 km (850 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.30 min.
  • Cosmos 648 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 72. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7272 . COSPAR: 1974-024H. Apogee: 1,489 km (925 mi). Perigee: 1,438 km (893 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 115.20 min.
  • Cosmos 646 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 70. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7270 . COSPAR: 1974-024F. Apogee: 1,484 km (922 mi). Perigee: 1,404 km (872 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.80 min.
  • Cosmos 644 - . Payload: Strela-1M no. 68. Mass: 40 kg (88 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-1M. USAF Sat Cat: 7268 . COSPAR: 1974-024D. Apogee: 1,482 km (920 mi). Perigee: 1,335 km (829 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 114.00 min.

1975 April 23 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1976 April 23 - . 09:46 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 644. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • FOT-19? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1976 April 23 - . 09:53 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 644. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • FOT-19? Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1977 April 23 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: VOLNA. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 62 km (38 mi).

1978 April 23 - .
  • Columbia ready for power-on. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Complete final assembly and closeout system installation, ready for power-on, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 April 23 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: PRILIV. Launch Vehicle: MMR-06.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: GMS. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1980 April 23 - . 00:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 73 km (45 mi).

1981 April 23 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Antigua. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 71 km (44 mi).

1982 April 23 - . 09:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1353 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 20. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1982-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 13146 . COSPAR: 1982-036A. Apogee: 238 km (147 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 82.4000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1983 April 23 - . 14:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC32. Launch Pad: LC32/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Cosmos 1455 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 41. Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. USAF Sat Cat: 14032 . COSPAR: 1983-037A. Apogee: 617 km (383 mi). Perigee: 592 km (367 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 96.80 min.

1984 April 23 - . 04:31 GMT - .
1986 April 23 - . 19:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Progress 26 - . Payload: Progress s/n 136. Mass: 7,250 kg (15,980 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: Mir EO-1. Spacecraft: Progress. Duration: 60.83 days. Completed Operations Date: 1986-06-23 15:40:56 . Decay Date: 1986-06-23 15:40:56 . USAF Sat Cat: 16687 . COSPAR: 1986-032A. Apogee: 257 km (159 mi). Perigee: 184 km (114 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 88.90 min. Unmanned supply vessel to Mir. Rendezvoused with Mir on 25 April, but problem with Mir's radio communication system delays docking until the next day. Docked with Mir on 26 Apr 1986 21:26:06 GMT. Undocked on 22 Jun 1986 18:25:00 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Jun 1986 15:41:01 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.96 days. Total docked time 56.87 days.

1987 April 23 - . 11:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1992 April 23 - .
  • Spacewedge 1 first flight - . Nation: USA. Spacecraft: X-38. NASA researchers conducted a flight test program to develop the Spacewedge vehicle design. The first test vehicle (Wedge 1) was just four ft long, and weighed 120 lb. It was initially launched from a hillside near Tehachapi; the test program then moved to Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards AFB, and to a sport parachute (Skydive) drop zone at California City, CA.

1993 April 23 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1994 April 23 - . 08:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC45/1. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-2.
  • Cosmos 2278 - . Payload: Tselina-2 no. 17. Mass: 6,000 kg (13,200 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-2. USAF Sat Cat: 23087 . COSPAR: 1994-023A. Apogee: 857 km (532 mi). Perigee: 846 km (525 mi). Inclination: 71.0000 deg. Period: 102.00 min.

1996 April 23 - . 11:48 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC81/23. LV Family: Proton. Launch Vehicle: Proton-K. LV Configuration: Proton-K 385-01.
  • Priroda - . Payload: 77KSI s/n 17401. Mass: 19,000 kg (41,000 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Program: Mir. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Flight: Mir NASA-1; Mir EO-21. Spacecraft: Priroda. Decay Date: 2001-03-23 . USAF Sat Cat: 23848 . COSPAR: 1996-023A. Apogee: 347 km (215 mi). Perigee: 220 km (130 mi). Inclination: 51.6700 deg. Period: 89.89 min. Summary: LEO. Remote sensing module for Mir space station Docked with Mir Apr 26. .

2001 April 23 - . LV Family: KT. Launch Vehicle: KT-1.
  • Kaitozhe 1 First Commercial Launch in 2002 - . Nation: China. Summary: Kaituozhe 1's first commercial launch was scheduled for 2002..

2001 April 23 - .
  • Death of David Mathieson 'Dave' Walker at Houston, Texas - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Dave. Summary: American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-A, STS-30, STS-53, STS-69. Navy nickname Red Flash, a cocky pilot, over-confident in some astronaut's eyes..

2003 April 23 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 741. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

2004 April 23 - .
2007 April 23 - .
  • Death of Boris N Yeltsin - . Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Yeltsin. Summary: Russian politician, headed Russia 1991-1999. Under his tenure the Soviet programs collapsed, but Russian manned space technology base was kept alive through American funding of the International Space Station..

2007 April 23 - . 10:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. Launch Complex: Sriharikota SLP. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV-CA PSLV-C8.
  • AGILE - . Mass: 352 kg (776 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: ASI. Manufacturer: Carlo Gavazzi. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: AGILE. USAF Sat Cat: 31135 . COSPAR: 2007-013A. Apogee: 553 km (343 mi). Perigee: 523 km (324 mi). Inclination: 2.5000 deg. Period: 95.40 min. The PSLV-C8 launch vehicle flew for the first time in a light configuration with no strap-on motors and a Dual Launch Adapter. The Italian gamma-ray observatory satellite (Astrorivelatore Gamma ad Imagini Leggero) carried the GRID 0.3-200 MeV wide-field gamma ray camera and the Super-AGILE 15-45 keV detector hard X-ray detector.
  • AAM - . Mass: 185 kg (407 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. USAF Sat Cat: 31136 . COSPAR: 2007-013B. Apogee: 549 km (341 mi). Perigee: 531 km (329 mi). Inclination: 2.5000 deg. Period: 95.50 min. Summary: The Dual Launch Adapter housed the secondary payload, an Advanced Avionics Module for future use on Indian launch vehicles. The AAM remained attached to the PSLV fourth stage..

2008 April 23 - .
  • ISS On-Orbit Status 04/23/08 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Kononenko, O D; Love; Reisman; Volkov, Sergey; Yurchikhin. Program: ISS. Flight: ISS EO-15. Before breakfast, CDR Volkov, FE-1 Kononenko and FE-2 Reisman began their workday with the periodic session of the Russian biomedical routine assessments PZEh-MO-7/Calf Volume Measurement and PZEh-MO-8/Body Mass Measurement (first for CDR and FE-1, second for FE-2), using the IM mass measurement device which Oleg Kononenko afterwards broke down for stowage.

    (Calf measurements (left leg only) are taken with the IZOG device, a custom-sewn fabric cuff that fits over the calf, using the knee and lower foot as fixed reference pints, to provide a rough index of deconditioning in zero-G and effectiveness of countermeasures. For determining body mass in zero-G, where things are weightless but not massless, the Russian IM "scales" measure the inertial forces that arise during the oscillatory motion of a mass driven by two helical metering springs with known spring constants. By measuring the time period of each oscillation of the unknown mass (the crewmember) and comparing it to the period of a known mass, the crewmember's mass is calculated by the computer and displayed.) Additional Details: ISS On-Orbit Status 04/23/08.


2010 April 23 - . 23:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC8. LV Family: Minotaur. Launch Vehicle: Minotaur 4. LV Configuration: Minotaur 4L.
  • HTV-2a - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi). Summary: Hypersonic test.

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