Encyclopedia Astronautica
April 28


April 28 Chronology


1908 April 28 - .
  • Birth of Eberhard Friedrich Michael Rees - . Nation: Germany; USA. Summary: German-American engineer, von Braun's right hand man, in charge of manufacturing 1940-1969 for V-2, Redstone, Jupiter, and rockets stages for Saturn LVs that took America to the moon. Succeeded von Braun as Director at Huntsville 1970-1973..

1943 April 28 - .
  • Birth of John Oliver Creighton - . Nation: USA. Summary: American test pilot astronaut. Flew on STS-51-G, STS-36, STS-48. Bachelor navy fighter pilot with a midnight blue corvette and a ski boat dubbed Sin Ship..

1944 April 28 - . Launch Site: Heidelager. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 17341. FAILURE: Airburst.
  • V-2 A09 G1 - . Nation: Germany. Summary: Airburst 6.5 km to the right of the planned trajectory..

1945 April 28 - .
  • Yalta Conference (Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin) - . Nation: International.

1947 April 28 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: FFAR. Launch Vehicle: FFAR.
  • XF-91 model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1947 April 28 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: FFAR. Launch Vehicle: Double FFAR.
  • RM-5 Model test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 5.00 km (3.10 mi).

1949 April 28 - .
  • Birth of Dr Jerome J III 'Jay' Apt - . Nation: USA. Summary: American physicist mission specialist astronaut. Flew on STS-37, STS-47, STS-59, STS-79..

1953 April 28 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Vehicle: Lark. LV Configuration: Lark 623.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 8.00 km (4.90 mi).

1954 April 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1676E.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 April 28 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 1664T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1956 April 28 - .
1957 April 28 - .
  • Birth of Leopold Eyharts - . Nation: France. Summary: French test pilot cosmonaut, mission specialist astronaut. Flew on Mir Pegase, ISS EO-16-2..

1958 April 28 - .
  • Tsien self-criticism - . Nation: China. Related Persons: Tsien. Summary: An article by Tsien confessing to his mistakes was published in the People's Daily..

1958 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar VLAD. Launch Vehicle: Burya. LV Configuration: Burya 1-03. FAILURE: Failure of an electric circuit led to premature cutoff of the boosters.
  • Burya flight 4 - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 15 km (9 mi). Cruise stage tanks 2 and 3 were filled with water, the engine feed tank was filled with propellant, and tanks 1 and 4 were empty. Mass was reduced by 30% from that of a fully fueled stage. The boosters were fully fueled. A slightly different turbopump was installed on the engines in comparison to earlier flights. The flight was to demonstrate simultaneous control of the missile using both aerodynamic surfaces and exhaust vanes after T+50 seconds. The flight continued to T+81 seconds, when failure of an electric circuit led to premature cutoff of the boosters.

1959 April 28 - . LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta A.
  • Delta launch vehicle contract. - . Nation: USA. Summary: NASA announced the signing of a $24 million contract with Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc., for a three-stage Thor-Vanguard launching rocket called Delta..

1960 April 28 - . 14:50 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC38. LV Family: Nike Zeus. Launch Vehicle: Nike Zeus. LV Configuration: Nike Zeus 6.
  • First Silo launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1960 April 28 - . 20:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC16. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 1. LV Configuration: Titan I C-6.
  • RVX-3 Re-entry Vehicle test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1961 April 28 - . LV Family: Saturn I. Launch Vehicle: Saturn I.
  • Dynasoar launch by Saturn I studied. - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: von Braun. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Dynasoar. Summary: Final NASA report on the study proposed for Saturn for use as Dyna-Soar booster was presented to the Air Force..

1961 April 28 - . 14:03 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA4. LV Family: Little Joe. Launch Vehicle: Little Joe 1 4C. LV Configuration: Little Joe 1-4C LJ-5B.
  • Mercury LJ-5B - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mercury. Spacecraft: Mercury. Apogee: 4.00 km (2.40 mi). Little Joe 5B (LJ-5B) was launched from Wallops Island to test the Mercury escape system under maximum dynamic pressure conditions. At the time of lift-off, one of the launch vehicle rocket motors did not ignite until after 4 seconds had elapsed. This delay caused the launch vehicle to pitch into a lower trajectory than had been planned, with a result that the abort maneuver experienced greater dynamic pressures than had been specified in the flight test plan. Other than this, all other sequential systems operated according to plan, and after landing, a normal helicopter recovery was accomplished. Thus, all test objectives were met and were actually exceeded because the spacecraft withstood the higher dynamic pressures.

1962 April 28 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. Launch Vehicle: RT-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1963 April 28 - . LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1 1964.
  • N1 Plans - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: TMK-1; L3-1963; OS-1 (1965). An Inter-Institution Soviet considers Korolev's N1 plans. He believes the first booster will be launched in 1965. The N1 is to have a payload capability of 75 tonnes to a 250 km altitude orbit, 50 tonnes to a 3000 km altitude orbit, and 16 tonnes in geostationary orbit. It could launch spacecraft capable of landing men on the moon and returning them to earth, or manned flybys of Mars or Venus. Three to ten launches would be needed for such missions, with the components being docked together in low earth orbit. The N1 can also be used to launch a large space station for military research. After the N1 discussion a decision is made that cosmonauts will not have to spend more than three to four days in a spacecraft mock-up on the ground to prove their readiness for flight. A simulation of the entire flight duration is not necessary.

1963 April 28 - . 08:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92. LV Configuration: Vostok 8A92 E15000-02.
  • Cosmos 16 - . Payload: Zenit-2 11F61 s/n 10. Mass: 4,720 kg (10,400 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2. Duration: 10.00 days. Decay Date: 1963-05-08 . USAF Sat Cat: 571 . COSPAR: 1963-012A. Apogee: 379 km (235 mi). Perigee: 201 km (124 mi). Inclination: 64.7000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Program partially completed. Part of the information lost due to failure of engine block stabilization system. Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite. Also performed radiation measurements..

1964 April 28 - . 17:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1965 April 28 - .
  • Shirtsleeve environment in the Apollo CM - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 204. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Block I. Joseph F. Shea, ASPO Manager, approved Crew Systems Division's recommendation to retain the "shirtsleeve" environment for the CM. The design was simpler and promised greater overall mission reliability; also, it would be more comfortable for the crewmen. Additional Details: Shirtsleeve environment in the Apollo CM.

1965 April 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/4. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 0 km ( mi).

1965 April 28 - . 20:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC4E. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena D SLV-3. LV Configuration: SLV-3 Agena D 7107 / Agena D 7107.
  • KH 7-17 - . Payload: KH-7 no. 17 / OPS 4983. Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: KH-7. Decay Date: 1965-05-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 1327 . COSPAR: 1965-031A. Apogee: 259 km (160 mi). Perigee: 180 km (110 mi). Inclination: 95.6000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: KH-7 type satellite. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • OPS 6717 - . Payload: EHH B1. Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: SSF. Decay Date: 1969-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 1329 . COSPAR: 1965-031B. Apogee: 547 km (339 mi). Perigee: 506 km (314 mi). Inclination: 95.2000 deg. Period: 95.10 min. Summary: Radar monitoring..

1965 April 28 - . 20:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Hidden Hills DZ. Launch Pad: 36.1 N x 116.0 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 008. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 2-37-64.
  • X-15A-2 Landing loads,Stab test - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 28 km (17 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5266 kph. Maximum Altitude - 28224 m. First star tracker checkout..

1965 April 28 - . 23:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Centaure. LV Configuration: Centaure C99 TERLS-22?.
  • ISRO 15.02 Aeronomy / ionosphere mission - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1966 April 28 - . 02:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: S. Launch Vehicle: BT-310. LV Configuration: BT-310 BT-310-1.
  • Test mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 1.00 km (0.60 mi).

1966 April 28 - . 12:35 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC35. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.189DS.
  • NRL ND3.172R Solar soft x-ray mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 175 km (108 mi).

1967 April 28 - .
  • The McDonnell Company and Douglas Aircraft Company merged to form McDonnell Douglas Corporation. - . Nation: USA.

1967 April 28 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF02. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 1019.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1967 April 28 - . 00:12 GMT - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk CRL AF08.651.
  • Ba Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: AFCRL. Apogee: 254 km (157 mi).

1967 April 28 - . 10:01 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 3C. LV Configuration: Titan IIIC 3C-10.
  • Vela 7 - . Payload: Vela 4A / OPS 6638. Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. USAF Sat Cat: 2765 . COSPAR: 1967-040A. Apogee: 112,627 km (69,983 mi). Perigee: 108,948 km (67,697 mi). Inclination: 32.1000 deg. Period: 6,652.10 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • Vela 8 - . Payload: Vela 4B / OPS 6679. Mass: 317 kg (698 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Surveillance. Type: Nuclear detection surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Advanced Vela. USAF Sat Cat: 2766 . COSPAR: 1967-040B. Apogee: 114,578 km (71,195 mi). Perigee: 107,372 km (66,717 mi). Inclination: 33.1000 deg. Period: 6,668.10 min. Summary: Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A)..
  • ERS 18 - . Mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: ERS. USAF Sat Cat: 2767 . COSPAR: 1967-040C. Apogee: 110,842 km (68,873 mi). Perigee: 8,991 km (5,586 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 2,831.30 min. Summary: Radiation research. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • OV5-03 - . Payload: ERS 20. Mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OV5. USAF Sat Cat: 2768 . COSPAR: 1967-040D. Apogee: 111,229 km (69,114 mi). Perigee: 8,604 km (5,346 mi). Inclination: 32.8000 deg. Period: 2,829.60 min. Summary: Radiation research; deployed ERS 20. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .
  • OV5-01 - . Payload: ERS 27. Mass: 9.00 kg (19.80 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Class: Earth. Type: Magnetosphere satellite. Spacecraft: OV5. USAF Sat Cat: 2769 . COSPAR: 1967-040E. Apogee: 110,746 km (68,814 mi). Perigee: 8,979 km (5,579 mi). Inclination: 32.8000 deg. Period: 2,827.80 min. Summary: Materials research; deployed ERS 27. Space craft engaged in investigation of spaceflight techniques and technology (US Cat A). .

1967 April 28 - . 17:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Delamar Dry Lake DZ. Launch Pad: 37.3 N x 114.9 W. Launch Platform: NB-52 003. LV Family: X-15. Launch Vehicle: X-15. LV Configuration: X-15 1-71-121.
  • X-15A WTR/HS/E loads Test/Technology mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF. Apogee: 50 km (31 mi). Summary: Maximum Speed - 5985 kph. Maximum Altitude - 50900 m..

1968 April 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur PU33. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: R-36 8K67.
  • Operational missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1969 April 28 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Apollo 10 launch vehicle damage - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 10. A power outage, required to permit maintenance work at the KSC Launch Control Center, was relayed to the pneumatic controls of the S-IC stage of the Apollo 10 launch vehicle, causing the prevalves to open and allowing 5,280 liters of RP-1 fuel to drain from the vehicle. Additional Details: Apollo 10 launch vehicle damage.

1969 April 28 - . 04:19 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Viper. Launch Vehicle: Viper-Dart.
  • Meteorological Sphere Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1969 April 28 - . 17:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: Apache. Launch Vehicle: Nike Apache. LV Configuration: Nike Apache NASA 14.404IG.
  • ISRO 40.05 X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 148 km (91 mi).

1970 April 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 150. LV Configuration: Aerobee 150 NASA 04.326NA.
  • Noctilucent sampler Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 127 km (78 mi).

1970 April 28 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Meteor 1-04 - . Payload: Meteor M no. 4. Mass: 3,800 kg (8,300 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor M 11F614. Decay Date: 2004-03-16 . USAF Sat Cat: 4393 . COSPAR: 1970-037A. Apogee: 578 km (359 mi). Perigee: 534 km (331 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 95.80 min. Summary: Acquisition of meteorological information needed for use by the weather service. .

1971 April 28 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53727-115.
  • Cosmos 409 - . Mass: 600 kg (1,320 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Spacecraft: Sfera. USAF Sat Cat: 5180 . COSPAR: 1971-038A. Apogee: 1,211 km (752 mi). Perigee: 1,176 km (730 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 109.30 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. .

1972 April 28 - . 00:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonmiani. LV Family: Belier. Launch Vehicle: Dragon 2B. LV Configuration: Dragon 2B SUP.
  • Shahpar-3 Test / ionosphere mission - . Nation: Pakistan. Agency: SUPARCO. Apogee: 400 km (240 mi).

1973 April 28 - . 22:48 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 654. Launch Vehicle: Poseidon.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1974 April 28 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC173. LV Family: MR-UR-100. Launch Vehicle: MR-UR-100.
  • State trials missile test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 April 28 - . 01:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi).

1976 April 28 - . 09:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 815 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1976-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 8811 . COSPAR: 1976-036A. Apogee: 231 km (143 mi). Perigee: 218 km (135 mi). Inclination: 81.3000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 April 28 - . 13:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 53746-301.
  • Cosmos 816 - . Mass: 950 kg (2,090 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1979-11-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 8812 . COSPAR: 1976-037A. Apogee: 566 km (351 mi). Perigee: 453 km (281 mi). Inclination: 65.9000 deg. Period: 94.80 min. Summary: Released 24 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1977 April 28 - . 09:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/4. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-07 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 19. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. USAF Sat Cat: 9941 . COSPAR: 1977-032A. Apogee: 38,201 km (23,736 mi). Perigee: 2,169 km (1,347 mi). Inclination: 63.5000 deg. Period: 718.10 min. Continued operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio-communication system within the Soviet Union and transmission of USSR central television programmes to stations in the Orbita and participating international networks (international cooperation scheme).

1977 April 28 - . 12:25 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Pad: LA2 SL. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7 AC. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 AC SL1115A.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: BAC. Apogee: 244 km (151 mi).

1978 April 28 - .
  • Forward payload bay doors on dock, Columbia. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Columbia. Summary: Forward payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102).

1979 April 28 - . 01:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 75 km (46 mi).

1980 April 28 - . 02:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12. LV Configuration: MR-12 MMR-12.
  • Ariel-4 Aeronomy/Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1980 April 28 - . 07:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kiruna. Launch Complex: Kiruna S. LV Family: Skylark. Launch Vehicle: Skylark 7. LV Configuration: Skylark 7 DLR K-GR-100.
  • TEXUS 3A Microgravity mission - . Nation: Germany. Agency: DFVLR. Apogee: 253 km (157 mi).

1980 April 28 - . 15:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: MR-12. Launch Vehicle: MR-12.
  • Aelita-2 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 155 km (96 mi).

1981 April 28 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1268 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 12423 . COSPAR: 1981-040A. Apogee: 366 km (227 mi). Perigee: 206 km (128 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 90.30 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1982 April 28 - . 02:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC132/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47175-125.
  • Cosmos 1354 - . Mass: 750 kg (1,650 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2M. USAF Sat Cat: 13148 . COSPAR: 1982-037A. Apogee: 798 km (495 mi). Perigee: 783 km (486 mi). Inclination: 74.0000 deg. Period: 100.70 min. Summary: Replaced Cosmos 1190..

1983 April 28 - . 08:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC43/3. Launch Pad: LC43/pad?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1458 - . Payload: Zenit-4MKT no. 23. Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MKT. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1983-05-11 . USAF Sat Cat: 14044 . COSPAR: 1983-040A. Apogee: 243 km (150 mi). Perigee: 208 km (129 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation..

1983 April 28 - . 22:26 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3914. LV Configuration: Delta 3914 D168.
  • GOES 6 - . Payload: GOES F. Mass: 836 kg (1,843 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NOAA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: GOES. Completed Operations Date: 1992-05-19 . USAF Sat Cat: 14050 . COSPAR: 1983-041A. Apogee: 35,820 km (22,250 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 10.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.70 min. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 135 deg W in 1983-1984; 97 deg W in-108 deg W in 1984-1987; 135 deg W in 1987-1992 As of 5 September 2001 located at 75.78 deg W drifting at 0.054 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 83.60W drifting at 0.139W degrees per day.

1986 April 28 - . 01:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Taurus Tomahawk Nike. LV Configuration: Taurus Nike Tomahawk NASA 38.05UE.
  • SPINEX 2 Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 420 km (260 mi).

1987 April 28 - . 20:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 86 km (53 mi).

1988 April 28 - . 04:52 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 D5X-12.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 April 28 - . 15:18 GMT - . Launch Site: Point Mugu. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1990 April 28 - . 09:45 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC36. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9. LV Configuration: Black Brant IX NASA 36.74UG.
  • Astronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 300 km (180 mi).

1990 April 28 - . 11:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC16/2. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M. LV Configuration: Molniya 8K78M-2BL.
  • Cosmos 2076 - . Payload: Oko #63. Mass: 1,900 kg (4,100 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Military. Type: Early warning satellite. Spacecraft: Oko. USAF Sat Cat: 20596 . COSPAR: 1990-040A. Apogee: 34,572 km (21,482 mi). Perigee: 5,748 km (3,571 mi). Inclination: 68.0000 deg. Period: 717.10 min. Summary: Covered Oko constellation plane 1 - 277 degree longitude of ascending node..

1991 April 28 - . 11:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-39.
  • STS-39 - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Bluford; Coats; Hammond; Harbaugh; Hieb; McMonagle; Veach. Payload: Discovery F12. Mass: 9,712 kg (21,411 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Bluford; Coats; Hammond; Harbaugh; Hieb; McMonagle; Veach. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-39. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 8.31 days. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031A. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Manned seven crew. Deployed USA 70, CRO A, CRO B, CRO C; deployed and retrieved IBSS. Payloads: Infrared Background Signature Survey (lBSS), Air Force Program (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-I, Multi-Purpose Experiment Canister (MPEC), Cloud Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems (CLOUDS)-1A, Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME)-lll.
  • AFP-675 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Spacecraft: AFP-675. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • SPAS-II - . Payload: SPAS. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: SPAS. COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 263 km (163 mi). Perigee: 248 km (154 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: Shuttle Pallet Satellite-II (SPAS-II) experiments were carried out on this classified mission. No details on whether SPAS was released or nature of experiments..
  • STP-1 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: STS. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21242 . COSPAR: 1991-031xx. Apogee: 265 km (164 mi). Perigee: 250 km (150 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.70 min.
  • USA 70 - . Payload: MPEC. Nation: USA. Agency: DARPA. Program: STS. Class: Technology. Type: Military technology satellite. Spacecraft: MPEC. USAF Sat Cat: 21262 . COSPAR: 1991-031C. Summary: Classified subsatellite released from shuttle..
  • IBSS - . Payload: SPAS-2. Mass: 1,901 kg (4,190 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: IBSS. Decay Date: 1991-05-06 . USAF Sat Cat: 21244 . COSPAR: 1991-031B. Apogee: 255 km (158 mi). Perigee: 245 km (152 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: Infrared Background Signature Survey; sensor technology test; retrieved 2 May 1991..
  • CRO-A - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 21247 . COSPAR: 1991-031F. Apogee: 236 km (146 mi). Perigee: 215 km (133 mi). Inclination: 57.0000 deg. Period: 89.00 min. Summary: Chemical Release Observation; deployed 3 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..
  • CRO-C - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 21245 . COSPAR: 1991-031D. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi). Perigee: 67 km (41 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 85.70 min. Summary: Chemical Release Observation; deployed 2 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..
  • CRO-B - . Payload: Discovery F12 / IBSS-SPAS 02 / CRO A / CRO B / CRO. Mass: 197 kg (434 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: SDIO. Class: Military. Type: Strategic defense satellite. Spacecraft: CRO. Decay Date: 1991-05-12 . USAF Sat Cat: 21246 . COSPAR: 1991-031E. Apogee: 88 km (54 mi). Perigee: 68 km (42 mi). Inclination: 56.9000 deg. Period: 85.80 min. Summary: Chemical Release Observation; deployed 2 May 1991; released gases for observation by IBSS..

1992 April 28 - . 14:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 85 km (52 mi).

1993 April 28 - . 03:39 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC90/19. Launch Pad: LC90/pad?. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-2.
  • Cosmos 2244 - . Payload: US-PU s/n 2. Mass: 3,150 kg (6,940 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MO. Program: EORSAT. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: US-PU. Duration: 657.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-18 . USAF Sat Cat: 22643 . COSPAR: 1993-029A. Apogee: 416 km (258 mi). Perigee: 402 km (249 mi). Inclination: 65.0000 deg. Period: 92.80 min. Summary: Second launch of new EORSAT, second of three stationed at 120 degree intervals on the same orbit with a 0 degree ascending node..

1994 April 28 - . 17:14 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U2.
  • Cosmos 2280 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4KS1. Duration: 316.00 days. Decay Date: 1995-03-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 23095 . COSPAR: 1994-025A. Apogee: 283 km (175 mi). Perigee: 233 km (144 mi). Inclination: 70.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: Photo/digital surveillance..

1997 April 28 - . 16:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Alcantara. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: VS-30. LV Configuration: VS-30 XV-01.
  • DLR AL-VS30-223 test - . Nation: Germany. Agency: INPE; DLR. Apogee: 128 km (79 mi).

1998 April 28 - . 12:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 9B.
  • ACTIVE Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Canada. Agency: CSA. Apogee: 315 km (195 mi).

1998 April 28 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Kourou. Launch Complex: Kourou ELA2. LV Family: Ariane. Launch Vehicle: Ariane 44P. LV Configuration: Ariane 44P-3 V108.
  • Nilesat 1 - . Payload: Nilesat 101. Nation: Egypt. Agency: Nilesat. Manufacturer: Toulouse. Program: Nilesat. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Eurostar 2000. USAF Sat Cat: 25311 . COSPAR: 1998-024A. Apogee: 35,800 km (22,200 mi). Perigee: 35,773 km (22,228 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Egypt's first satellite. Geostationary at 7.0 degrees W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 7 deg W in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 6.95 deg W drifting at 0.003 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 7.00W drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.
  • BSAT 1B - . Nation: Japan. Agency: BSAT. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: BSAT. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 25312 . COSPAR: 1998-024B. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,787 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Geostationary at 109.9 degrees E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 110 deg E in 1998-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 109.63 deg E drifting at 0.019 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 109.75E drifting at 0.009W degrees per day..

1999 April 28 - . 20:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 65036-413.
  • ABRIXAS - . Mass: 470 kg (1,030 lb). Nation: Germany. Agency: DLR. Manufacturer: Bremen. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: ABRIXAS. USAF Sat Cat: 25721 . COSPAR: 1999-022A. Apogee: 599 km (372 mi). Perigee: 550 km (340 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Summary: X-ray astronomy satellite with the mission to carry out an all-sky survey in the 1-10 keV band. The satellite's battery failed and contact was lost on May 1..
  • Megsat-0 - . Mass: 35 kg (77 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: RVSN. Manufacturer: MegSat. Class: Technology. Type: Communications technology satellite. Spacecraft: Megsat. Decay Date: 2003-11-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 25722 . COSPAR: 1999-022B. Apogee: 597 km (370 mi). Perigee: 544 km (338 mi). Inclination: 48.5000 deg. Summary: A small technology satellite which carried an experimental high rate data transmission payload..

2000 April 28 - .
  • Mir News 478: Progress M1-2 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-28. This freighter with on board supplies of air, water and fuel for the Mir-station departed from Baykonur to Mir on 25.04.00 at 20.08.02 UTC. The freighter had to dock at Mir on 27.04.00 at about 2130 UTC , so 10 minutes after Mir and Progress M1-2 for us in Western Europe had disappeared behind the eastern horizon.

    Progress M1-1: This old freighter separated from Mir on 26.04.00 at 1633 UTC for decay over the Pacific east of New Zealand at 1927 UTC.

    Docking Progress M1-2: Approach and docking were executed with the help of the system Kurs. All went flawlessly and smoothly. The freighter docked at the aft docking port (Kvant-2 +X axis) on 27.04.00 at 21.28.48 UTC. During the pass for Western Europe just before the docking (orbit 81124, 2116-2121 UTC) radio traffic revealed that all was going well. Just before LOS for my position the distance to the docking part was 60 Meters and Progress M1-2 was proceeding exactly on course.

    During the next pass for my position in orb. 81125, 2252-2258 UTC, the crew reported that they just had opened the hatches to Progress M1-2. The equalisation of the pressures between the station and the freighter lasted long this time. Kaleri said that the cargo bay of the Progress M1-2 was only half full. The air-seal was in good order, but there had been some variations in the air pressure, which in his opinion were caused by the differences in temperature. In 30 minutes the pressure decreased by 4 MM mercury, and then the decrease stopped. At last the pressure inside the station was 687 MM. The crew still had to install the clamps between the Progress M1-2 and the Kvant-1 docking port. These clamps make it impossible for the freighter to wander away.

    Meanwhile the control computer Svet had been switched on and Kaleri loaded a number of commands into Svet for the automatic control of a number of systems.

    Then the cosmonauts crept into their sleeping-bags. (The bunks for eventual tourists did not yet arrive.). For your scribe a good reason to lay down in the arms of Morpheus.

    Orbit corrections: The strong solar maximum causes an increased decay of the orbit altitude of the Mir-space station. Some time ago this decay was about 100 or 150 Meters a day, now this is 4 or 5 times more. The only solution is to lift the orbit of the complex by the use of the engines of the PrM-1 (mostly this is the DPO, the engine for docking and orientation of the freighter is used for that purpose), but once the engines of the Soyuz-TM30 were used (on17.04). Later some more corrections had been given by the DPO of Progress M1-1. So it was difficult to calculate accurate orbit predictions.

    Just before the separation of the Progress M1-1 from the complex on 26.04 the DPO of that ship gave another impulse to lift the complex.

    More orbit corrections can be expected during the next days, now with the help of the DPO of Progress M1-2.

    The acceleration of the decay of the station causes anxiety at TsUP. More even than the possibly still existing small air leaks in the station. This also means that more money has to be reserved in the budget of the "users" for extra fuel.

    From the beginning of the 28th Main Expedition the crew has been very busy with air-seal checks in several compartments and modules. This search was intensified on 18 and 19.04.00. The crew worked with special equipment, which had been brought to the station together with the present crew. They spoke about an instrument called Bar and a thermo-hygrometer. The cosmonauts had to disconnect cables in the PKhO (the transition section) to make it possible to close the hatches through which these cables are deployed. The co-ordination with TsUP during these activities was very good and all went well during this risky work.

    On 18.04 the crew almost knew where the small leak was and when they were sure about the location they closed or plugged the leak with a cap of stopper. During traffic in the pass on 19.04 in orbit 80988, 0701-0721 UTC TsUP and the crew discussed what kind of plug they should use. In the next pass (orb. 80989, 0834-0841 UTC) Kaleri reported that the "hissing sound ceased".

    Thus far it is not fully clear whether this leakage was the only one. Some of the experts at TsUP were not sure for 100%. The air-pressure checks are still going on, but less intensive than before the detection of the leak. The leak was in a valve in the hatch between the PkhO and the &"vacuumed"; module Spektr.

    To be honest the crew of this expedition and the experts at TsUP did a great job during the last weeks. In the first place there was the reactivation of the important life support systems, but also the fact that they managed to keep these systems operational and succeeded in the detection of that small leak and the liquidation of that problem.

    And let us not forget the flawless automatic approach and docking of the Progress M1-2 which had been equipped by a better system Kurs.

    But another fact is less positive: nobody is queuing up in front of the desks where tourists can book a trip to the Mir-space station. And thus far there has not been a single satellite begging Mir for repair or maintenance. In fact a very good thing for the brave crew of Mir will need all their time to keep their iron lung operational.

    Chris van den Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202


2001 April 28 - . 07:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U 674.
  • Soyuz TM-32 - . Call Sign: Kristall. Crew: Musabayev; Baturin; Tito. Payload: Soyuz TM 11F732 s/n 206. Mass: 6,750 kg (14,880 lb). Nation: Russia. Related Persons: Musabayev; Baturin; Tito. Agency: RAKA. Manufacturer: Korolev. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Flight: ISS EP-1. Spacecraft: Soyuz TM. Duration: 185.89 days. Decay Date: 2001-10-31 . USAF Sat Cat: 26749 . COSPAR: 2001-017A. Apogee: 397 km (246 mi). Perigee: 385 km (239 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 92.40 min. Soyuz TM-32 was designated ISS flight 2S by NASA and EP-1 (Visiting Crew 1) by RKK Energia. Soyuz TM-32 was a fresh lifeboat for the station; the Soyuz TM-31 crew themselves would return in Soyuz TM-31, which was at the end of its rated in-space storage tie. Dennis Tito's inclusion in the crew created controversy between NASA and the Russians since he was the first space tourist to fly to ISS. He had originally paid to fly to the Mir station but funds ran out to keep that station in orbit. Soyuz TM-32 docked with the -Z port on Zarya at 0758 GMT on April 30 after Endeavour had departed.. The crew transferred their customized reentry seat liners to Soyuz TM-31, at which point TM-32 became the Station's rescue vehicle. After a six day stay, the Soyuz TM-32 crew returned to earth aboard Soyuz TM-31. The Expedition 3 crew entered Soyuz TM-32) on October 19, 2001 and undocked from the nadir port of Zarya at 1048 GMT, flying it out and then sideways a few meters before approaching the station again to dock with the Pirs nadir port at 1104 GMT. This freed up Zarya for the arrival of a new Soyuz. The docking port at the aft end of Zvezda was occupied by the Progress M-45 cargo ship.

2003 April 28 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Mayport DZ. Launch Pad: 29.0 N x 78.5 W. LV Family: Pegasus. Launch Vehicle: Pegasus XL. LV Configuration: Pegasus XL F33.
  • Galex - . Mass: 280 kg (610 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Manufacturer: OSC. Class: Astronomy. Type: Ultraviolet astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Galex. USAF Sat Cat: 27783 . COSPAR: 2003-017A. Apogee: 699 km (434 mi). Perigee: 694 km (431 mi). Inclination: 29.0000 deg. Period: 98.70 min. Summary: Much delayed launch (from January 19, May 19, July 16, 21 and 30, August 14 and October 17, 2002; January 27, March 25 and 30, April 15 and 26 2003)..

2006 April 28 - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: SR19/SR19.
  • CMCM-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SMDC; MDA. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi). This countermeasures test was a repeat of the one held on April 13, 2006. MDA tested its radars in the Pacific Missile Test Facility in Hawaii against a target missile that carried countermeasures, a mock warhead, and an onboard sensor package. No interceptor missiles were used.

2006 April 28 - . 10:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC2W. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7420-XC. LV Configuration: Delta 7420-10C D314.
  • Cloudsat - . Mass: 848 kg (1,869 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; USAF; CSA. Manufacturer: Ball. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Cloudsat. USAF Sat Cat: 29107 . COSPAR: 2006-016A. Apogee: 704 km (437 mi). Perigee: 702 km (436 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Summary: Cloudsat carried a 94 GHz cloud profiling radar. Both the Cloudsat and Calipso satellites were in the A-train polar constellation, in the same orbit as the large Aqua and Aura satellites..
  • Calipso - . Mass: 587 kg (1,294 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA; CNES. Manufacturer: Alenia. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Calipso. USAF Sat Cat: 29108 . COSPAR: 2006-016B. Apogee: 703 km (436 mi). Perigee: 702 km (436 mi). Inclination: 98.2000 deg. Period: 98.80 min. Summary: Calipso carried a 1-meter laser lidar telescope to study clouds and aerosols, and an imaging infrared radiometer..

2007 April 28 - . 14:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Spaceport America. LV Family: SpaceLoft. Launch Vehicle: SpaceLoft XL. FAILURE: Failure.
  • Test / burial mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: UP Aerospace. Apogee: 117 km (72 mi).

2008 April 28 - . 03:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Sriharikota. LV Family: PSLV. Launch Vehicle: PSLV. LV Configuration: PSLV s/n C9.
  • Cartosat 2A - . Mass: 768 kg (1,693 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: IRS. USAF Sat Cat: 32783 . COSPAR: 2008-021A. Apogee: 645 km (400 mi). Perigee: 623 km (387 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.40 min. Summary: Primary payload, an imaging satellite with a spatial resolution of better than one metre and a swath of 9.6 km. Data from the satellite was to be used for detailed mapping..
  • Can X-6 - . Nation: Canada. Agency: ISRO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Can X. USAF Sat Cat: 32784 . COSPAR: 2008-021B. Apogee: 638 km (396 mi). Perigee: 615 km (382 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Nanosat built by University of Toronto Institiute of Aerospace Studies and Com Dev International; carried a payload for relaying identification beacon data from shipping..
  • Cute-1.7-APD-II - . Mass: 4.00 kg (8.80 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 32785 . COSPAR: 2008-021C. Apogee: 635 km (394 mi). Perigee: 615 km (382 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Tokyo Institute of Technology nanosat..
  • IMS 1 - . Mass: 60 kg (132 lb). Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance radar satellite. Spacecraft: IMS. USAF Sat Cat: 32786 . COSPAR: 2008-021D. Apogee: 638 km (396 mi). Perigee: 620 km (380 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.30 min. Summary: Indian Mini Satellite, a small imaging satellite..
  • Compass 1 - . Nation: Germany. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 32787 . COSPAR: 2008-021E. Apogee: 636 km (395 mi). Perigee: 614 km (381 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Fachhochschule Aachen nanosat..
  • AAUSat-II - . Nation: Denmark. Agency: ISRO. Class: Astronomy. Type: X-ray astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 32788 . COSPAR: 2008-021F. Apogee: 636 km (395 mi). Perigee: 614 km (381 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: University of Aalborg nanosat; carried a gamma ray burst detector for the Danish National Space Center..
  • Delfi-C3 - . Nation: Netherlands. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 32789 . COSPAR: 2008-021G. Apogee: 636 km (395 mi). Perigee: 614 km (381 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Technical University of Delft nanosat..
  • Can X-2 - . Nation: Canada. Agency: ISRO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 32790 . COSPAR: 2008-021H. Apogee: 635 km (394 mi). Perigee: 615 km (382 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.20 min.
  • SEEDS 2 - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISRO. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Cubesat. USAF Sat Cat: 32791 . COSPAR: 2008-021J. Apogee: 637 km (395 mi). Perigee: 614 km (381 mi). Inclination: 98.0000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Nihon University at Tokyo nanosat..
  • Rubin-8-AIS - . Nation: India. Agency: ISRO. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Rubin. USAF Sat Cat: 32792 . COSPAR: 2008-021K. Apogee: 662 km (411 mi). Perigee: 619 km (384 mi). Inclination: 97.9000 deg. Period: 97.50 min. Summary: Remained attached to PSLV final stage; carried a payload for relaying identification beacon data from shipping..

2008 April 28 - . 05:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. LV Family: Zenit. Launch Vehicle: Zenit-3SLB. LV Configuration: Zenit-3SLB s/n LL1.
  • Amos 3 - . Mass: 1,250 kg (2,750 lb). Nation: Israel. Agency: SIS. Program: Amos. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Amos. USAF Sat Cat: 32794 . COSPAR: 2008-022A. Apogee: 35,788 km (22,237 mi). Perigee: 35,784 km (22,235 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Communications satellite. The Block DM stage made three burns to deliver the payload into geostationary orbit..

2010 April 28 - . 17:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. LV Configuration: Soyuz 11A511U s/n 1756.
  • Progress M-05M - . Mass: 7,400 kg (16,300 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RKA. Program: ISS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned logistics spacecraft. Flight: ISS EO-23; ISS EO-23; ISS EO-22. Spacecraft: Progress M. Duration: 201.00 days. Decay Date: 2010-11-15 . USAF Sat Cat: 36521 . COSPAR: 2010-018A. Apogee: 361 km (224 mi). Perigee: 350 km (210 mi). Inclination: 51.6000 deg. Period: 91.60 min. Summary: Undocked from the Pirs module of the ISS on 25 October 2010 at 14:22 GMT and was deorbited over the Pacific on 15 November 2010 after three weeks of independent flight..

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