Encyclopedia Astronautica
August 27


August 27 Chronology


1909 August 27 - .
  • Birth of John A Barclay - . Nation: USA. Summary: American officer. Commander of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency from 1958.

1912 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Hermann Joachim Weidner - . Nation: Germany. Summary: German expert in guided missiles during World War II. As of January 1947, working at Fort Bliss, Texas. As of 1960, Deputy Director, Structures and Mechanics Division, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Living in Solms, Germany in 2004..

1916 August 27 - .
1932 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Mikhail Nikolayevich Burdayev - . Nation: Russia; Ukraine. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, 1967-1983. Graduated from Air Force Engineering Academy, doctorate degree, 1987. Cosmonaut training from May 1967 - 18 August 1969. Worked as trainer at the Gagarin Center. Professor in space ballistics from 1994..

1941 August 27 - .
1943 August 27 - . Launch Site: Peenemuende. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2.
  • V-2 production facilities bombed - . Nation: Germany. Related Persons: Hitler; Todt. Ten days after the raid on Peenemuende, the British bomb the V-2 production/launch bunker under construction at Watten. Seven further bunkers (four in Pas-de-Calais, three at Cherbourg) continued to be built. Soon thereafter, V-2 production plants at Wiener Neustadt and Friedrichshafen are also bombed. Clearly the Allies had detected and targeted the infrastructure of the V-2 production program. In response to the raids, the decision was made that Organisation Todt would build an underground V-2 factory at a chalk mine in Witzen. The bunker at Watten would be used only as a liquid oxygen production plant. Hitler had mandated a 7 m thick protective roof there, which cannot be penetrated by Allied bombs. It was decided that the roof would be jacked up, the sides filled with concrete, and construction work would continue underground despite the perpetual bombing.

1951 August 27 - .
  • XS-1 Flight 153 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: XS-1 # 2 flight 72. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: XS-1. Summary: NACA flight 52. Pilot familiarization. Reached mach 1.16 at 13420 m during four-cylinder run..

1952 August 27 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Corporal. Launch Vehicle: Corporal. LV Configuration: Corporal 30R.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Apogee: 30 km (18 mi).

1954 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 420.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1954 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-1. Launch Vehicle: R-1 8A11. LV Configuration: R-1 8A11 No 520.
  • Operational test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1956 August 27 - . LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor.
  • Thor engine first static test. - . Nation: USA. Summary: First static firing of Thor rocket engine at AFFTC, Edwards AFB..

1957 August 27 - . 16:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun II6.22F.
  • Auroral particles Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 80 km (49 mi).

1958 August 27 - .
  • Birth of Sergei Konstantinovich Krikalyov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut, Energia NPO, 1985-2009. Flew on Mir EO-4, Mir LD-3, STS-60, STS-88, ISS EO-1, ISS EO-11. World record for total duration spent in space (803 days). First Russian to fly aboard an American spacecraft. Flew in space six times..

1958 August 27 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Atlantic Ocean. Launch Pad: 38.5 S x 11.5 W. Launch Platform: AVM1. LV Family: X-17. Launch Vehicle: X-17.
  • Argus I Nuclear test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 160 km (90 mi). The Argus series were the only clandestine nuclear tests ever conducted by the United States. The rocket-launched nuclear warheads were set off at very high altitudes over the South Atlantic, 1800 km south-west of Capetown, South Africa. The purpose was to determine the effects of nuclear explosions on the Earth's magnetic field and the impact to military radar, communications, satellites and ballistic missiles electronics. The earth's magnetic field is not only off-axis from the earth, but also off centre from the earth's core. This means the Van Allen Radiation belts are closest to the earth in the region known as the 'South Atlantic Anomaly'. This made the selected launch point the ideal place for launching a rocket into the lower belt where the particles and radiation from the explosion would be trapped.

    The 1.7 kiloton W-25 warhead used had been developed and previously tested for the Genie air-to-air missile. The first test was launched from vessel AVM1 at 38.5 deg S, 11.5 deg. W, and exploded at an altitude of 160 km. The initial flash was followed by an auroral luminescence extending upward and downward along the magnetic lines where the burst occurred. The experiment verified the predicitons made in the original October 1957 proposal by N. C. Christofilos of the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory in Livermore.


1958 August 27 - . 03:33 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC10. Launch Pad: LC10?. Launch Vehicle: Jason. LV Configuration: Jason Jason 1909.
  • Nuclear test observation mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 937 km (582 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 04:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: MVS. Apogee: 209 km (129 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 04:24 GMT - . Launch Site: Ramey. Launch Vehicle: Jason. LV Configuration: Jason Jason 1914.
  • Nuclear test observation mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 06:05 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Infrared atmosphere Aeronomy / ionosphere / biology mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 06:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Ramey. Launch Vehicle: Jason. LV Configuration: Jason Jason 1917.
  • Nuclear test observation mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 817 km (507 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 07:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Jason. LV Configuration: Jason Jason 1913 J-15.
  • Nuclear test observation mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1958 August 27 - . 12:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-5. Launch Vehicle: R-5A.
  • Aeronomy / ionosphere / fields / mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: AN. Apogee: 450 km (270 mi). Summary: Carried dogs Belyanka and Pestraya to 450 km altitude..

1958 August 27 - . 23:15 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC26A. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter. LV Configuration: Jupiter IRBM AM-7.
  • Research and development test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF; NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). Fired from AMR at 1815 hours EST. The countdown was normal. Operations were interrupted by one hold -- a 15 minute delay for minor adjustments. Ignition, main-stage, and lift-off were normal. The missile followed the pre-selected trajectory closely during powered flight, though cut-off was effected by fuel depletion rather than by pre-set guidance cut-off. The nose cone impacted 39 nm short and 15.7 nm to the left of the pre-calculated range of 1,246 nm. Jupiter 7 was the first flight test of the warhead and fuse system. This also marked the second flight test of the :Jupiter all-inertial guidance system, the fourth flight test of the NAA S-3D engine operating at 150,000 pounds thrust, and the first flight test of the solid propellant spin rocket and vernier motor.

1959 August 27 - . 01:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC5. LV Family: Jupiter. Launch Vehicle: Jupiter. LV Configuration: Jupiter IRBM AM-19.
  • Short range research and development mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF; NASA Huntsville. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi). A short range (300 nm) IRBM, was fired from AMR at 2030 hours EST. The nose cone impacted 0.03 nm short and, 0.22 nm to the right, of the intended target. This was the first Jupiter missile to be programmed for a short range flight. All primary and secondary missions were accomplished.

1959 August 27 - . 12:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Thor DM-18A. LV Configuration: Thor DM-18A 216.
  • Series IV research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 520 km (320 mi).

1959 August 27 - . 16:52 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: EAG-154. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris AX. LV Configuration: Polaris AX-22.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 500 km (310 mi).

1961 August 27 - .
  • Russia explains secrecy on space designers. - . Nation: USSR. The Soviet Communist Party organ, Pravda, explained why Russian space techniques and the names of spaceship designers were kept secret as follows: "A corrupt capitalist society, by it very nature, is extremely capable of turning the greatest peaceful achievements of mankind into the total means of destruction of mankind. This is why it is risky to open even the smallest loopholes in the world of Soviet rocket technique for the gentlemen who are lagging considerably behind as far as their technique is concerned, but who become militarily agitated and distracted from an honest program of general and complete disarmament and who mumble something about the right of inspection of neighbors' orchards and storerooms. That is why the wonderful group of heroes who insured the mastering of the cosmos remain nameless until now."

1962 August 27 - .
  • Female Vostok flights delayed to 1963 - . Nation: USSR. Program: Vostok. Flight: Vostok 5; Vostok 6; Vostok 6A; Vostok 7; Vostok 8; Vostok 9; Vostok 10; Vostok 11; Vostok 12. Spacecraft: Sokol SK-1. The prospects did not look good for authorisation of production of ten further Vostok spacecraft. In a heated discussion between Rudenko, Ivanovskiy, and Grechko, it was argued that production of further Vostoks would delay flight of the first Soyuz spacecraft by a year. On the other hand this would mean no Soviet manned flights in 1963-1964. Furthermore Ivanovskiy reported that production of the female version of the Vostok space suit could not be completed until the end of 1962. Therefore this meant that the flight of two female cosmonauts in the final two available Vostok spacecraft would be delayed until March-April 1963 - the very end of the storage life of the spacecraft.

1962 August 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC25A. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2. LV Configuration: Polaris A2TF-4.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1962 August 27 - . 06:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC12. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas Agena B. LV Configuration: Atlas Agena B 179D (AA6) / Agena B 6902 (AA6).
  • Mariner 2 - . Payload: Mariner R-2. Mass: 201 kg (443 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Mariner. Class: Venus. Type: Venus probe. Spacecraft: Mariner 1-2. USAF Sat Cat: 374 . COSPAR: 1962-A-Rho-1. Mariner 2 was the first spacecraft to successfully flyby another planet. It was a backup for the Mariner 1 mission which failed shortly after launch to Venus. After launch and termination of the Agena first burn, the Agena-Mariner was in a 118 km altitude Earth parking orbit. The Agena second burn injected the Mariner 2 spacecraft into a geocentric escape hyperbola at 26 minutes 3 seconds after lift-off. Solar panel extension was completed about 44 minutes after launch. On 29 August 1962 cruise science experiments were turned on. A midcourse maneuver was initiated at 22:49:00 GMT on 4 September and completed at 2:45:25 GMT 5 September. On 8 September at 17:50 GMT the spacecraft suddenly lost its attitude control, which was restored by the gyroscopes 3 minutes later. The cause was unknown but may have been a collision with a small object. On October 31 the output from one solar panel deteriorated abruptly, and the science cruise instruments were turned off. A week later the panel resumed normal function and instruments were turned back on. The panel permanently failed on 15 November, but Mariner 2 was close enough to the Sun that one panel could supply adequate power. On December 14 the radiometers were turned on. Mariner 2 approached Venus from 30 degrees above the dark side of the planet, and passed below the planet at its closest distance of 34,773 km at 19:59:28 GMT 14 December 1962. After encounter, cruise mode resumed. Spacecraft perihelion occurred on 27 December at a distance of 105,464,560 km. The last transmission from Mariner 2 was received on 3 January 1963 at 07:00 GMT. Mariner 2 remains in heliocentric orbit. Scientific discoveries made by Mariner 2 included a slow retrograde rotation rate for Venus, hot surface temperatures and high surface pressures, a predominantly carbon dioxide atmosphere, continuous cloud cover with a top altitude of about 60 km, and no detectable magnetic field. It was also shown that in interplanetary space the solar wind streams continuously and the cosmic dust density is much lower than the near-Earth region. Improved estimates of Venus' mass and the value of the astronomical unit were made.

1962 August 27 - . 09:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Woomera. Launch Complex: Woomera LA2. Launch Vehicle: HAD. LV Configuration: HAD 107.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Australia. Agency: WRE. Apogee: 114 km (70 mi).

1963 August 27 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC31B. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 1B. LV Configuration: Minuteman 1B 435.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1964 August 27 - . LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan 2.
  • Hurricane Cleo struck the Cape Kennedy area. - . Nation: USA. Stage II of Gemini launch vehicle (GLV) 2 was deerected and stored; the erector was lowered to horizontal, and stage I was lashed in its vertical position. Stage II was reerected September 1. Power was applied to the launch vehicle September 2, and Subsystem Functional Verification Tests (SSFVT) began September 3. When forecasts indicated that Hurricane Dora would strike Cape Kennedy, both stages of GLV-2 were deerected on September 8 and secured in the Missile Assembly Building. Hurricane Ethel subsequently threatened the area, and both stages remained in the hanger until September 14, when they were returned to complex 19 and reerected. SSFVT, begun again on September 18, ended successfully October 5.

1964 August 27 - . 09:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg OSTF1. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas E. LV Configuration: Atlas E 57E.
  • ST/KX-48 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,600 km (900 mi).

1965 August 27 - . Launch Site: Green River. Launch Complex: Green River Pad 2. LV Family: Athena RTV. Launch Vehicle: Athena RTV. LV Configuration: Athena D012.
  • USAF D012 re-entry vehicle test flight - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1966 August 27 - . 09:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57. LV Configuration: Voskhod 11A57 N15001-03.
  • Cosmos 128 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1966-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 2409 . COSPAR: 1966-079A. Apogee: 343 km (213 mi). Perigee: 207 km (128 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 90.00 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1967 August 27 - .
  • Tass announces water landing exercises - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Leonov. Program: Lunar L1. Class: Manned. Type: Manned space station. Summary: Tass announces water landing exercises; Leonov involved..

1968 August 27 - . LV Family: Saturn V. Launch Vehicle: Saturn V.
  • Decision to use Apollo LTA-B as payload ballast on the AS-503 flight - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Low, George. Program: Apollo. Flight: Apollo 8. Spacecraft: Apollo LTA; LM Weight. George M. Low, ASPO Manager, set forth the rationale for using LTA-B (as opposed to some other LM test article or even a full-blown LM) as payload ballast on the AS-503 mission. That decision had been a joint one by Headquarters, MSFC, and MSC. Perhaps the chief reason for the decision was Marshall's position that the Saturn V's control system was extremely sensitive to payload weight. Numerous tests had been made for payloads of around 38,555 kilograms but none for those in the 29,435- to 31,750-kilogram range. MSFC had therefore asked that the minimum payload for AS-503 be set at 38,555 kilograms. Additional Details: Decision to use Apollo LTA-B as payload ballast on the AS-503 flight.

1968 August 27 - . 03:34 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Iroquois. LV Configuration: Nike Iroquois CRL AH07.667.
  • TMA Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 201 km (124 mi).

1968 August 27 - . 04:44 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk CRL AH08.668.
  • Release Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 201 km (124 mi).

1968 August 27 - . 11:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC41/15. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65.
  • Cosmos 236 - . Mass: 875 kg (1,929 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: Strela. Class: Communications. Type: Military store-dump communications satellite. Spacecraft: Strela-2. Decay Date: 1990-03-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3347 . COSPAR: 1968-070A. Apogee: 348 km (216 mi). Perigee: 340 km (210 mi). Inclination: 56.1000 deg. Period: 91.40 min. Summary: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1968 August 27 - . 12:29 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 237 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4. Duration: 8.00 days. Decay Date: 1968-09-04 . USAF Sat Cat: 3348 . COSPAR: 1968-071A. Apogee: 320 km (190 mi). Perigee: 200 km (120 mi). Inclination: 65.4000 deg. Period: 89.70 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule.

1969 August 27 - . 02:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF22. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 2. LV Configuration: Minuteman 2 2065.
  • OT GT15F operational test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1969 August 27 - . 10:37 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi).

1969 August 27 - . 21:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta L. LV Configuration: Thor Delta L 540/D73. FAILURE: First stage hydraulics failure. Vehicle destructed at T+383 seconds. Failed Stage: 1.
  • Pioneer E - . Payload: Pioneer E. Mass: 67 kg (147 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Pioneer. Class: Astronomy. Type: Solar astronomy satellite. Spacecraft: Pioneer 6-7-8-9-E. Decay Date: 1969-08-27 . COSPAR: F690827A.
  • TETR C - . Payload: TETR C. Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Program: Pioneer. Spacecraft: TETR. COSPAR: F690827B.

1970 August 27 - . 06:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF08. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • OLD FOX 01M demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1970 August 27 - . 13:23 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg SLC5. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout A. LV Configuration: Scout A S176C.
  • Transit O-19 - . Mass: 18 kg (39 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Program: Transit. Class: Navigation. Type: Navigation satellite. Spacecraft: Transit. USAF Sat Cat: 4507 . COSPAR: 1970-067A. Apogee: 1,201 km (746 mi). Perigee: 946 km (587 mi). Inclination: 90.0000 deg. Period: 106.70 min.

1971 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein Meck. Launch Vehicle: Spartan. LV Configuration: Spartan ABM 800031.
  • Safeguard M2-1 Interceptor mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 123 km (76 mi).

1971 August 27 - . 10:54 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC133/1. LV Family: Kosmos 2. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K63.
  • Cosmos 435 - . Payload: DS-P1-Yu s/n 41. Mass: 325 kg (716 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Program: DS. Class: Military. Type: Military target satellite. Spacecraft: DS-P1-Yu. Completed Operations Date: 1972-01-28 . Decay Date: 1972-01-28 . USAF Sat Cat: 5441 . COSPAR: 1971-072A. Apogee: 478 km (297 mi). Perigee: 271 km (168 mi). Inclination: 70.9000 deg. Period: 92.00 min. Summary: Development of systems for air defence and the control of outer space..

1973 August 27 - .
  • Actions for the final phaseout of the Apollo program - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM. Apollo Soyuz Test Project Program Director Chester M. Lee, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Hq., was assigned as the management official to take actions necessary for the final phaseout of the Apollo program. All Apollo program inquiries, activities, and actions not covered by specific delegations of authority would be referred to Lee for appropriate decision and disposition.

1973 August 27 - . 12:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: Kappa. Launch Vehicle: Kappa 9M. LV Configuration: Kappa 9M K-9M-44.
  • X-ray astronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 341 km (211 mi).

1974 August 27 - . 14:59 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 600. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A3. LV Configuration: Polaris A3T.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 27 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC105. LV Family: R-36M. Launch Vehicle: R-36M.
  • Joint flight trials launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1975 August 27 - . Launch Site: Tonopah. LV Family: Honest John. Launch Vehicle: HJ.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: Sandia. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1975 August 27 - . 01:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17A. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 2914. LV Configuration: Delta 2914 594/D114.
  • Symphonie 2 - . Payload: Symphonie MV2. Mass: 398 kg (877 lb). Nation: France. Agency: CNES; DFVLR. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 100. Completed Operations Date: 1985-01-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 8132 . COSPAR: 1975-077A. Apogee: 35,873 km (22,290 mi). Perigee: 35,866 km (22,286 mi). Inclination: 12.7000 deg. Period: 1,440.40 min. Jointly registered by the Federal Republic of Germany (A/AC.105/INF.329) and France (A/AC.105/INF.330). Symphonie flying model no II. Experimental telecommunications satellite. Orbit: geostationary. Also registered by the United Stat es in A/AC.105/INF.331 as 1975-77A, category C, with orbit 1427.4 min, 35364 x 35870 km x 0.0 deg Positioned in geosynchronous orbit over the Atlantic Ocean at 11 deg W in 1975-1985 As of 1 September 2001 located at 164.06 deg W drifting at 1.071 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 8 located at 167.97E drifting at 1.046W degrees per day.

1975 August 27 - . 14:45 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Voskhod 11A57.
  • Cosmos 757 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-4MK. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1975-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 8147 . COSPAR: 1975-078A. Apogee: 316 km (196 mi). Perigee: 182 km (113 mi). Inclination: 62.8000 deg. Period: 89.50 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule; maneuverable..

1976 August 27 - .
  • Shuttle Enterprise - dummy OMS pods delivered. - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Enterprise. Summary: Reaction control system/orbital maneuvering system pods (simulated), approach and landing tests, on dock, Palmdale, Enterprise.

1976 August 27 - . 11:08 GMT - . Launch Site: Sonde Stromfjord. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.210IE.
  • Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 270 km (160 mi).

1976 August 27 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Vostok 8A92M.
  • Cosmos 851 - . Payload: Tselina-D no. 10. Mass: 3,000 kg (6,600 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Tselina. Class: Military. Type: Military naval signals reconnaisance satellite. Spacecraft: Tselina-D. Decay Date: 1989-08-05 . USAF Sat Cat: 9389 . COSPAR: 1976-085A. Apogee: 313 km (194 mi). Perigee: 300 km (180 mi). Inclination: 81.2000 deg. Period: 90.70 min.

1977 August 27 - . 10:09 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 947 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-2M. Duration: 13.00 days. Decay Date: 1977-09-09 . USAF Sat Cat: 10299 . COSPAR: 1977-081A. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi). Perigee: 203 km (126 mi). Inclination: 72.9000 deg. Period: 89.80 min. Summary: Area survey photo reconnaissance satellite; returned film capsule..

1979 August 27 - .
  • Start long-lead fabrication crew module, Discovery - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: Discovery.

1980 August 27 - . Launch Site: Natal. LV Family: Sonda. Launch Vehicle: Sonda 3. LV Configuration: Sonda 3-M1 XV-08.
  • Ionosphere mission - . Nation: Brazil. Agency: IAE. Apogee: 245 km (152 mi).

1980 August 27 - . 02:19 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-5 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 August 27 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-5 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1980 August 27 - . 02:20 GMT - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 655. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • OT-5 Operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1981 August 27 - . 10:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1301 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Resurs. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Resurs F1-17F41. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1981-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 12788 . COSPAR: 1981-083A. Apogee: 258 km (160 mi). Perigee: 212 km (131 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 89.20 min. High resolution photo surveillance; film capsule; maneuverable; also performed earth resources tasks. Investigation of the natural resources of the earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy of the USSR and international cooperation.

1982 August 27 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. Launch Complex: Plesetsk LC41/1. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Molniya 3-19 - . Payload: Molniya-3 s/n 33. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-3. Decay Date: 2002-01-13 . USAF Sat Cat: 13432 . COSPAR: 1982-083A. Apogee: 38,841 km (24,134 mi). Perigee: 1,567 km (973 mi). Inclination: 63.9000 deg. Period: 718.90 min. Replaced Molniya 3-13. Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation.

1982 August 27 - .
1984 August 27 - . 14:35 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC47. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi).

1985 August 27 - . 10:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC39A. LV Family: Shuttle. Launch Vehicle: Shuttle. LV Configuration: Space Shuttle STS-27/51-I.
  • STS-51-I - . Call Sign: Discovery. Crew: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Payload: Discovery F06 / Syncom-4 4 [Orbus-7S] / Aussat A1. Mass: 19,952 kg (43,986 lb). Nation: USA. Related Persons: Covey; Engle; Fisher, William; Lounge; van Hoften. Agency: NASA Houston. Program: STS. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Flight: STS-51-I. Spacecraft: Discovery. Duration: 7.10 days. Decay Date: 1985-09-03 . USAF Sat Cat: 15992 . COSPAR: 1985-076A. Apogee: 364 km (226 mi). Perigee: 351 km (218 mi). Inclination: 28.5000 deg. Period: 91.70 min. Manned five crew. Launched Aussat 1, ASC 1, Leasat 4; repaired Leasat 3. Payloads: Deploy ASC (American Satellite Company)-1 with Payload Assist Modue (PAM)-D. Deploy AUSSAT (Australian communications satellite)-1 with PAM-D. Deploy Syncom IV-4 communications satellite with its unique stage. Retrieve Leasat-3 communications satellite, repair and deploy by extravehicular activity (EVA) astronauts. Physical Vapor Transport Organic Solids (PVTOS) experiment.
  • Aussat A1 - . Payload: Aussat A1 [PAM-D]. Mass: 1,260 kg (2,770 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Aussat. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. Completed Operations Date: 1993-08-24 . USAF Sat Cat: 15993 . COSPAR: 1985-076B. Apogee: 35,934 km (22,328 mi). Perigee: 35,922 km (22,320 mi). Inclination: 7.0000 deg. Period: 1,443.30 min. Released by STS 51I 8/27/85. Aussat A1 was decommissioned in early 1993 at the ned of its nominal life. It is currently in a non-synchronous graveyard orbit.. It spent its active life at 160 deg. E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 160 deg E in 1985-1993 As of 5 September 2001 located at 174.28 deg W drifting at 1.831 deg W per day. As of 2007 Feb 27 located at 120.19E drifting at 1.838W degrees per day.
  • ASC-1 - . Mass: 1,271 kg (2,802 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: ASC. Program: GTE. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: ASC. Completed Operations Date: 1994-08-01 . USAF Sat Cat: 15994 . COSPAR: 1985-076C. Apogee: 35,796 km (22,242 mi). Perigee: 35,778 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Released by STS 51I 8/27/85; stationed at 81 deg E. C, Ku band communications satellite. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 128 deg W in 1985-1994 As of 5 September 2001 located at 99.97 deg W drifting at 0.156 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 119.21W drifting at 0.126W degrees per day.
  • Syncom IV-4 - . Payload: Discovery F6 / Syncom-4 4 [Orbus-7S] / Aussat A1 [. Mass: 1,388 kg (3,060 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: HCI. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 381. Completed Operations Date: 1996-10-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 15995 . COSPAR: 1985-076D. Apogee: 36,503 km (22,681 mi). Perigee: 36,486 km (22,671 mi). Inclination: 9.5000 deg. Period: 1,472.40 min. Released by STS 51I 8/29/85; 178 deg E; leased by U.S. government. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 177 deg W in 1985-1987 As of 3 September 2001 located at 149.81 deg W drifting at 8.908 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 84.34W drifting at 8.912W degrees per day.

1986 August 27 - . 11:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1 or LC31. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1773 - . Mass: 6,600 kg (14,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Yantar-4K1. Duration: 55.00 days. Decay Date: 1986-10-21 . USAF Sat Cat: 16920 . COSPAR: 1986-064A. Apogee: 339 km (210 mi). Perigee: 171 km (106 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 89.60 min. Summary: High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission..

1987 August 27 - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. Launch Pad: LC107/pad?. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: K65M-RB.
  • BOR-5 re-entry vehicle test - . Nation: USSR. Agency: UNKS. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi). Summary: Suborbital test of 1/8 scale model of Buran. Typical trajectory: ascent to 120 km; pitch down to drive model in atmosphere at 45 degree at Mach 18.5. None were reflown but at least 4 were recovered..

1987 August 27 - . 09:20 GMT - . Launch Site: Tanegashima. Launch Complex: Tanegashima N. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: H-1. LV Configuration: H-1 H-17(F).
  • Kiku 5 - . Payload: ETS 5. Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: Japan. Agency: NASDA. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: ETS. Completed Operations Date: 1997-09-10 . USAF Sat Cat: 18316 . COSPAR: 1987-070A. Apogee: 36,072 km (22,414 mi). Perigee: 36,029 km (22,387 mi). Inclination: 7.9000 deg. Period: 1,449.60 min. Stationed at 150 deg E. ETS-V (Kiku-5). Establishment of basic technology for bus systems needed for 3-axis stabilized geostationary satellites. Accumulation of key technologies required for high performance in the next generation of applications satellites; Experiment of mobile satellite communications for the control of aircrafts over the Pacific Ocean, and for the communication, navigational aid, search and rescue of ships. H-I (3-stage) launch vehicle. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 0920 GMT. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 150 deg E in 1987-1997 As of 5 September 2001 located at 92.55 deg W drifting at 3.394 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 49.74W drifting at 3.380W degrees per day.

1988 August 27 - . 20:04 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC46. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident D-5. LV Configuration: Trident D-5 D5X-14.
  • Research and development launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1989 August 27 - . 22:59 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 4925-8. LV Configuration: Delta 4925-8 D187.
  • BSB-1A - . Payload: Marco Polo 1. Mass: 1,233 kg (2,718 lb). Nation: UK. Agency: BSB. Program: BSB. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 376. USAF Sat Cat: 20193 . COSPAR: 1989-067A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,782 km (22,233 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. British DBS; 31 deg W. Direct broadcasting system. Expected operational life, 10 years. Owner/operator: British Satellite Broadcasting Ltd, The Marcopolo Building, Chelsea Bridge, Queenstown Rd, London SW8 4NQ. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 31 deg W in 1989-1993; 5 deg E in 1994-2000; 13 deg W in 2000. As of 31 August 2001 located at 12.98 deg W drifting at 0.008 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 45.02W drifting at 3.908W degrees per day.

1990 August 27 - . 02:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Kagoshima. LV Family: MT-135. Launch Vehicle: MT-135. LV Configuration: MT-135-52.
  • NNP-O3 Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Japan. Agency: ISAS. Apogee: 57 km (35 mi).

1992 August 27 - . 18:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. LV Family: Black Brant. Launch Vehicle: Black Brant 8C. LV Configuration: Black Brant 8C NASA 12.045WT.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 198 km (123 mi).

1994 August 27 - . 08:58 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC41. LV Family: Titan. Launch Vehicle: Titan Centaur 401A. LV Configuration: Titan 401A/Centaur K-9/TC-11 (45E-2).
  • USA 105 - . Payload: Mercury ELINT 1. Nation: USA. Agency: NRO; USAF. Class: Military. Type: Electronic intelligence satellite. Spacecraft: Mercury ELINT. USAF Sat Cat: 23223 . COSPAR: 1994-054A. Apogee: 35,790 km (22,230 mi). Perigee: 35,780 km (22,230 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: First launch of Mercury ELINT satellite..

1994 August 27 - . 23:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-2E. LV Configuration: Chang Zheng 2E CZ2E-4 (35).
  • Optus B3 - . Mass: 2,760 kg (6,080 lb). Nation: Australia. Agency: Optus. Program: Aussat. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. USAF Sat Cat: 23227 . COSPAR: 1994-055A. Apogee: 35,855 km (22,279 mi). Perigee: 35,718 km (22,194 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Telephone; TV; mobile communications; air traffic control. Stationed at 156 deg deg E. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 152 deg E in 1994-1995; 156 deg E in 1995-1999 As of 5 September 2001 located at 156.00 deg E drifting at 0.007 deg W per day. As of 2007 Mar 9 located at 151.97E drifting at 0.007W degrees per day.

1997 August 27 - . 19:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 54 km (33 mi).

1998 August 27 - . 01:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 3. LV Configuration: Delta 8930 D259. FAILURE: Due to guidance system induced oscillation all solid motor gimbal hydraulic fluid exhausted after only 71 seconds of flight. Range safety destroyed booster 75 seconds into flight at 16 km altitude.. Failed Stage: G.
  • Galaxy 10 - . Mass: 3,876 kg (8,545 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: PanAmSat. Manufacturer: El Segundo. Program: Galaxy. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: HS 601. COSPAR: F980827A. Built by Hughes/El Segundo for Panamsat. The satellite carried 24 C-band and 24 Ku-band transponders to provide US/Caribbean coverage, and was to have replaced the ageing SBS-5 satellite at 123 deg West. Replenishing the Galaxy/PAS constellation was a high priority for Panamsat following the loss of Galaxy 4 and problems with Galaxy 7. Galaxy 11 was not scheduled to go up until the first launch of the Sea Launch Zenit-3SL in early 1999, and this booster was in limbo due to legal problems with unauthorised transfer of technical data from Boeing to Russia. In addition there were several PAS satellites awaiting launch over the next year on Proton and Ariane vehicles.

2001 August 27 - . 10:50 GMT - . Launch Site: Palmachim. LV Family: Arrow. Launch Vehicle: Arrow 2.
  • AST-6 Black Sparrow - . Nation: Israel. Agency: IAI. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

2002 August 27 - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Vehicle: Tier One.
  • White Knight Flight 4 - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Siebold; Shane. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft: SpaceShipOne. Flight Time: 2.5 hours Pilot: Siebold Copilot: Shane. Objectives: New pilot qual eval. Envelope expansion out to 35,000 feet and 150 knots / 0.4M and 3 G's. Engine relight performance. Avionics software upgrade. Results: Experienced a rudder dead-band (poor centering) at the higher altitudes. Dihedral effect is neutral at higher speeds. Window fogging on descent. Numerous flight director attitude display resets.

2003 August 27 - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Complex: Mojave RW12/30. Launch Platform: W-Knight. Launch Vehicle: Tier One.
  • White Knight/SpaceShipOne Flight 31LC /04GC - . Crew: Melvill. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Siebold; Binnie; Melvill. Agency: Scaled. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft: SpaceShipOne. Apogee: 14 km (8 mi). Objectives: Second glide flight of SpaceShipOne. Flying qualities and performance in the space ship feather mode. Pilot workload and situational awareness while transitioning and handling qualities assessment when reconfigured. As a glider, deep stall investigation both at high and low altitude and envelope expansion out to 200 kts and 4 G's. Lateral directional characteristics including adverse yaw, roll rate effectiveness and control including aileron roll and full rudder side slips. Results: The flight was aborted about 20 minutes before launch, after a GPS navigation malfunction occurred in the SpaceShip avionics system. The mated pair continued to test other systems including Spaceship fuselage heating, then returned for a mated landing.

    Flight Time: 1.1 hours White Knight Pilot: Binnie Copilot: Bird SpaceShipOne Pilot: Melvill High Chase-Starship Pilot: Siebold Low Chase-Duchess Pilot: Karkow


2003 August 27 - . Launch Site: Mojave. Launch Complex: Mojave RW12/30. Launch Platform: W-Knight. Launch Vehicle: Tier One.
  • White Knight/SpaceShipOne Flight 32L / 05G - . Crew: Melvill. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Siebold; Binnie; Melvill. Agency: Scaled. Program: X-Prize. Spacecraft: SpaceShipOne. Objectives: Same objectives as the aborted flight 31LC/04GC earlier today. Second glide flight of SpaceShipOne. Flying qualities and performance in the space ship re-entry or "feather" mode. Pilot workload and situational awareness while transitioning and handling qualities assessment when reconfigured. As a glider, stall investigation both at high and low altitude and envelope expansion out to 200 kts and 4 G's. More aggressive, lateral directional characteristics including adverse yaw, roll rate effectiveness and control, including 360 degree aileron roll, and full rudder side slips. Additional Details: White Knight/SpaceShipOne Flight 32L / 05G.

2004 August 27 - . 22:42 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. LV Family: Terrier. Launch Vehicle: Terrier Orion Improved. LV Configuration: Terrier Improved Orion NASA 41.041UE.
  • EQUIS II Ionosphere mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA Greenbelt. Apogee: 130 km (80 mi).

2011 August 27 - . 03:20 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sea Launch Area. Launch Platform: K-535. LV Family: Bulava. Launch Vehicle: Bulava.
  • RV x 6 - . Nation: Russia. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi). Summary: Test mission. Launched from the White Sea to an impact point in the Pacific Ocean..

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