Encyclopedia Astronautica
August 31


August 31 Chronology


1921 August 31 - .
  • Birth of Vyecheslav Mikhailovich Kovtunenko - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian chief designer. Chief Designer and General Designer of NPO Lavochkin 1977-1995. Kovtunenko started his career at the Yangel design bureau, where was responsible for satellite design..

1926 August 31 - .
1933 August 31 - . Launch Vehicle: Magdeburg.
  • Nebel rocket - . Nation: Germany. Apogee: 2.00 km (1.20 mi). Summary: Third launch from Schwielow Lake. Rocket flies out of sight and is not found..

1945 August 31 - .
1947 August 31 - .
  • Birth of Keith Charles Wright - . Nation: USA. Summary: American engineer military spaceflight engineer astronaut, 1979-1985. Director, Satellite Control Facility in Sunnyvale. Later with Sparta Corporation, El Segundo, California..

1950 August 31 - . 17:09 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC33. LV Family: V-2. Launch Vehicle: V-2. LV Configuration: V-2 51.
  • Blossom IVG Ionosphere-solar/Biological mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA; USAF AFSC. Apogee: 137 km (85 mi). Launched 10:09 local time. Reached 136.8 km. Carried Ionosphere, meteorites, sky brightness, density, biological experiments for Air Research and Development Command. Last of five Aeromedical Laboratory experiments (first four known as Albert series), it carried a nonanesthetized mouse, photographed by a camera, which survived the impact.

1951 August 31 - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LA. Launch Pad: LA?. LV Family: Matador. Launch Vehicle: Matador. LV Configuration: Matador GM-549.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 12 km (7 mi).

1952 August 31 - . 21:10 GMT - . Launch Site: Arctic Ocean. Launch Pad: 77.3 N x 72.8 W. Launch Platform: WYG-279. LV Family: Rockoon. Launch Vehicle: Deacon Rockoon.
  • SUI 6 Chemical release mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: SUI. Apogee: 60 km (37 mi). Summary: Launched at Arctic Ocean Launch Site 1 Launch Point 6 - - Latitude: 77.33 N - Longitude: 72.83 W..

1953 August 31 - .
  • Birth of Pavel Vladimirovich Vinogradov - . Nation: Russia. Summary: Russian engineer cosmonaut. Flew on Mir EO-24, ISS EO-13. 380 cumulative days in space. Civilian Engineer, Energiya NPO..

1954 August 31 - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike. LV Configuration: Nike 2762T.
  • Test mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 10 km (6 mi).

1955 August 31 - . 00:11 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC6. LV Family: Redstone. Launch Vehicle: Redstone. LV Configuration: Redstone RS-7. FAILURE: Excessive temperature in tail section caused malfunction of jet vane control..
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 90 km (55 mi). Summary: Missile test failure. Missed aimpoint by 540 m..

1956 August 31 - . LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: R-7.
  • State Commission formed to oversee R-7 flight test. - . Nation: USSR. Summary: Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 'On creation of the State Commission for the R-7' was issued..

1956 August 31 - .
  • X-1E Flight 10 - . Crew: Walker, Joseph. Payload: X-1E flight 10. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Walker, Joseph. Class: Manned. Type: Manned rocketplane. Spacecraft: X-1E. Summary: NACA flight 9. Mach 2.0 at 18300 m. Sideslips, pulses, rolls..

1957 August 31 - . 04:57 GMT - . Launch Site: Fort Churchill. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun II6.23F.
  • Auroral particles Aurora mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 115 km (71 mi).

1957 August 31 - . 05:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: R-2. Launch Vehicle: R-2A. LV Configuration: R-2A No. 4.
  • Ionosphere / biological mission - . Nation: USSR. Agency: Korolev. Apogee: 185 km (114 mi).

1958 August 31 - .
1958 August 31 - . 00:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC10. Launch Pad: LC10?. Launch Vehicle: Jason. LV Configuration: Jason Jason 2020.
  • Nuclear test observation mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 800 km (490 mi).

1959 August 31 - .
  • Lunar flights to originate from space platforms in earth orbit - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Spacecraft: Apollo CSM; CSM Source Selection; LM Mode Debate; LM Source Selection. A House Committee Staff Report stated that lunar flights would originate from space platforms in earth orbit according to current planning. The final decision on the method to be used, "which must be made soon," would take into consideration the difficulty of space rendezvous between a space platform and space vehicles as compared with the difficulty of developing single vehicles large enough to proceed directly from the earth to the moon.

1959 August 31 - . 22:53 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LC-A. LV Family: Asp. Launch Vehicle: Nike Asp. LV Configuration: Nike Asp NN8.73CF.
  • Sunflare II Solar x-ray / solar mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

1960 August 31 - . Launch Site: Eglin. LV Family: Aerobee. Launch Vehicle: Aerobee 300. LV Configuration: Aerobee 300 TATTLETALE PCC 6.
  • Signals intelligence test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF. Apogee: 100 km (60 mi).

1961 August 31 - .
  • FOBS threat. - . Nation: USSR. Spacecraft: OGCh. U.S.S.R. announced policy of resumption of nuclear weapon testing which had been suspended March 31, 1958, and that bombs can be delivered anywhere in the world by "powerful rockets like those Majs. Yuri Gagarin and Gherman Titov rode to begin their unrivaled space flights around the Earth."

1961 August 31 - . LV Family: Saturn C-3. Launch Vehicle: Saturn C-3.
  • Chamberlain proposes lunar landing by Gemini - . Nation: USA. Program: Apollo. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spacecraft. Spacecraft: Gemini. Summary: Landing by Gemini using 4,000 kg wet/680 kg empty lander and Saturn C-3 booster. Landing by January 1966..

1961 August 31 - . Launch Site: White Sands. Launch Complex: White Sands LC38. LV Family: Nike Zeus. Launch Vehicle: Nike Zeus.
  • New mainstage test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA. Apogee: 150 km (90 mi).

1962 August 31 - . Launch Site: Wallops Island. Launch Complex: Wallops Island LA3. LV Family: Scout. Launch Vehicle: Scout X-3A. LV Configuration: Scout X-3A S114. FAILURE: Late stage 3 ignition.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Reentry 2 - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Class: Technology. Type: Re-entry vehicle technology satellite. Decay Date: 1962-08-31 . Apogee: 217 km (134 mi).

1962 August 31 - . 00:56 GMT - . Launch Site: Kronogard. LV Family: Cajun. Launch Vehicle: Nike Cajun. LV Configuration: Nike Cajun K-62-5.
  • Air sample Aeronomy mission - . Nation: Sweden. Agency: RTG; AFCRL. Apogee: 111 km (68 mi).

1963 August 31 - .
  • Parasail and landing rocket system considered to enable the Gemini spacecraft to make land landings. - . Nation: USA. Program: Gemini. Spacecraft: Gemini; Gemini Parachute. Gemini Project Office (GPO) reported that it was investigating the use of a parasail and landing rocket system to enable the Gemini spacecraft to make land landings. Major system components were the parasail, drogue parachute, retrorocket, control system, and landing rocket. Unlike the conventional parachute, the parasail was capable of controlled gliding and turning. Landing rockets, fired just before touchdown, reduced the spacecraft terminate rate of descent to between 8 and 11 feet per second. Research and development testing was being conducted by the Landing and Impact System Section of Systems Evaluation and Development Division at Manned Spacecraft Center, while McDonnell had just completed a limited study of the advantages and disadvantages, including time required, of incorporating the new landing system on the spacecraft. GPO briefed NASA Headquarters on the system September 6, when it was decided that no further action would be taken on the parasail.

1964 August 31 - .
  • Katys deleted from Voskhod prime crew. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Katys; Yegorov; Feoktistov. Program: Voskhod. Flight: Voskhod 1. Spacecraft: Voskhod. It is discovered that Katys has a brother and sister living in Paris, a fact he did not disclose during the selection process. They left for Paris in 1910, 16 years before Katys was even born. But together with the fact that his father was executed by the Soviet state, it makes him unsuitable to be a cosmonaut. Yegorov and Feoktistov are making serious efforts to be appointed to the crew. Yegorov did poorly in zero-G training and Feoktistov is physically unqualified. Meanwhile TASS, APN, and other Soviet newspapers are stubbornly pursuing information about the crew for the forthcoming flight. Film biographies and press kits are being made of all of the candidates, so that the information can be released once the final crew - whoever they are - are in orbit. But this violation of secrecy disturbs Kamanin.

1964 August 31 - . 15:46 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg 576D. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas F. LV Configuration: Atlas F 36F.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF SAC. Apogee: 1,400 km (800 mi).

1965 August 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC60/8. Launch Pad: LC60/8?. LV Family: R-16. Launch Vehicle: R-16U.
  • Operational test launch - . Nation: USSR. Agency: RVSN. Apogee: 1,210 km (750 mi).

1966 August 31 - .
  • Management during thermal vacuum testing of Apollo spacecraft 008 inadequate - . Nation: USA. Related Persons: Shea; Slayton. Program: Apollo. MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations Donald K. Slayton informed ASPO Manager Joseph F. Shea that total management during thermal vacuum testing of spacecraft 008 was inadequate, resulting in misunderstandings between personnel and organizational groups concerned with the test. Slayton offered a number of suggestions for future, similar tests:

    • Overall planning policies and practices should be reviewed and further defined before commitment of future test crews.
    • Timeline testing philosophy was not realistic or practical in a one- g environment. It was mandatory that test plans be developed with maximum data gain and minimum crew and hardware risks consistent with overall program objectives. For example, long thermal responses during manned tests.
    • A crew systems operations office should be established within the Space Environmental Simulation Laboratory to tie down the interface between crew, hardware, and management. Its scope of operation should include representation, training, and scheduling.
    • The Environmental Medicine Office should define all crew and test medical requirements before crew selection. To help in this area, a flight surgeon should be assigned to each vehicle's prime and backup crews, to ensure adequate knowledge of crew members and test objectives for training and the real-time mission.
    • It must be recognized that test crew participation in thermal vacuum testing was completely voluntary and that each member volunteering must weigh the hazards of such testing against the benefits to the program in general and his welfare in particular.

1967 August 31 - .
  • 7K-VI Zvezda program review. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Kozlov; Darevskiy. Spacecraft: Soyuz VI. The 7K-VI military Soyuz was supposed to have been built on the basis of the 7K-OK model, with a first flight in December 1967. After all the problems with the 7K-OK, Kozlov replaced most subsystems and ended up with a basically new spacecraft, the Zvezda, which will have a mass of 6.3 to 6.6 tonnes. Officially first flight was set for the second half of 1968, but Kozlov says that even a flight in 1969 may not be possible. They simply can't meet the 21 July 1967 decree to have the spacecraft in service in 1968 - they need a further 18 to 24 months of development time. In Kamanin's opinion, this whole approach has been mismanaged. Urgent military experiments could have been flying long ago on a series of Voskhod flights. Furthermore there is no trainer yet for the 7K-VI. Kozlov says simply that he is not responsible for providing a trainer. Resort has to be made to a new design bureau set up specifically to produce simulators, headed by Darevskiy.

1967 August 31 - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC110R. LV Family: N1. Launch Vehicle: N1.
  • N1 launch pad 110 east completed - . Nation: USSR. Program: Lunar L3.

1967 August 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Baikonur. Launch Complex: Baikonur LC1. Launch Pad: LC1/LC31?. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Molniya 8K78M.
  • Cosmos 174 - . Payload: Molniya-1. Mass: 1,600 kg (3,500 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Program: Molniya. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: Molniya-1. Decay Date: 1968-12-30 . USAF Sat Cat: 2925 . COSPAR: 1967-082A. Apogee: 39,796 km (24,728 mi). Perigee: 430 km (260 mi). Inclination: 64.9000 deg. Period: 715.00 min. Summary: Probable commsat failure. Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space..

1967 August 31 - . 22:06 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.43GE.
  • Ba clouds Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 321 km (199 mi).

1967 August 31 - . 22:47 GMT - . Launch Site: Andoya. LV Family: Tomahawk Sandia. Launch Vehicle: Nike Tomahawk. LV Configuration: Nike Tomahawk NASA 18.46GE.
  • Double probe Plasma mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: NASA. Apogee: 228 km (141 mi).

1970 August 31 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 31 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1970 August 31 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 618. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: Polaris A2.
  • Follow-on operational missile test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1971 August 31 - . 09:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kheysa. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 93 km (57 mi).

1972 August 31 - . 00:02 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P108H.
  • Scattered La Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 146 km (90 mi).

1972 August 31 - . 02:16 GMT - . Launch Site: South Uist. LV Family: Petrel. Launch Vehicle: Petrel 1. LV Configuration: Petrel P76H.
  • Scattered La Ionosphere mission - . Nation: UK. Agency: SRC. Apogee: 126 km (78 mi).

1973 August 31 - .
  • X-24 Flight 31 - . Crew: Manke. Payload: X-24B flight 3. Nation: USA. Related Persons: Manke. Class: Manned. Type: Manned spaceplane. Spacecraft: X-24B. Summary: Maximum Speed - 771 kph. Maximum Altitude - 13720 m. Flight Time - 277 sec..

1974 August 31 - .
  • Cosmonaut reunion as Soyuz 15 crew arrives in Moscow. - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Demin; Glushko; Mishin; Keldysh; Smirnov; Ustinov. Program: Salyut. Flight: Soyuz 15. Kamanin attends a reunion of cosmonauts on the occasion of the arrival of the Soyuz 15 crew at Chkalovsky Airfield. Demin has flown at the age of 48, the oldest astronaut ever, until Slayton makes his flight. Kamanin talks to Glushko and learns that the N1 has finally been cancelled. The misbegotten project went for eight years only because of the unconditional support of Mishin by Keldysh, Smirnov, and Ustinov. The earliest Soviet lunar landing cannot occur earlier than the Tenth Five Year Plan (e.g. 1980). Kamanin learns that Soyuz 15 was supposed to be a thirty-day flight, but the Igla automatic docking system failed yet again.

1974 August 31 - . LV Family: Energia; RLA.
  • Competitive bidding for new vehicle - . Nation: USSR. Related Persons: Glushko. Summary: Glushko proposed obtaining competitive bids for the launch complexes and booster subsystems for new boosters developed by OKB-1, dropping the traditional OKB-1 subcontractors..

1976 August 31 - . 03:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Kwajalein. Launch Complex: Kwajalein RN. LV Family: Nike. Launch Vehicle: Nike Hydac. LV Configuration: Nike Hydac GL A11.408-1.
  • TREP SAMSO 1202-B Aeronomy mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF GL. Apogee: 188 km (116 mi).

1977 August 31 - . 18:10 GMT - . Launch Site: White Sands. LV Family: Loki. Launch Vehicle: Super Loki.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 72 km (44 mi).

1978 August 31 - .
  • Operational readiness date, VAB - . Nation: USA. Program: STS. Summary: Operational readiness date, Vertical Assembly Building High Bays 3 and 4, KSC.

1979 August 31 - .
  • Complete OMS Phase II qualification tests - . Nation: USA. Program: STS.

1979 August 31 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 1126 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Surveillance. Type: Military surveillance satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-6U. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1979-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 11515 . COSPAR: 1979-079A. Apogee: 391 km (242 mi). Perigee: 194 km (120 mi). Inclination: 72.8000 deg. Period: 90.40 min. Summary: Photo surveillance; returned film capsule..

1981 August 31 - . 09:55 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde.
  • Arcasonde - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 68 km (42 mi).

1983 August 31 - . 06:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar LC107/1. LV Family: Kosmos 3. Launch Vehicle: Kosmos 11K65M. LV Configuration: Kosmos 11K65M 47139-547.
  • Cosmos 1494 - . Mass: 550 kg (1,210 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MO. Class: Military. Type: Radar calibration target. Spacecraft: Taifun-2. Decay Date: 1985-09-26 . USAF Sat Cat: 14316 . COSPAR: 1983-091A. Apogee: 413 km (256 mi). Perigee: 309 km (192 mi). Inclination: 50.7000 deg. Period: 91.80 min. Summary: Released 25 Romb radar calibration subsatellites..

1984 August 31 - . LV Family: Energia. Launch Vehicle: Energia.
  • OK-ML-2 orbiter mock-up arrives at Baikonur - . Nation: USSR. Program: Buran. Spacecraft: Buran. Summary: The OK-ML-2 (former OK-MT) functional mock-up was used for systems integration tests, and was to have been expended on the second test flight..

1985 August 31 - .
1986 August 31 - . Launch Site: ETR Launch Area. Launch Platform: SSBN 630. LV Family: Trident. Launch Vehicle: Trident C-4.
  • Demonstration and shakedown operations launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USN. Apogee: 1,000 km (600 mi).

1987 August 31 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Kapustin Yar. Launch Complex: Kapustin Yar V-2. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1988 August 31 - . 11:30 GMT - . Launch Site: Thumba. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1989 August 31 - . 16:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Sea-launched. Launch Pad: UNKO. Launch Platform: SHIR. LV Family: M-100. Launch Vehicle: M-100B.
  • - . Nation: USSR. Apogee: 81 km (50 mi).

1990 August 31 - . 08:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: R-7. Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U.
  • Cosmos 2099 - . Mass: 6,300 kg (13,800 lb). Nation: USSR. Agency: MOM. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources satellite. Spacecraft: Zenit-8. Duration: 14.00 days. Decay Date: 1990-09-14 . USAF Sat Cat: 20779 . COSPAR: 1990-080A. Apogee: 226 km (140 mi). Perigee: 175 km (108 mi). Inclination: 82.3000 deg. Period: 88.50 min. Summary: Military cartographic satellite; returned film capsule..

1991 August 31 - . 00:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Ascension. Launch Vehicle: Rocketsonde. LV Configuration: AN/DMQ-9.
  • - . Nation: USA. Agency: MRN. Apogee: 84 km (52 mi).

1992 August 31 - . 10:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC17B. LV Family: Delta. Launch Vehicle: Delta 7925. LV Configuration: Delta 7925 D213.
  • Satcom C4 - . Mass: 2,000 kg (4,400 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: GE Americom. Manufacturer: Lockheed. Program: Satcom. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: AS 3000. USAF Sat Cat: 22096 . COSPAR: 1992-057A. Apogee: 35,789 km (22,238 mi). Perigee: 35,786 km (22,236 mi). Inclination: 0.1000 deg. Period: 1,436.20 min. Summary: Stationed at 135 deg W. Positioned in geosynchronous orbit at 135 deg W in 1992-1999 As of 3 September 2001 located at 135.00 deg W drifting at 0.002 deg E per day. As of 2007 Mar 10 located at 164.40W drifting at 4.518W degrees per day..

1993 August 31 - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF26. Launch Pad: LF26?. LV Family: Minuteman. Launch Vehicle: Minuteman 3.
  • FOT GT153GB Follow-on Test launch - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFSPC. Apogee: 1,300 km (800 mi).

1993 August 31 - . 04:40 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Meteor 2-21 - . Payload: Meteor-2 s/n 24. Mass: 2,750 kg (6,060 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: RAKA. Class: Earth. Type: Weather satellite. Spacecraft: Meteor-2. USAF Sat Cat: 22782 . COSPAR: 1993-055A. Apogee: 967 km (600 mi). Perigee: 936 km (581 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 104.10 min. Obtaining meteorological data and information on the radiation status of geovicinal outer space. The satellite included the Temisat German small space facility, which was separated from Meteor-2 on the seventh transit of the flight. Western interceptions of Meteor 2-21's transmissions indicated that the spacecraft did not perform as well as earlier vehicles in the series, particularly with regard to image quality and stable signal strength. The spacecraft operated through the end of 1994 on 137.400 MHz and 137.850 MHz, switching when required to avoid interference with other Russian Earth observation spacecraft.
  • Temisat - . Payload: Temisat / S5M. Mass: 42 kg (92 lb). Nation: Italy. Agency: Telespazio. Class: Communications. Type: Civilian communications satellite. Spacecraft: Temisat. USAF Sat Cat: 22783 . COSPAR: 1993-055B. Apogee: 967 km (600 mi). Perigee: 936 km (581 mi). Inclination: 82.6000 deg. Period: 104.10 min. The Temisat micro-satellite was a piggyback payload designed to collect and re-transmit environmental data from terrestrial sensors and was separated from Meteor-2-21 on the seventh transit of the flight. Temisat was registered by the Telespazio Italian partner in agreement with the Kaiser-Threde Company (Munich). Environmental measurements were acquired through ground sensors, collected, temporarily stored on the ground, and logged by an autonomous terminal until upload request is received from TEMISAT.Characteristics: (a) Mass 42 kg (b) Dimension 35 x 35 x 35 cm, (c) Electric power 62 W Max, (d) Attitude control : 2 magnetic coil, 1 Am**2, (e) On-board memories - 2 of 8.5 Mbytes each, (f) Lifetime 5 years. Drift of the ascending node of orbital plane: 0.8 deg/d westwards. Copassenger of METEOR 2 satellite.

1994 August 31 - .
  • Mir News 226: Progress-M24 - . Nation: Russia. Program: Mir. Flight: Mir EO-16; Mir LD-4. The 2d attempt to dock this freighter to Mir also did fail. The estimated docking time was 30.08.94 at 1450 UTC. The Progress-M24 softly hit the Mir-complex twice after which Progress-M24 immediately moved away. The Mir-crew felt the little shocks caused by the 2 contacts. They reported this during the pass in Mir's orbit 48762 at 1615 UTC. They also tried to assess eventual damages by looking through portholes. The transmitters of Progress-M24 functioned normally after the event.

    TsUP: In this flight control centre specialists did (until deadline of this report) not know the causes of both failures. More docking attempts are under consideration, but the decision depends on further analyses and results of meetings of specialists today. An eventual 3d attempt will not be made today (31.08). Among the possibilities is the use of the system TORU (Tele-orientation and guidance), which enables the crew to guide Progress-M24 from inside Mir.

    Consequences: These can be far-reaching for Russian manned spaceflight if further attempts to dock Progress-M24 would fail. Except from the normal cargo (food, water, fuel, repair material, post etc.) Progress-M24 had to deliver a part of the experiments for the Euromir94 mission and American equipment to enhance some systems on board Mir. The spare stock now available for life on board of the complex is enough for 1 month. So new supply before the end of September is urgently needed. Further failures can hamper the plans for the near future, i.e. the EVA-s in September, Euromir94 and the flights of American astronauts and Mir-Shuttle operation.

    (Derived from an enormous amount of information available until 31.08.94 at 1130 UTC.)

    Chris v.d. Berg, NL-9165/A-UK3202.


1995 August 31 - . 06:49 GMT - . Launch Site: Plesetsk. LV Family: Tsiklon. Launch Vehicle: Tsiklon-3.
  • Sich 1 - . Payload: Okean-O1 no. 8. Mass: 1,950 kg (4,290 lb). Nation: Russia. Agency: NKAU. Program: Okean. Class: Earth. Type: Earth resources radar satellite. Spacecraft: Okean-O1. USAF Sat Cat: 23657 . COSPAR: 1995-046A. Apogee: 668 km (415 mi). Perigee: 631 km (392 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.70 min. Summary: Oceanographic remote sensing; carried FASat-Alfa microsat for Chile that failed to deploy..
  • Fasat-Alfa - . Mass: 50 kg (110 lb). Nation: Chile. Agency: VKS. Manufacturer: Surrey. Program: Fasat. Spacecraft: MicroSat-70. USAF Sat Cat: 23657 . COSPAR: 1995-046xx. Apogee: 639 km (397 mi). Perigee: 605 km (375 mi). Inclination: 82.5000 deg. Period: 97.20 min. Summary: Chile's first satellite built through a technology transfer programme with Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. Carried store and forward and Earth observation payloads. Decommissioned as of 2000..

1996 August 31 - . 15:41 GMT - . Launch Site: Barking Sands. Launch Complex: Barking Sands LC42. LV Family: Polaris. Launch Vehicle: STARS. LV Configuration: STARS M-3 STARS II.
  • ODES/MSX MDT-2 Target mission - . Nation: USA. Agency: USA SDC. Apogee: 909 km (564 mi).

1998 August 31 - .
  • North Korea fires missile across Japan - . Nation: Japan.

1998 August 31 - . 03:07 GMT - . Launch Site: Gitdaeryung. LV Family: Taepodong. Launch Vehicle: Taepodong 1. FAILURE: Third stage failure.. Failed Stage: 3.
  • Kwangmyongsong 1 - . Nation: Korea North. Agency: Choson. Class: Technology. Type: Navigation technology satellite. Spacecraft: Kwangmyongsong. COSPAR: F980831A. North Korea reported the launch of its first satellite on the first of September. This announcement was followed on September 14 by the release of a photograph of the satellite and the claim that the satellite had completed its 100th orbit of the earth between 08:24 and 11:17 local time (2017 GMT) on September 13. Video of the launch, the satellite, and an animation of the satellite in orbit around the earth were distributed to foreign news agencies the following weekend. The satellite appeared almost identical to the first Chinese test satellite (which itself appeared almost identical to the US Telstar).

    Despite these claims no foreign observer ever detected the satellite visually, by radar, or picked up its radio signals. The Pentagon at first claimed it was an ICBM launch, and that the satellite story was just a cover for the test. However on further analysis of the data collected on the launch they admitted nearly a month later that there had been some a satellite launch attempt. What seems to have happened is that the third stage either failed and fell into the Pacific or misfired and put the satellite into a low orbit where it decayed very quickly before it could be detected by foreign observers. Additional Details: Kwangmyongsong 1.


1999 August 31 - .
  • China and Russia Sign Space Co-operation Agreement - . Nation: China. China and Russia signed a new agreement in Beijing on the co-operation in the peaceful space exploration. Joint research would be conducted in telecommunication systems, Earth surface monitoring, and satellite navigation. The agreement also covered scientific research aboard the Mir space station, but not visits of Chinese cosmonauts to Mir. It was also reported that Russia was working with China not only on design of the new manned spacecraft, but also on the 921-2 space station.

2000 August 31 - .
  • ISS Status Report: ISS 00-40 - . Nation: USA. Program: ISS. Summary: With a visit by the Space Shuttle Atlantis a little over a week away, International Space Station flight controllers plan to conduct a final rehearsal of the station's activities for the upcoming docking on Tuesday.. Additional Details: ISS Status Report: ISS 00-40.

2001 August 31 - . 20:00 GMT - . Launch Site: Vandenberg. Launch Complex: Vandenberg LF21. Launch Vehicle: Orbus. LV Configuration: GBI BV-2.
  • GMDS BVT-2 test - . Nation: USA. Agency: USAF AFMC. Apogee: 200 km (120 mi).

2004 August 31 - . 23:17 GMT - . Launch Site: Cape Canaveral. Launch Complex: Cape Canaveral LC36A. Launch Pad: SLC36A. LV Family: Atlas. Launch Vehicle: Atlas IIAS. LV Configuration: Atlas IIAS AC-167.
  • USA 179 - . Payload: Nemesis (NRO L-1). Mass: 3,600 kg (7,900 lb). Nation: USA. Agency: NRO. Class: Communications. Type: Military communications satellite. Spacecraft: SDS-3. USAF Sat Cat: 28384 . COSPAR: 2004-034A. 63rd and last flight of Atlas IIAS. 576th and final launch of Rocketdyne-powered Atlas rockets. Final launch from LC36A after 42 years of use. Launch delayed from June 24 and 25, July 1 and 27, August 27, 28, 29 and 30. The payload was probably a communications satellite used to relay data from imaging spy satellites.

2009 August 31 - . 09:28 GMT - . Launch Site: Xichang. Launch Complex: Xichang LC2. LV Family: CZ. Launch Vehicle: CZ-3B. LV Configuration: CZ-3B s/n CZ3B12.
  • Palapa D - . Payload: Spacebus 4000B3. Mass: 4,100 kg (9,000 lb). Nation: China. Agency: SISE. Program: Palapa. Class: Communications. Type: Communications satellite. Spacecraft: Spacebus 4000. USAF Sat Cat: 35812 . COSPAR: 2009-046A. Apogee: 35,795 km (22,241 mi). Perigee: 35,779 km (22,231 mi). Inclination: 0.0000 deg. Period: 1,436.10 min. Summary: Early third stage cutoff left spacecraft in sub-geostationary transfer orbit of 217 km x 21,138 km at 22.4 deg inclination. It used its on-board system to reach an operational orbit, albeit with reduced life due to the propellant consumption..

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